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PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 



CELTIC SERIES 
No. I. 



An Introduction to Early Welsh 



Sherratt & Hughes 

Publishers to the Victoria University of Manchester 

Manchester: 34 Cross Street 

London: 33 Soho Square W. 



AN 

INTRODUCTION 

TO 

EARLY WELSH 



BY 

The Late JOHN STRACHAN, LL.D., 

Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Celtic 
in the University of Manchester 



MANCHESTER 

At the University Press 
1909 



University of Manchester Publications 

No. XL. 



PB2I2 

185632 



PREFACE 



This book is the outcome of the courses of lectures on 
Welsh grammar and literature given by the late Pro- 
fessor Strachan at the University of Manchester during 
the sessions 1905-6 and 1906-7. Indeed, the Grammar 
is in the main an expansion of notes made for these 
lectures. For the numerous quotations from early 
Welsh literature contained in the Grammar, as well as 
for the Reader, Strachan made use not only of 
published texts, notably those edited by Sir John Rhys 
and Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans, but also of photographs 
specially taken for the purpose, and of advance 
proofs of the edition of the White Book and of 
the photographic facsimile of the Black Book of Chirk, 
about to be published by Dr. Evans, both of which 
were lent by him to Strachan. The Reader includes 
Middle Welsh Texts selected as likely to be of most 
value for illustration or of special interest. The very 
valuable work done by Dr. Evans in relation to these 
texts was of the greatest assistance to Professor 
Strachan, and as an expression of gratitude for the 
help thus given, as well as in recognition of the services 
rendered to Welsh scholarship by Dr. Evans, it was 
the intention of the author to dedicate his book to him. 
The idea of working up his notes into a book that 
might serve as an introduction to the study of older 
Welsh seems first to have occurred to Strachan in the 
spring of 1907. On the fifth of April he wrote to 
Mr. R. I. Best, the Secretary of the School of Irish 
Learning in Dublin : *' I have been thinking of drawing 
up a little primer of Early Welsh. With that the 
language of Middle- Welsh prose should be child's play 



vi PREFACE 

to learn. However, that may or may not come off." 
And to his old friend Dr. P. Giles of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, he wrote on the same day : 
*' I think I must draw up and print outlines of 
Middle- Welsh grammar. I cannot well teach without 
some book, and the beginner is lost in the 
wilderness of the Grammatica Celtica/* His original 
intention evidently was to publish a mere sketch of 
the grammar, somewhat like his Old-Irish Paradigms. 
But at the suggestion of his friend and colleague, 
Professor T. F. Tout, he decided to expand the 
Grammar on the larger and fuller lines of the present 
volume. At the same time the plan of adding a 
Reader of excerpts from mediseval Welsh literature 
took concrete shape in the course of conversations 
and correspondence with Dr. Evans. On both these 
tasks he began to work during the Summer Term of 
1907. With what amazing rapidity he must have toiled 
to have all but completed the work by the end of the 
following August ! Giving up a visit to Germany to 
which he had long been looking forward, he devoted 
the whole long vacation to the preparation and printing 
of his book. At the moment of his death, on the 
25th of September, both the Grammar and Reader were 
in type, and he had read a first, and in some cases a 
second, proof. Writing to Professor Thurneysen a 
week before his death, he says that he had then only 
the notes and vocabulary to add. 

After Professor Strachan's death, at the request of the 
Publications Committee of the Manchester University, 
Professor Kuno Meyer of the University of Liverpool 
kindly undertook the task of reading final proofs of the 
Grammar and Reader, and of adding a Glossary, an 
Index and a list of contents. In this task, which 
involved very considerable labour, he obtained the 
assistance of Mr. Timothy Lewis, who had worked for 
two years under Professor Strachan, and who returned 



PREFACE vii 

from Berlin whither he had gone to continue his studies 
with Professor Zimmer, and devoted the winter to help 
with the completion of the book. Mr. Lewis verified 
the quotations in the Grammar where this was possible ; 
drew up the Glossary, prepared the Index, and revised 
proofs. An old student of Professor Meyer's, the Rev. 
Owen Eilian Owen, placed his collection of Old and 
Middle- Welsh words at his disposal for the elucidation 
of rare and difficult vocables, while both Mr. Owen 
and Mr. J. Glyn Davies read proofs of the whole book, 
many valuable suggestions being due to them. But 
Professor Meyer and Mr. Lewis are solely responsible 
for the Glossary. 

There can be no doubt that if Strachan had lived to 
complete the book himself, he would have made 
alterations and additions in several places both in the 
Grammar and Reader, and would have still further 
normalised the spelling in his critical versions of 
sections IV. and V. in the Reader. It will be observed 
that his treatment of the texts varies greatly. Except 
in the sections just mentioned, he does not seem to have 
aimed so much at the construction of a critical text as 
at the presentation of a clear, precise, and intelligible 
version, which would at the same time serve to introduce 
the student to the characteristic features of Middle 
Welsh orthography. In the Corrigenda some necessary 
emendations^ have been indicated by Professor Meyer 

1. From a collation of the poems printed from the Red Book with the 
original, it appears that the following corrections should be made : — 

P. 233, 1. 4, Jor dOg read dO^g 

ib., 1. 19, /or aghaeat read agkaeat 
P. 235, 1. 2^. for gOawr reac^gOaOr 
P. 236, 1. 2, for can read kan 
P. 237, 1. 22, /or uvulldaOt read uvulltaOt 
P. 238, 1. 9, /or dyrnaOt read dyrnnaOt 

ib,, 1. 11, /or diffirth read diffyrth 

ib., 1. 18, /or vedissyawt reac? vedyssyaOt 

ib. , 1. 20, for adueil read atueil 



viii PREFACE 

who has also added some further variants (marked a, b, 
&c.) in the foot-notes. 

Strachan had left behind no material for the Glossary 
except a first rough list of words. In drawing it up 
use was made of a letter to Thurneysen, in which he 
expressed his intention to arrange the words according 
to their actual sounds. His only doubts were about 
the phonetic value of final c, t, p. On this point 
he wrote: " Of course final b is common, also certain 
of my texts write d for d. But none of them have g 
for final ^." In accordance with modern pronunciation, 
Professor Meyer considered it desirable to substitute the 
letter g, though the period at which final c became voiced 
has not yet been established. 

No notes to the texts were found among Strachan's 
papers. He had brought back from Peniarth, from 
MSS. No. 22, 44, 45, and 46, a large number of 
variants to the Story of Lear and that of Arthur, 
which he would no doubt have used for his notes. 
Those to Lear have been printed in an Appendix; but 
the Peniarth versions of Arthur seem to differ so 
much from those of the Red Book and the Additional 
MS. 19,709 that they would have to be printed in full. 

Since the great work of Zeuss, this is the first attempt 
to write a grammar of Early Welsh on historical 
principles. It was the hope of the author expressed in 
letters to friends that his work would stir up Welsh 
scholars to investigate more thoroughly than they 
have done hitherto the history of their language. But 
no one was more conscious of the gaps still left by his 
work than Strachan himself. '' It is only a beginning," 
he wrote to Thurneysen. " I hope people will make 
some allowance for the difficulties of the work and the 
scanty amount of trustworthy material. One is 
continually finding out something new." References to 
the need of further investigation will be found in many 
places throughout the Grammar. His own discoveries 



PREFACE ix 

of the functions of ry, of the relative forms of the verb, 
and his account of the uses of the verbal prefixes a and 
yS point out the way to future investigators in this 
neglected field of research. To these discoveries he was 
led by his unrivalled knowledge of Irish grammar, so 
intimately connected in its origins with that of Welsh 
that he believed no true progress possible without their 
parallel study. " It is absurd to thirik," he once wrote 
to Mr. Best, " that either branch of Celtic can be 
satisfactorily studied apart from the other;" and to 
Mr. Giles: "Without the knowledge of Irish early 
Welsh grammar is rather like a book sealed with seven 
seals." 

The circumstances under which this book has been 
produced having been thus indicated, it remains to 
express acknowledgement of the work of the scholars 
who have contributed towards the result : first to those 
whose assistance to Professor Strachan in his lifetime 
he would specially have desired to recognise; in 
particular to Dr. Evans who furnished the editions 
both published and unpublished of the Welsh texts 
which were used in compiling the Reader; to the late 
Mr. Wynne of Peniarth w^ho freely gave access to 
the MSS. in his possession; and to Sir John Rhys 
(joint editor of the Red Book and of other texts) and 
to the Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford, who afforded 
every facility in their power; secondly to those who 
since the author's death have enabled his work to 
be presented to the public, especially to Professor 
Tout who initiated the idea of preparing the book for 
publication and undertook the arrangements for it ; to 
Professor Kuno Meyer, whose long and intimate 
association with Strachan in his Celtic studies specially 
fitted him to undertake the duty of revising the whole 
work and seeing it through the press; to Mr. Lewis in 
assisting Professor Meyer particularly in the preparation 



X PREFACE 

of the Glossary; and to Mr. O. Eilian Owen and Mr. 
J. Glyn Davies for their help in reading proofs. The 
title of the book was chosen by Strachan himself. 

It has been the earnest wish of those who have taken 
part in preparing this work for publication that it should 
appear in a form worthy of the reputation and memory 
of the distinguished scholar whose career was cut short 
so sadly in the midst of his full literary activity, and that 
the results of his devoted labours and profound learning 
should not be lost to students of the Welsh language. 



February, 1909. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface -v 

List of Abbreviations - - - - - - xv 

GRAMMAR 

The numbers refer to the paragraphs. 

Sounds and sound changes i — 22. 

Vowels and diphthongs i ; vowel quantity 2 ; accented 
vowels 2A ; unaccented 2A ; consonants classified 3 ; 
orthographical variations 3 ; accent 4 ; changes of vowels 
5 ; changes of vowels due to i vowel preserved 6 ; 
changes due to a lost vowel 7 ; vowel variation due to 
accent 8; prothetic vowel 9; epenthetic vowel 10; 
consonantal changes 1 1 ; sound changes within the 
sentence 12; table of consonant mutations 13; vocalic 
mutation or lenation 14 ; general exceptions to rules of 
lenation 15 ; lenation of noun and adjective 16; lenation 
of pronoun 1 7 ; lenation of verb 1 8 ; nasal mutation 
19-20 ; spirant mutation 21 j hm sentence construction 22. 

The Article 23-24. 

The Noun 25-29. 

Numbers and cases 25 ; syntax of the cases 26 ; formation 
of plural 27-28; collective nouns 29. 

The Adjective 30 — 39. 

Gender 30 ; formation of plural 31 ; concord 32 ; number 
2,2, ; order in sentence 34 ; predicative noun and adjective 
with yn 35 ; adjectival phrases 36 ; comparison 37 ; 
construction of comparative and superlative 38 ; the 
equative 39. 

The Adverb 40. 

The Numerals 41 — 44. 

Cardinals and ordinals 41; syntax of cardinals and 
ordinals 42 ; distributives 43 ; multiplicatives 44. 

The Pronoun 45 — 90. 

Personal pron. 45 — 51; independent pron. 45 — 47; 
infixed pron. 48 — 51; pron. with preposition 52 — 54; 
possessive pron. 55-56; possessive adjs. 57 — 59; hun^ 
hunan e,tc. 60; demons, pron. 61-62; article + substan- 
tive-!- adverb 63; indefinite prons. and adjs. 64 — 72; 
substantives in a pronominal function 73 — 78; interrog. 
prons. 79 — 81; relat. prons. 82 — 89; expression of case 
in the relative 86 — 89 ; substitutes for the relative 90. 



xii CONTENTS 

Preverbal particles 91 — 97. 

The particle j^^ 91 — 94 ; the particle ry 95 — 97. 
The Verb 98—161. 

Conjugation of the verb 98—126: verbal classes 98; 

voice 99 ; number 1 00-101 ; person 102-3. 

The moods 104; the indicative 105 — 109; present 106; 

imperfect 107 ; preterite 108; pluperfect 109. 

The subjunctive no — 114: formation of subj. no; 

tenses in ; usages of subj. 112 — 114. 

The imperative 115. 

The participle passive inedic 116; verbal m-adwy 117. 

The verbal noun : formation of 118-1 19 ; usage 120 — 126. 

Paradigm of the regular verb 127 — 139 : types 127 ; pres. 

and fut. indie. 128 — 130; imperf. indie, and conditional 

131 ; pret. and perf. indie, act. 132 ; pret. and perf. indie. 

pass. 134; plupf. indie. 135 — 136; imperat. 137; pres. 

subjunctive 138 ; past subj. 139. 

Irregular verbs : my net 140 ; dyvot 141 ; gwneuthur 142 ; 

gwybot 143 ; adnabot 144 ; caffel 145 ; rodi 146 ; tawr 147; 

moes 148 ; hwde 149 ; med 150 ; heb 151. 

The substantive verb: paradigm 152; remarks on subst. 

vb. 154 ; on copula 155 — 158 ; position of copula 159. 

Compounds ol bot 160-161. 
The Preposition 162 — 197. 
The Conjunction 198 — 234. 
Negative particles 235 — 238. 
Interrogative particles 239 — 240. 
Responsive particles 240 — 241. 
The Interjection 243 — 244. 

READER 

PAGE 

I. Lear and his Daughters - - - - - 139 

From Ystorya Brenhined y Brytanyeit, printed in 

Bed Book of Hergest, ed. J. Rhys and J. G. Evans, vol. ii, 

pp. 64 — 69. The variants are from Brit. Mus. MSS. Add. 

19,709. 

II. The Story of Arthur - - - - - 145 

From the same source, pp. 184 — 232. 

III. The Hunting of Twrch Trwyth - - - - 193 
An excerpt from the story of Kulhwch and Olwen. 
Chapters 1 — 6 are from the White Booh of Rhydderch 
(Peniarth MS. 4), with variants from the Red Booh 
(Rhys-Evans, vol. i, pp. 126—128) ; chapters 7—25 from 
the Bed Book (ib. p. 128, 1. 13— p. 142, 1. 19). 



CONTENTS xiii 

IV. The Procedure in a Suit for Landed Property • 208 
From the oldest copy of the Laws of Howel Dda 
contained in the Black Boole of Chirk (Peniarth MS. 29). 
The variants are from Aneurin Owen's Ancient Laws of 
Wales, vol. i, pp. 142 — 156. The text in the right-hand 
columns is a critical edition with normalised spelling by 
Strachan, 

V. The Privilege of St. Teilo - - - - 222 

From Evans-Rh;^s Liher Landavensis, p. 118. The 
text in the right-hand columns is a critical edition with 
normalised spelling by Strachan. 

VL Moral Verses 225 

From the Red Book, col. 1031, printed in Skene's 
Four Ancient Books of Wales, vol. ii, pp. 249-250. 
VII. Doomsday - ------ 227 

From the Book of Taliessin, printed in Four Ancient 
Books, vol. ii, pp. 118 — 123. Strachan has made no use 
of the variants printed in Myvyrian Archaiology, p. 72 ff. 

VIII. To Gwenwynwyn - - - - - - 233 

From the Bed Book, col. 1394, where it comes after 
several poems ascribed to Llywelyn Vardd; printed in 
Myvyrian Archaiology, p. 176a, where it is ascribed to 
Cynddelw. H--| ?w4.^ Vw^ ^ ■ t.-,..|^A |>,^.(-.? / v->^>? 

IX. Cynddelw to Rhys ab Gruffudd - - - - 234 
[a) from Black Book of Carmarthen, ed. J. G. Evans, 
fo. 39b ; (6) from Red Book, col. 1436. 

X. A Religious Poem - - - - - - 237 

From Black Book of Carmarthen, fo. 20a, and from 
Red Book, col. 1159. 
XL A Dialogue between Ugnach Uab Mydno and 

Taliessin 239 

From Black Book of Carmarthen, fo. 51a. 

XII. Winter 241 

From Black Book of Carmarthen, fo. 45a. 

Glossary ---_.-_-. 243 

Appendix -277 

Index 279 

Corrigenda 293 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 

Anc. Laws. Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, edited by 

Aneurin Owen. 1841. 
Arch. Archiv fur celtische Lexikographie. 
Arch. Cambr. Archaeologia Cambrensis. 
BB. Black Book of Carmarthen, edited by J. G. Evans. Oxford. 

1888. 
BCh. Black Book of Chirk.^ 
Bezz. Beitr. Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermani- 

schen Sprachen. 
Bret. Breton. 
CM. Ystorya de Carolo Magno, from the Red Book of Hergest, 

edited by Thomas Powell. 1883. 
Corn. Cornish. 
Cymrod. Y Cymmrodor, embodying the Transactions of the 

Cymmrodorion Society of London. 1877 ff. 
CZ. Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie. 

E. Lh. Archaeologia Britannica, by Edward Lhuyd. Oxford. 1707. 
Eng. English. 

Eriu The Journal of the School of Irish Learning, Dublin. 
FB. The Four Ancient Books of Wales by W. F. Skene. Edin- 
burgh. 1868. 
Gaul. Gaulish. 
Hg. Selections from the Hengwrt Mss. edited by Robert 

Williams, vol. I. 1876 ; vol. II. London. 1892. 
Ir. Irish. 

KZ. Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. 
LA. The Elucidarium and other tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr 

Agkyr Llandewivrevi, edited by J. Morris Jones and 

John Rh^s. Oxford. 1894 

1. The references in the Grammar are to the pages of the photographic 
facsimile about to be published by J. G. Evans. 



xvi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 

Lat. Latin. 

Laws, see Anc. Laws. 

Leg. Wall. Cyfreithjeu Hywel Dda ac eraill, seu Leges Wallicae, 
edited by W. Wotton. Londini. 1730. 

Lhuyd, see E. Lh. 

Lib. Land. Liber Landavensis, edited by J. G. Evans and 
J. Rh^s. Oxford. 1893. 

Loth Mab. Les Mabinogion traduits en entier par J. Loth. 
Paris. 1889. 

MA. The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales. Denbigh. 1870. 

Mart. Cap. The Old- Welsh Glosses on Martianus Capella edited 
by Wh. Stokes in the Archaeologia Cambrensis for 1873, 
p. I ff. and in Beitrage zur vergl. Sprachforschung VII. 

p. 385 ff. 
Mid. Middle. 
Mod. Modern. 
O. Old. 
Ox. gl. Glossae Oxonienses, edited in Zeuss-Ebel, Grammatica 

Celtica, p. 1052 ff. Berlin. 187 1. 
Pughe A Dictionary of the Welsh Language by W. Owen Pughe. 

2. ed. Denbigh. 1832. 
RB. The Red Book of Hergest edited by J. Rhys and J. G. 

Evans, vol. I. (Mabinogion), Oxford. 1887; vol.11. 

(The Bruts), Oxford. 1890. 
Rev. Celt. Revue Celtique. 
Rh^s, Celt. Heath. J. Rh:^s, Lectures on the Origin and Growth 

of Religion as illustrated by Celtic Heathendom. 3. ed. 

1898. 
Rh^s, Lect. J. Rhys, Lectures on Welsh Philology. 2. ed. 

London. 1879. 
WB. The White Book of Rhydderch.^ 

1. The references in the Grammar are to the pages of the edition 
about to be published by J. G. Evans. 



§§i,2.] SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. 



SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. 



Vowels and Diphthongs. 

I. Middle Welsh has the following system : — 
Vowels : — a, e, i, o, u, w, y. 
Diphthongs : — ae, oe, ei, eu, aw, ew, iw, yw, wy. 

Note. — The following are the more important orthographical variations : 

(a) u is written u or v, e.g. un or vn one. That u already in O.W. 
approached to an i sound is shown by the spelling Dinoot (from Lat. 
Donatus) in Bede for what in O.W. would be normally Dunaut, later 
Dunawt. 

(b) w ( = u in sound) is in Mid.W. commonly written w or 6 ; in O.W\ 
it is written u, and in some Mid.W. MSS. u or v, e.g. O.W^. crunn round, 
later crunn, crvnn, cr6nn, crwnn. The same applies to w in diphthongs, 
e.g. O.W. dui two, later duy, dvy, dOy, dwy ; O.W. bleu hair, later bleu, 
blev, bleO, blew. 

(c) y is in O.W^ written i, in Mid.W^ MSS. i, e, y, y, e.g. O.W. hinn 
these, later henn, hynn, hynn. 

(d) The diphthongs ae, oe, are in O.W. ai, oi, later ai, ay, ay, ae; oi, 
oy, oy, oe, e.g. O.W. air slaughter, later ayr, ayr, aer; O.W. coit wood, 
lat^ coyt, coyt, coet. 

(e) The diphthong eu appears in O.W. as ou, e.g. aperthou offermgs, 
later abertheu. In final position in Mid.W. -eu sometimes appears as -e, 
e.g. minhe on my part = mmhe.\x ; in Mod.W. it is written -au, e.g. pennau 
heads = Mid. W^ penneu. 

(f) For wy, oy andoe are also found, e.g. boy = bwy he may he, moe = 
mwy greater. 



Vowel Quantity. 

2. The quantity of vowels depends not on their prehistoric 
quantity, but on the nature of the syllables in which they stand. 
Apart from dialectal variation, the following may serve as 
approximate rules, at least for the period subsequent to the shifting 
of the accent (§ 4). 



2 SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. [§ 2. 

A. Accented vowels are : — 

(a) Long. 

(a) In monosyllables ending in a vowel, e.g. ty house. 

(P) In monosyllables ending in a single consonant, e.g. dyn 
man ( = O.Ir. duine), gwlad country ( = O.Ir. flaith), mab son, 
glan pure ( = O.Ir. glan), g\a.s green ( = O.Ir. glas), crych 
cur/y. 

Note. — s always goes back to an earlier ss ; ch, th, ff ( = f in sound) to 
an earlier double consonant, e.g. crych curly = Gabn\.CTixos, brith variegated 
= Ir. mrecht, cloff lame = Low Lat. cloppus ; here the reduction to a single 
consonant was prior to the operation of the above law. In Mod.W. a 
vowel is short before final c, t, p ; these final sounds occur only in late 
borroAvings. 

(b) Half-long, in open syllables of polysyllabic words, e.g. 
di-nas cify : din fortress ( = Ir. dun), ta-deu fathers : tad father. 

(c) Short. 

(a) In monosyllables originally ending in a double consonant 
(with the above exceptions), e.g. penn head ( = Ir. cenn), 
trwm heavy ( = Ir. tromm), parth part (from Lat. part-em). 

(/?) In closed syllables of polysyllabic words, e.g. penneu 
heads : penn, iindeb unity : un one ( = Ir. oen). The vowel 
is somewhat shorter in polysyllables like penneu than in 
monosyllables like penn. 

B. Unaccented vowels are short. This rule also applies to 
proclitic words like heb without, fy mine, dy thine. 

The Consonants. 

3. The consonants may be classified : — 

Explosives. Spirants. Nasals. 



Voiceless. 


Voiced. 


r 

Voiceless. 


Voiced. 


Voiceless. 


Voiced. 


Gutturals c 


Z 


ch 


(3) 


ngh 


ng( = ?9) 


Dentals t 


d 


th 


d 


nh 


n 


Labiodentals 




ff( = f) 


V 






Labials p 


b 






mh 


m 



§3.] SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. 3 

Liquids. Voiceless : — 11, rh ; voiced : — 1, r. 
Semivowels : — y, w. 
Sibilant : — s. 
Breath : — h. 

Note. — The following are the more important orthographical 
variations : — 

(a) For 0. W. c = k, both c and k found in Mid.W., c particularly at the 
end of a word ; e.g. O. W. cimadas fitting, Mid.W. kyvadas and cyvadas. 
In Mid.W. sc, sp became sg, sb, e.g. kysgu by kyscu to sleep, ysbryd 
from Lat. spiritus. 

(b) With regard to the graphic representation of the mediae the 
following may be noted. In Old British the symbols c, t, p were taken 
over from Latin with their Latin values. In the course of time, before the 
loss of final syllables, c, t, p, when they stood between vowels, or after a 
vowel and before certain consonants, became in sound mediae g, d, b, but 
continued in O. W. to be usually written c, t, p, e.g. trucarauc compassionate 
= Mid.W. trugarawc, Mod.W. trugarog', dacr ^ear = Mid. W. dagyr, atar 
birds = Mid.W. adar, datl gl. foro = Mid.W. dadyl, etn 6ir(^= Mid.W. edyn, 
cepistyr halter (from Lat. capistrum) = Mid.W. kebystyr. In Mid.W. g, 
d, b are regularly written in the interior of a word (except that c, t, p may 
appear in composition, e.g. rac-ynys fore-island, kyt-varchogyon fellow- 
horsemen, hep-cor to dispense with, or in inflexion and derivation under the 
influence of the simple word, e.g. gwlatoed, by gwladoed countries: gwlat, 
gwaet-lyt bloody : gwaet). But final g is regularly expressed by c, and final 
d by t (except in certain MSS. such as BB. which express d regularly by d 
and use t to express the spirant d). Final p for b is not so universal; there 
are found, e.g. pawp, pop, everyone, every by pawb, pob, and mab son, 
heb said. 

(c) The spirant f is in O.W. written f, and this orthography survives in 
Mid.W., but the usual Mid.W. symbol is ff or ph. In O.W. the tenuis is 
sometimes traditionally written for the spirant, e.g. cilcet gl. tapiseta 
(from Lat. culcita) = Mod.W. cylched. t»l^^ »>a,^! f 

(d) With regard to the graphic representation of the voiced spirants the 
following may be noted, g, d, b, m were taken from Latin with their 
Latin values. In time, between vowels and before and after certain 
consonants, they became spirants 3, d, v, but continued to be written g, 
d, b, m, e.g. scamnhegint gl. levant = later ysgavnheynt, colginn gl. 
aristam:= Mod.W: colyn sting, cimadas fitting = Modi.W . cyfaddas, abal 
apple = la,tQr aval. In O.W. the spirant g had already been lost in part, e.g. 
nertheint gl. armant by scamnhegint, tru wretched =Ir. truag wretched. 
In Mid.W. the spirant g has disappeared. The spirant d, which in 
Mod.W. is written dd, is in Mid.W. usually expressed by d, e.g. rodi to 
give = Mod.W . rhoddi, except in certain MSo. such as BB. which use the 
symbol t, e.g. roti = rhoddi. The spirant v in Mid. W. is written u, uu, v, 
fu, f, the last particularly at the end of a word, (e.g. cyuadas, cyvadas, 
cyfuadas, cy{&da.s fitting - O .W . cimadas, Mod.W. cyfaddas), in Mod.W. 
f ; in certain MSS., however, such as BB. it is expressed by w, e.g. calaw 
reeds=ca\ai. In O.W. final v has been already lost in part, e.g. lau hand 
= Ir. lam, and in the course of time it tends more and more to disappear, 
e.g. in Mid.W. the superlative ending -af appears also as -a. 



4 SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. [§3. 

(e) The guttural nasals ng- (i.e. "id as in Eng. sing) and ngh are often 
written g and gh, e.g. Hog = Hong ship, agheu death = ^.ngh&x. 

(f) The voiceless 1 is in O.W. written 1 at the beginning of a word, e.g. 
lau /iawrf=Mid.W. Haw, elsewhere 11, e.g. mellhionou gl. violas. In 
Mid. W. it is in all positions written 11 or II. For the voiceless r = Mod. W. 
rh. Early Welsh has no special symbol ; it is written r. 

(g) The semivowel y is in O.W. written i, e.g. iechuit gl. sanitas, 
mellhionou gl. violas : in Mid. W. it is expressed byi, e.g. ieith speech, or y, 
e.g. engylyon angels. In the initial combinations Yivr (from an earlier sv), 
which in Mid. W. appears as chw or dialectally as hw, and gw (from an 
earlier w), w is in O.W. expressed by u, e.g. hui yow^Mid.W. chwi, guin 
wine{hova. Lat. uinum) = Mid.W. gwin ; in Mid.W. it is commonly written 
6, w, but in some MSS. u, v, e.g. g6ynn, guynn, gvynn white ; but in 
Mid.W. O.W. initial guo- becomes go-. In other positions in Mid.W. w 
is expressed by 6, w, sometimes by u, uu, v ; here it comes from O.W. gu, 
e.g. O.W. neguid we^i/ = Mid.W." newyd, neuyd, neuuyd, nevyd, O.W. 
petguar four = Mid. W. petwar, petuar, petvar. It is to be noted that 
initial gw from an earlier w does not form a syllable even before a 
consonant; thus gwlad country from *ulatis=Ir. liaith kingdom is 
monosyllabic. 



The Accent. 

4. In accented words in Mod.W. the accent, with certain excep- 
tions, falls on the penult, e.g. pechadur sinner, tragywyddol 
eternal. This accentuation, however, has replaced an earlier system 
which was common to all the British dialects and is still preserved 
in the Breton dialect of Vannes, according to which the accent fell 
on the last syllable, e.g. parawt ready. The effect of this earlier 
accentuation is seen in the weakening of vowels in syllables that 
according to the later system would have borne the accent, e.g. 
pechadur sinner from Lat. peccatorem : pecha^t sin from Lat. 
peccatum, O.W. Dimdt, Mid.W. Dyvet: Demetae, O.W. 
hinham, Mid.W. hynhaf ^/^<?^/ : hen old, Mid.W. \\yviz\\ts fleet \ 
Hong .f/^2>, O.W. cilchet, Mid.W. cylchetfrom Lat. culcita, Mid.W. 
drysseu doors : drws door. The date of the change of accent has 
not yet been accurately fixed ; with it seems to be connected the 
change of aw to o in final syllables, e.g. Mid.W. pechawt = Mod.W, 
pechod, of which there are sporadic instances in early Mid.W., 
e.g. rymdywod ( = rym dywawt), BB. 28^ 13. 



§7.] SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. 5 

Changes of Vowels. 

Changes due to a vowel which follows or which 
originally followed. 

5. The quality of a vowel is liable to be influenced by the vowel 
of the following syllable. Sometimes the infecting vowel remains, 
e.g. Ceredic from Old British Coroticus, eyt goes^O.^^. egit 
by O.W. agit, menegi to show by vm.m.gdS I show. Sometimes 
the infecting vowel has been lost, e.g. trom f. by trwm m. heavy 
from *trumma, ■^trummos (where it will be seen that the short 
vowel of the masculine exerted no influence, while the long vowel 
of the feminine did), brein ravens (by bran raven) from *brani, 
earlier *branoi, Cyrn horns (by corn horn) from *corni, earlier 
*cornoi, dreic dragon (by pi. dragon) from *draci, from *dracu 
from Lat. draco, ceint / sing (by cant he sang) from *cantl, from 
*cantu, from ^ canto, Meir from Lat. Maria, yspeil spoil 
from Lat. spolium. The infection may extend back more than one 
syllable e.g. menegi: managaf, deyeit sheep: davat a sheep. 
The following are the changes of the kind which are important for 
inflection : — 

A. Changes due to an i Vowel Preserved. 

6. a > e, e.g. ederyn a bird: adar birds ^ peri to cause-, paraf 
/ cause, edewis he promised : adaw to promise, cerit was loved : 
caru to love, llewenyd, O.W. leguenid/V7y: WdL-^^n Joyous. 

ae > ei, e.g. meini stones : maen stone, seiri artisans : saer. 

B. Changes due to a Lost Vowel. 

7. (a) The lost vowel is a. 

y > e, e.g. berr f. : byrr m. short. The variation in brith, 
f. braith variegated is of the same kind; brith comes from 
*mrictos, braith from *mrecta, *mricta. 

w > o, e.g. trom f. : trwm m. heavy. 

(b) The lost vowel is 1 (of various origin). 

a > ei, e.g. meib sons : mab son, meneich monks : manach 



6 SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. [§7. 

monk\ geill is able', gallaf / am able, gweheird he forbids; 
gwahardaf I forbid, ceint I sang \ cant he sang. 

ae > ei, e.g. mein stones-, maen stone, Seis Saxon (from 
*Saxi, *Saxu, Saxo) : Saeson (from Saxones). 

Final aw > eu, y, e.g. teu is silent : tawaf / am silent, edeu, 
edey, edy leaves : adawaf / leave. 

e > y, e.g. hyn older : hen old, cestyll castles : castell castle, 
gwyl sees : gwelaf / see, gvreryt helps : gwaret to help. 

o > y, e.g. pyrth gates : porth gate, escyb bishops : escob 
bishop, tyrr breaks : torraf / break, egyt opens : agoraf / open, 
try turns : troaf / tz^rn. 

oe > wy, e.g. wyn lambs (from ^ognl) : oen lamb (from 
*ognos). 

w > y, e.g. bylch ^«/i- : bwlch gap, yrch roebucks : ywrch 
roebuck. 

Note 1. — In the 3 sg. pres. indie, act. of the verb the prehistoric ending 
is uncertain ; g-eill might come phonetically from either *gallit or 
*gallyet. In verbs containing radical o, infection is found only in the 3 Bg. 



pres. indie, act., e.g. tyrr he breaks, but torri to break, torrynt they broke, 
torrir is broken. In shaping the conjugation of these verbs analogy seems 
to have played a large part, but the details of the development are obscure. 

Note 2. — It will be observed that in the case of i infection the infection 
extends back to a preceding a, e.g. deveit, edewis, egyr. U -/.-^ 

Note 3. — There is also a variation between ae and eu, ei, e.g. caer city : 
pi. ceuryd, ceyryd ; aeth he went : euthum / went. 

Vowel Variation due to Accent. 

8. Celtic a became in British o ; the o stage is seen in Bede's 
Dinoot from Lat. Donatus, and in early Irish loanwords which 
came from Latin through Britain, e.g. trindoit Trinity from Lat. 
trinitatem. In Welsh, during the period of the older accentuation 
this became in accented syllables aw, e.g. Dunawd, trindawt, 
in unaccented syllables o. To this are due variations like O.W. 
cloriou gl. tabellae: sg. clawr, Mid.W. marchog^ron horsemen-. 
marchawc horseman, moli to praise : mawl praises, and the 
proclitic pob every ( = Ir. each) : accented pawb everyone ( = Ir. 
each). After the shifting of the accent from the ultima to the 
penult, aw in accented words of more than one syllable became o, 



§11.] SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. 7 

e.^.j Mod.W. marchog: = Mid.W. marchawc, butMod.W. pa^b 
= Mid.W. pawb. For other instances of vowel weakening in 
unaccented syllables see § 4. 

Prothetic Vowel. 

9. Before words which in O.W. began w^th s+ consonant there 
developed in the Mid.W. period a prothetic y, e.g. ysgriven 
writing: O.W. scribenn, ystavell chamber-. O.W. stabell, 
ystxQ^AMv packsaddh', O.W. strotur, yspeil spoil-. O.W. *speil, 
from Lat. spolium. 

Epenthetic Vowel. 

10. Before a final liquid, nasal, or v, an epenthetic vowel is 
often written, which, however, does not count metrically as a 
syllable. 

(a) Consonant +j, e.g. mynwgyl by mynwgj neck^yiod.. 
W. mynwgl; kenedel, kenedyl by kenedl race = O^S[. 
cenetl, Mod.W. cenedl ; kwbwl, kwbyl by kwbl whole = Mod.W, 
cwbl; tavyl sling = Mod.W. tail. 

(b) Consonant + r, e.g. hagyr by hagr ugly = Mod.W. 
hagr; Ueidyr by lleidr robber = Mod.W. lleidr; llestyr 
vessel = O.W. llestr, llestir, Mod.W. llestr; dwvyr, dwvwr 
by dwvr wafer =Mod.W. dwfr, 

(c) Consonant + m, e.g. talym space = Mod.W. talm. 

(d) Consonant + n, e.g. gwadyn by gwadn ^^/^ = Mod.W. 
gwadn ; dwvyn deep = Mod.W. dwfn. 

(e) Consonant + V, e.g. dedyf cuslom = Mod.W. deddf; 
baraf, baryf ^^«r^= Mod.W. barf; twrwf, twryf by tvrri noise. 

Consonantal Changes. 

11. The following changes of consonants in combination are of 
importance for accidence : — 

(a) In the Indo-Germanic parent language d or 1 4- 1 became ft, 
and ft in Celtic became ss, e.g. W. Has was killed =\x. -slass from 
^slaftos : Had kill= Ir. slaidid hews. 



8 SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. [§ ii. 

(b) act>aeth, or, with i infection, > eith ; ect>eith; wet 
>wyth; wen, wgn>wyn, e.g. aeth he went from *aet, but 
imdeith / travelled from *aeti (earlier *aetu, *aeto): Mid.W. 
eyd^<9^5 = O.W. egit, agit; dyrreith he returned, from *-rekt: 
Vreg- ; amwyth he defended from *amukt : amwgaf / defend, 
of which the verbal noun is amwyn from *amuen... 

(e) rt>rth, e.g. eymmerth he took from *eom-bert: eym- 
meraf / take. 

(d) Before a labial n becomes m, e.g. y maes in the field from 
yn maes. 

(e) nd, mb > nn, mm, e.g. vyn nyvot, vy nyvot my coming 
from vyn dyvot ; ym mwyt, y mwyt into food from yn bwyt. 

(f) ne, nt, mp. At the end of a word ne, mp remained, e.g. 
\SMdSiZ young, pumpyfz'^; nt remained in accented monosyllables, 
e.g. dant tooth (but proclitic ean, gan with^O.'W. eant); in 
words of more than one syllable it appears as nt or n, e.g. ugeint 
and Ugein twenty, earant and earan they love. In the interior of 
a word ne, nt, mp develop regularly in the penultimate syllable 
to ng, nn, mm, in the antepenult to ngh, nh, mh, e.g. trane 
cessation : trengi to cease-, angen necessity (from *ancen = Ir. ecen) : 
anghenawe necessitous; O.W. hanther half later banner; 
dant tooth : danned teeth : danhedawe toothed; O.W. pimphet 
^fthj later pymmet ; eymmell compulsion (from Lat. compello) : pi. 
cymhellyon. The regular development, however, is liable to be 
affected by analogy. 

Note 1. — The cause of the different treatment in the penult and 
the antepenult is the accent. In early W. the accent was on the last 
syllable (§ 4) ; the syllable immediately preceding the accent would be 
most weakly accented, the syllable before that would have a secondary 
accent, e.g. anghenawe, danhedawe, eymhelly6n. 

{^ Before h — 

(a) g, d, b become tenues, e.g. teekaf most beautiful from 

*teg-haf: tee (phonetically teg) beautiful, tebycko 

from ■'^tebyg-ho he may think: tebygu to think, plyekau 

to fold from *plyg-hau : plye (phonetically plyg) fold ; 

ealettaf hardest from "^ealed-haf : ealet (phonetically 

caled) hard, eretto he may believe from *ered-ho : 



§ 12.] SOUNDS AND SOUND-CHANGES. 9 

credu to believe^ bwyta to eat from ''^bwyd-ha : 
bwyt (phonetically bwyd) food; cyvelyppaf most like 
from *cyvelyb-haf: C3rv"elyp (phonetically cyvelyb) 
like, attepO from "^ad-heb-ho he may answer : attebu, 
digaplo ke may cease to calumniate from *digabl-ho ; 
digablu, llwyprawt from "^Uwybr-hawt will course-. 
Uwybraw to course. 

(13) d becomes th, e.g. diwethaf last from *diwed-haf: 
diwed end, rotho ke may give from *rod-ho : rodi 
to give, rythau to set free from "^ryd-hau ; ryd free. 

(7) V becomes f, e.g. tyffo he may grow from *tyv-ho : tyvu 
to grow, dyffo he may come: dyvod to come, coffau to 
remember from *COV-hau ; COf memory^ 

Note 2. — Instances of ff from v-h are not numerous, they have commonly 
been replaced by analogical forms, e.g. araf-hau to make gentle, digrif-af 
infiost entertaining. So th from d + h becomes rarer and rarer in Mid.W., 
where e.g. rotho is replaced by rodho and rodo ; the old forms are most 
persistent in the case of the tenues c, t, p. (cf. § no) 

(f) th + d>th, e.g. athiffero who may defend thee from 
ath-differo. But here commonly the d is written etymologically. 

(g) d + d became apparently d, e.g. adyn wretch from ad-dyn 
(ad- = Ir. aith-, with sense of Lat. re-). 

Sound-changes within the Sentence. 

12. Within the sentence closely connected word groups are liable 
to changes similar to those that take place within individual words. 
As within the word vowel-flanked consonants were reduced, e.g. 
cegin kitchen from Lat. coquina, niver number from Lat. numerus, 
so in a word group, e.g. "^tdta mara great people became tud 
vawr. As within the word nc became ngh, nt became nh, 
mp became mh (§ ll), nd became nn, e.g. crwnn round by Ir. 
cruind, mb became mm, e.g. camm crooked from Old British 
cambos, so in word groups, e.g. vyn cynghor my counsel became 
vy ghynghor, vyn penn my head became vym penn, vy 
mhenn, vyn dyvot my coming became vyn nyvot, yn bwyt 
into food became ym mwyt, y mwyt. But, on the one hand, a 



10 



CONSONANT MUTATIONS. 



§12, 



particular mutation may spread analogically, if it becomes connected 
with some grammatical function ; thus in Welsh it became the rule 
that after all feminine nouns in the singular a following adjective 
was mutated, though in Celtic only certain classes of feminine 
nouns ended in a vowel. On the other hand, the change may 
analogically disappear altogether, or the mutation may be 
restricted to certain phrases as in the case of the nasal mutation 
after numerals (§ 20c). In sound groups there are three kinds 
of initial change (i) vocalic mutation or lenation, which 
originated from cases where the preceding member of the group 
originally ended in a vowel, (2) nasal mutation where the preceding 
member originally ended in n, (3) spirant mutation where the 
preceding member ended in certain consonants, most commonly s 
but also c. 

Note. — In reading Early Welsh texts the student must be careful not 
to be misled by the orthography, which does not consistently express the 
initial changes. Thus if he should meet with, e.g. y gwlat the country for 
y wlat, or vyn dy vot for vyn ny vot, that is only an archaistic or etymological 
orthography which is no evidence of the actual sound at the time. 



13. Table of Consonant Mutations. 

radical vocalic nasal 

/ C ... com ... gorn ... nghorn 

Tenues •( t ... tat ... dat ... nhat 

I p ... prenn ... brenn ... mhrenn 



Mediae 



g ••• 


gwr 


. . wr 


.. ngwr 


d ... 


. dyn 


. . dyn 


.. nyn 


b ... 


baryf . , 


.. varyf . 


. . maryf 


11 ... 


Haw 


.. law 




rh... 


rhan ., 


.. ran 




m .. 


. mam . . 


,. vam 





spirant 
Chorn 
that 
phrenn 



Liquids 

Nasal 

Note 1. — In vocalic mutation g became first the spirant 5, which was 
early lost (§ 3d). From the fact that initial g was thus lost, many words 
which originally hegan with a vowel in time assume an initial g-; e.g. 
y ord his hammer (=^Ir. ord) resembled externally y wr his man, and this 
superficial resemblance led to gord (for ord) like gwr. The principle is the 
same as in the development of initial f before a vowel in Mid.Ir. 

Note 2. — As in Mid.W. the spirant is commonly written d (§ 3d), the 
vocalic mutation of initial d is not discernible in writing. 

Note 3.— In Mid.W. initial rh is written r, so that the unmutated and 
the mutated forms are indistinguishable {§ 3f). 



§ i6.] CONSONANT MUTATIONS. ii 



Vocalic Mutation or Lenation. 

14. The history of Welsh lenation has still to be written. In 
some respects, particularly with regard to lenation after the verb, 
the subject is full of difificulty. In the development of lenation 
analogy played a large part, so that to some extent the usage would 
differ at different periods. And the fixing of the rules of lenation 
for a particular period is complicated by the fact that the mutation 
is not consistently expressed in writing. The following are the 
chief facts about lenation in Mid. W. prose ; the material is taken 
from the Red Book of Hergest. 

15. General exception to the rules of lenation. After 
final n and r initial 11 and rh were regularly unmutated, e.g. yn 
llawen gladly^ y Haw = O. W. ir lau if/ie hand. For rh the rule is 
seen in Mod.W., e.g. yn rhydd freely^ y rhan the part. As rh 
was not written in Mid. W. this distinction is not discernible there. 

A. Lenation of Noun and Adjective (including nominal 

ADJECTIVAL PRONOUNS). 

16. (a) After the article. 

After the article in the sg. fern, the initial consonant of a 
following noun or adjective is lenated, e.g. y gaer the city^ yrdref 
to the town^ y vrenhines the queen. But y llaw the hand (§ 15). 

(b) After the noun. 

(a) After a noun in the feminine singular or the dual an adjective 
is lenated, e.g. morwyn benngrech velen a curlyhaired auburn 
maid, deu vilg"i vronwynnyon vrychyon two whitebreasted 
brindled hounds. Also when the adjective is separated from the 
noun, e.g. kaer uawr a welynt, vwyhaf or byt they satv a large 
town, the largest in the world. 

Note 1. — After the masc. sg. and the plur. lenation of the comparative 
is found in sentences of the following type : ny welsei dyn eiryoet llu 
degach .... noc oed hwnnw no man had ever seen a host fairer than 
that RB. 90, 13; na welsynt llongeu gyweiryach y hansawd noc wynt that 
they had not seen ships better equipped than they IIB. 27, 3. 



12 CONSONANT MUTATIONS. [§ i6. 

(/?) After a noun in the fem. sg. or the dual a following genitive 
is lenated when it is equivalent to an adjective, e.g. kist vaen 
a stone chest \ deu vaen vreuan two millstones. . ^^•^, w;*^ ^fh^ 

Note 2. — The genitive is lenated after ni'eint, ryw, kyvryw and sawl 
(§ 76-7), e.g. y veint lewenyd the amount of gladness ; pa ryw wysc what 
kind of dress ? kyvryw wr such a man ; y sawl vrenhined all the kings. 
Further, the genitive of proper names is lenated after certain nouns, e.g. 
Cadeir Vaxen Maxen's Seat ; Caer Vyrdin Carmarthen ; Llan badarn lit. 
Padarn''s Church ; Ynys Von Island of Mon ; Eglwys Veir Mary^s 
Church ; Gwlat Vorgan the land of Morgan ; pobyl Vrytaen the people of 
Britain ; ty Gustenin the house of Custenin (cr. Mod.W. ty Dduw); mam 
Gadwaladyr mother of Cadwaladr ; Branwen verch Lyr Branwen daughter 
of Llyr ; gwreic Vrutus wife of Brutus ; deu vab Varedud two sons of 
Maredud. 

(y) After proper nouns theie is lenation of a following noun or 
adjective denoting a characteristic of a person, e.g. Llud vrenhin 
Jibing Zlud, Peredur baladyrhir Peredur of the long spear. 

Note 3. — The initial consonants of mab son and merch daughter are 
lenated, e.g. Pryderi uab Pwyll Pryderi son of Pwyll, Aranrot verch Don 
Aranrod daughter of Don. 

Note 4. — Further instances of lenation in apposition are, e.g. ewythred 
Arthur oedynt, urodyr y uam they were uncles of Arthur, his mother's 
brothers, Giluaethwy ac Euyd . . . y nyeint, ueibion y chwaer Gilvaethwy 
and Evyd his nephews, his sister's sons. Aranrot uerch Don dy nith, uerch 
dy chwaer Aranrot daughter of Don thy niece, thy sister's daughter. 

(8) Lenation is found in the genitive of the verbal noun, 
particularly when it is separated from the governing word, e.g. 
menegi iiiot y crydyon wedy duuiiaw declaring that the cobblers 
had united) a dyuot . . . yn y vedwl liynet y hela and it came 
into his mind to go to hunt; a ryuedu o Owein yr mackwy g^iiarch 
gwell idaw and Owein wondered that the youth should greet him. 

(c) After the adjective. 

(a) When an adjective in the positive degree precedes, the noun 
is lenated, e.g. brawdoryawl garyat brotherly love, dirvawr 

^wres excessive heat, amryuaelyon gerdeu divers songs. So after 
the pronominal adjective holl all, e.g. hoU gwn all the dogs, holl 

^wragfed all the women. 

Note 5. — For the comparative the material to hand from RB. is scanty ; 
with lenation : yn llei been less pain 146, without lenation : mwy gobeith 
greater hope 95, muscrellach gwr a more helpless man 13. In KB. II. 



§ i6.] CONSONANT MUTATIONS. 13 

there are some instances of lenation after mwy more. After the 
superlative in RB. non-lenation seems to be the rule ; in RB. II. lenation 
is more frequent. 

Note 6.— In Celtic, when the adjective preceded the noun, it formed a 
compound with it, e.g. hen-wrach old hag (§ 34a), and in composition the 
lenation of the second element was regular, e.g. eur-wisc golden dress, 
bore-vwyt morning -food, hreakfixst. In Welsh, when the adjective came 
to be used freely before the noun, the lenation of the old compounds was 
retained in the positive, 

I^OTE 7. — On the analogy of lenation in compound words and of lenation 
of the noun following the adjective, in poetry, when the genitive precedes 
the noun, it may lenate, e.g. byd ly wyadwr the ruler of the world, o Gymry 
werin of the host of the Cymry. 

{p) When an adjective is repeated, e.g. mwy vwy yyd greater 
and greater will be, 

(d) After YN forming adverbs, and with predicative 
nouns and adjectives (§ 35), e.g. yn vynych often, yn borth 
as a help^ yn wreic as a wife. But yn llawen gladly (§ 15). 

Note 8. — With regard to their influence upon a following word it is 
necessary to bear in mind that predicative yn lenates, that yn__i2L-i8 
followed by the nasal mutation (§ 20b) and that yn with the verbal noun, 
e.g. yn mynet going {§ 126a), does not affect a following consonant. 

(e) After numerals. 

(a) After cardinal numbers. 

un one. After the fern., lenation seems to be regular, e.g. un 
wreic one woman, un vil one thousand, yr un gerdet the same 
going. Initial 11 is regularly uninfected, e.g. un llyng"es one fleet. 
After the masc. the usage seems to vary, e.g. vn geir one word RB. 
197 =WB. 123, but vn eir RB. II. 222, yr un march the same 
horse RB. 9, but neb vn varchawc^/^y horseman RB. II. 278, yn 
un uaes in one field RB. 114. 

Note 9. — In Irish, oin regularly mutates a following consonant. 
According to Rowlands, Mod. W. un mutates in the f em. 

deu, dwy two. After these lenation is regular, e.g. deu 
barchell two pigs, deu lu two hosts, dwy verchet two daughters. 
But deu cant two hundred RB. II. passim. 

chwech, chwe six : — chwech wraged six women RB. 18, 16 ; 
but chwe blyned six years RB. II. 387, 404. 

seith seven : seith gantref seven cantreds RB. 25, 44, seith 
gelfydyt seven arts RB. II. 200, seith wystyl seven hostages RB. 



14 CONSONANT MUTATIONS [§ i6. 

II. 327. But usually without lenation seith cantref, seith 
CUppyt seven cubits^ seith cant seven hundred^ seith punt seven 
pounds, seith meib seven sons. 

wyth eight : wyth drawst eight beams RB. 1 1 1, 21, wyth gant 
eight hundred RB. II. 386, but wyth cant 39, 40, 230, 257, 258, 
385, wyth temyl eight temples loi, wyth tywyssawc eight chiefs 
14. 

naw nine. After this lenation is occasionally found, e.g. naw 
rad nine ranhs LA. 1 7. 

mil thousand', mil verthyr a thousand martyrs RB. 11. 199. 

10. — In pumwyr jive men, seithwyr seven men, nawwyr nine men, canwr 
a hundred men, there seems to be composition. 

ifi) After ordinal numbers. 

After the feminine ordinals from three onwards there is lenation, 
e.g. y dryded geinc the third branch, y seith vet vlwydyn the 
seventh year, yr vg'einuet vlwydyn the twentieth year. 

11. — The same rule seems to hold with eil other, second, e.g. yr eil 
marchawc the second horseman, but yr eil vlwydyn the second year, and 
with neill one of two, e.g. y neill troet the one foot, but y neill law the one 
hand. 

(f) After the pronoun. 

(a) After the possessives dy thy and y his, e.g. dy davawt thy 
toitgue, ath 111 and thy host ; y benn his head, ae rud and his 
cheek. 

ifi) After interrogatives, e.g. pa le, py le where? pa beth what 
thing ? 

(7) In apposition, e.g. ynteu Bwyll he Pwyll, hitheu wreic 
Teirnon she the wife of Teii-non ; ef Vanawydan he Manawydan ; 
on hachaws ni bechaduryeit because of us sinners. 

(g) After the verb. 

(a) After the verb lenation is found not only of the object but also 
of the subject^ whether the verb immediately precedes the lenated 
form or is separated from it, e.g. mi a wnn g^ghor da / know 
good counsel, y gwelynt uarchawc they saw a horseman, 
ny mynnei Gaswallawn y lad ynteu Caswallawn did not desire 
to slay him. The proportion of lenation to non-lenation differs 



§ i6.] CONSONANT MUTATIONS. 15 

in different parts of the verb. After certain parts of the verb 
lenation is absent or exceptional. Such are 3 sg. and 3 pi. pres. 
ind. act,, 3 sg. pres. subj. act. and the passive forms. ' After the 
3 sg. of the pret. ind. act. non-lenation of the subject is the rule ; 
in RB. lenation of the object is occasionally found when it directly 
follows the verb, e.g. y kavas Uendigeit Uran he fyund Bendigeit 
Vran, frequently when the subject precedes it, e.g. y lladawd 
Peredur wyr yr iarll Peredur slew the earVs men. 

ifi) After most of the forms of the verb "to be " lenation is found, 
most consistently in the predicate from its close connexion with the 
verb, but also in the subject whether it follows the verb immediately 
or is separated from it, e.g. ot wyt uorwyn if thou art a maid, 
yd ym drist ni we are sad, yssyd urenhin who is king., yssit le 
there is a place, nyt oed uwy // was not greater, oedynt gystal 
they were as good, mi a uydaf oorthawr / am gatekeeper, ni a 
"^dwn gyiiarwyd we will be guides, ny bydei ^ryw he was not 
alive, y bydynt barawt they should be ready, ny buost gyvartal 
thou hast not been just, tra liu ^^yw while she lived, pan liuant 
veirw when they were dead, buasseitoreu it would have been best, 
byd^lawenach be more joyous, bit feont let him be a bridge, ' 
bydwch g'edymdeithon be ye comrades, tra Vwyf vyw while 1 
live, tra vych vyw while thou livest, tra vom Vyw while we live, 
mal na bont tieichawc so that they may not be pregnant, pei bewn 
urathedic if I were wounded, a vei vawr which should be great, 
gwedy y beym uedw after we were intoxicated, nyt oes blant 
there is no offspring, budugawl oed tSei Kei was gifted, y hwnnw y 
bu uab to him there was ci^son, cyt bei lawer o geiryd though there 
were many cities, nyt oes in gyghor we have no counsel, oed well 
ytti geisaw it were better for thee to seek, tost VU gantaw'welet it 
pained him to see. There is, however, no lenation after ys, e.g. ys '^ 
gwir // is true (unless the subject be separated, e.g. kanys 
gwell_genthi ^SCU since she prefers to sleep) ; after nyt, nat, neut, 
e.g. nyt llei is not less, neut marw he is dead ; after OS, e.g. OS 
gwr if he is a man ; after ae e.g. ae gwell is it better? after yw, 
e.g. pan yw Peredur that it is Peredur (unless the subject be 



i6 CONSONANT MUTATIONS. [§ 16. 

separated, e.g. hawd yw gennyf gaffel / think it easy to get) ; after 
yttiw, e.g. a yttiw Kei yn llys Arthur is Kei in Arthur's court? 
after mae, e.g. y mae llech there is a flagstone (unless the subject 
be separated, e.g. y mae yma uorwyn there is here a maiden) ; 
after maent, e.g. y maent perchen there are owners ] after byd, 
e.g. ny byd g^ell it will not be better (unless the subject be 
separated, e.g. or byd gwell genwch bresswylaw if ye think it 
better to dwell) ; after boet, e.g. jpoet k3rvlawn dy rat titheu may 
thy prosperity be complete; after bo, e.g. pan 110 parawt when it is 
ready (unless the subject be separated, e.g. pan uo amser in uynet 
when it is time for us to go). 

(h) In adverbs and adverbial phrases. 

In the interior of a sentence the initial consonant of an adverb or 
an adverbial phrase is often lenated, e.g. nyth elwir bellach byth 
yn vorwyn thou shall never more be called a maiden, ny orffowysaf 
vyth / will never rest, pan daeth y paganyeit gyntaf y Iwerdon 
when the pagans came first to Ireland, bydwch yma vlwydyn y dyd 
hediw be ye here a year to-day, bu farw .... vis whefrawr she 
died in the month of February, pebyllaw a oruc lawer O dydyeu he 
encamped many days. In the same way lenation is found in 
preposition and suffixed pronoun, e.g. ny eill neb vynet drwydi no 
one can go through it, a gymero yr ergit drossof i who shall take the 
blow in my stead, hir uu gennyf i y nos honno that night seemed long 
to me. 

Note 12. — In origin this is only a special case of post-verbal lenation, 
like the corresponding change in Irish, for which see Pedersen, KZ. xxxv. 
332 sq. 

Note 13. — Lenation is found of the initial consonants of some 
prepositions and conjunctions : ar = O.W. guar (Ir. for), gen by can, wedy 
by gwedy=U.W. guetig, v7rth = 0.W. gwrth, dan by tan, dros = O.W. 
trus, drvyy by trwy=:O.W. troi, ban by pan, bei by pel The reason of the 
weakening here, however, seems to be that the words are pretonic. 

(i) After the prepositions am, ar, att, can, heb, o (a), tan, 
tros, trwy, uch, wrth, y, and frequently after the nominal 
preposition hyt, e.g. am betheu about things; ar vrys in 
haste ; att Bwyll to Pwyll', gan bawb with every one ; heb vwyt 
without food ; o gerd of music; dan brenn under a tree; dros 



§ 17.] CONSONANT MUTATIONS. 17 

vor across the sea-, trwy lewenyd through joy, uch benn above; 
wrth Gynan to Cynan; y vynyd upwards; hyt galan Mei till 
the first of May. 

(k) After a negfative in phrases like na wir // is not true 
RB. 105 ; na well it is not better RB. 61. 

(1) After mor how^ so and neu or, e.g. mor druan how 
wretched; neu vuelyn or horn. 

(m) After interjections. 

(a) The vocative is lenated after a, ha, oia, och, ub e.g. a 
VOrwyn O maiden; oia wr hoi man ; och Ereint alas I Gereint; 
ub wyr alack! men. But without any preceding particle lenation 
of the vocative is found, e.g. dos vorwyn go, maiden, 

(P) After Uyma, Uyna, and nachaf, e.g. Uyma luossogrwyd 

yn ymlit see! there is a host following RB. II. 302 ; llyna uedru yn 
drwc there is bad behaviour ; nachaf uarchawc yn dyMOt behold! a 
horseman was coming. 

B. Lenation of the Pronoun. 
17. The pronoun is lenated : — 

(a) As subject or object, or emphasizing an infixed or suffixed 
pronoun or possessive adjective, e.g. elwyf ui I might go, gallaf i / 
can, ny buum drwc i / was not evil, y rodaf inneu / will give, 
arhowch uiui wait for me, na chabla di uiui do not blame me, nyt 
atwaenwn i didi / did not recognise thee, ath gud ditheu which 
hides thee, ohonaf i, ohonaf inneu by me, vy ysgwyd i my shield, dy 
grogi di thy hanging, dy lad ditheu thy slaying. 

Note 1. — But after final t t is usual, e,g. y rodeist ti thou hast given, 
gan dy genyat ti with thy leave, dy vot titheu thy being. 

(b) Sometimes in apposition, e.g. ni a awn ui a thi we will go, I 
and thou, keisswn ninneu ui a thi let us seek, I and thou. 

(c) After other lenating words, e.g. gwae vi woe to me, neu 
vinneu or I, neu ditheu or thou. 



i8 CONSONANT MUTATIONS. [§ i8. 

C. Lenation of the Verb. 

l8. The verb is lenated : — 

(a) After infixed pronoun of sg. 2, e.g. yth elwir thou art called. 

(b) After relative a, e.g. govyn a oruc he asked. 

(c) After the interrogative pa, py, e.g. hyt na wydat pa (or py) 
wnaei so that she did not know what she should do ; py liwy di 
why dost thou colour? 

(d) When the copula follows the predicate (§ 159), e.g. 
Uawen UU y uorwyn the maiden was glad. 

(e) After the verbal particle yt (§ QI note 2) in the older language, 
e.g. yt gaffei he should get. 

(f) After the verbal particle ry (but cf, § 21 note), e.g. ry 
geveis / have got. Similarly after neur (§ 95 note), e.g. neur 
gavas he has got. 

(g") After the interrogative a, e.g. a bery di wilt thou effect "i 

(h) After the conjunctions pan, tra, yny, e.g. pan goUes when 

he lost^ tra barhaawd while it lasted., tra vwyf as long as I am., 

yny glyw till he hears, yny welas till he saw, yny vyd 

till he is. 

(i) After the negatives ny (including ony, pony) and na (with 

the exception of the tenues § 2ie), e.g. ny 3S\zi I cannot, ny ladaf 

/ will not slay, kany vynny since thou dost not desire, pony 

wydut ti didst thou not know ? na ovyn di do not ask, Duw a wyr 

na ladaf i God knows that I will not slay. 

Note. — But after ny, na the rule of lenation is not absolute. In partic- 
ular initial m is commonly unchanged, e.g. ny mynnaf / do not desire, 
hyt ns. mynnei so that he did not desire. Further, initial b of forms of bot 
to he is commonly unlenated, e. g. ny bu gystal it was not so good ; a wypo 
na bo mini who shall know that it is not I. But in the imperative lenation 
seems to be the rule, e.g. na uit amgeled gennwch he not troubled. Non- 
lenation after ny comes from the old non-relative forms {§ 21 note). Na 
originally ended in a consonant (nac), so that after it the lenation is 
irregular ; so far as it lenates it has followed the analogy of ny. 

Nasal Mutation. 

19. Nasal mutation is very irregularly written in Mid.W.MSS. 
The mutation of nc is expressed by gk or gh, the mutation of nt 



§21.] CONSONANT MUTATIONS. ig 

commonly by nt, rarely by nh, the mutation of mp commonly 
by mp, sometimes by mph or mh. The mutation of ng is 
expressed by gg or nggy the mutation of nd, nb by n or nd, 
and m or mb. 

20. Nasal mutation is found : — 

(a) After vyn my, e.g. vygkynghor, vyghyng-hor my counsel, 
vyntat, vynhat my father, vympenn, vymphen, vymhen my 
head, vyggwreic (gwreic) my wife,vyviggy^^\y my bed, vynyvot, 
vyndyvot my coming, vymaraf (baraf) my beard. 

(b) After yn in, into, e.g. ygkarchar, ygharchar in prison, 
ymperved, ymherved in the centre, ymhoen (poen) in punish- 
ment; yn diwed (=yn niwed) in the end; ymbwyt, ymwyt (bwyt) 
into food. 

(c) In certain phrases after numerals (chiefly with blyned years 
and dieu, diwarnawt days), e.g. pump mlyned five years, 
chwech mlyned RB. II. 397 (more usually chwe blyned) six 
years, seith mlyned seven years, wyth mlyned eight years, naw 
mlyned nine years, naw nieu nine days, deng mlyned ten years, 
dec nieu ten days, deudec niwarnawt twelve days, pymtheng 
mlyned fifteen years, ugein mlyned twenty years, deugeint 
mlyned forty years, cant mlyned a hu7idred years, can mu a 
hundred kine, trychan mu three hundred kine. 

Note. — This usage started from those numerals AvMch in Old Celtic 
ended in n : seith (cf. Ir. secht n-, Lat. septem ; final m in Celtic became n), 
jiaw (cf. Ir. noi n-, Lat. novem), dec (cf. Ir. deich n-, Lat. decem), cant (cf. 
Ir. cet n-, Lat. centum). 

Spirant Mutation. 

21. This is found : — 

(a) After the numerals tri three and chwe(ch) six, e.g. tri 
•chantref three cantreds, tri pheth three things, chwe thorth six 
.loaves. 

(b) After y her, e.g. y chlust her ear, y throet her foot, y 
phenn her head. 

(c) After the prepositions ac, a with, tra beyond, e.g. a chledyf 
-with a sword, a thi with thee, tra thonn beyond wave. 



20 CONSONANT MUTATIONS. [§22. 

(d) After the conjunctions a(c) and, no(c) than^ o if, e.g. mam 
a \\\2X father and mother, traet a phenn /^^/ and head) gwaeth 
no chynt worse than before ; o chigleu if he has heard. 

Note 1. — After kwt where spirant change is found: cv threwna where 
it settles BB. 44^, but kwt gaffei (caffei) where he should get WB. 453 ; cf. 
cud vit BB. 44^, cwd uyd where it will he FB. 146. 

(e) After the negatives ny and na(c), e.g. ny chysgaf / will 
not sleepy ny thyrr does not break, ny phryn does not buy ; na 
chwsc do not sleep, na thorraf that I do not break, na marchawc 
na phedestyr neither horseman nor footman. 

Note. 2. — But in the early poetry ny produces the spirant change only 
when it is non-relative ; when it is relative a following c, t, or p is lenated, 
e.g. ny char he does not love, but ny gar who does not love. In the early 
poetry there is the same difference of treatment after the verbal particle 
ry, e.g. ry charas has loved, ry garas who has loved. This distinction 
between noi;-relative and relative forms must have extended to all 
consonants caj)able of mutation, but in the case of the other consonants 
confusion set in earlier. In later Mid.W. after ny the non-relative form 
has been generalised in the case of words beginning with c, t, p, the 
relative form, with certain exceptions, in the case of words beginning with 
other mutable consonants (cf. § 18 i). After ry the relative form was 
generalised. For further details see Eriu III. pp. 20 sq. 



h in Sentence Construction. 

22. After certain words h appears before a following word 
beginning with a vowel. 

(a) After the infixed and the possessive pronoun m, e.g. am h- 
ymlityassant who followed me, om h-anvod against my will. 

(b) After the infixed pronoun e, e.g. ae h-arganvu who perceived 
him, 

(c) After y her, e.g. y h-enw her name. 

Note. — In Irish also h appears after a her, e.g. a h-ainm her name. The 
Irish and Welsh h here comes from the original final s of the possessive. 

(d) After an our, e.g. an h-arueu our arms. 

(e) Aften eu, y their, e.g. eu h-arueu their arms. 

(f) After ar before ugeint twenty, e.g. un ar h-ugeint twenty 
one. 



§24.] THE ARTICLE. 21 



THE ARTICLE. 

23. In O.W. the article is ir throughout, e.g. ir pimphet eterin 
the fifth birdy dir finnaun to the fountain. In Mid.W. yr remains 
before vowels and h, e.g. yr amser the time, yr alanas (from 
gfalanas) the bloodfine, yr henwr the old man; before other 
consonants except y it becomes y, e.g. y bwyt the food, y wreic 
(from gwreic) the woman) before y the usage varies, e.g. yr iarll 
or y iarll the earl. But if the article be fused together with a 
preceding conjunction or preposition, or if the y be elided after a 
preceding vowel, then *r remains, e.g. y nef ar dayar heaven and 
earthy yn gyuagos yr gaer near to the city, gwiryon jrw'r UOrwyn 
ohonof i the maiden is innocent as regards me. 

Syntax of the Article. 

24. (a) In addition to its use before common nouns the article 
appears regularly before the names of certain countries, such as yr 
Affrica Africa, yr Asia Asia, yr Alban Scotland, yr Almaen 
Germany, yr Eidal Italy, yr Yspaen Spain, e.g. vn yw yr Asia, 
deu yw yr Affrica, tri yw Europa Asia is one, Africa is two, 
Europe is three FB. 216. Occasionally the article appears before 
names of persons, e.g. yr Beli mawr ( = y Beli uawr WB. 191) 
to Beli the Great RB. 93, 2; mwyhaf oe vrodyr y karei Lud y Lleuelys 
Llud loved Llevelys more than any of his other brothers ib. 

(b) The article is not used before a noun followed by a dependent 
genitive, e.g. gwyr ynys y kedyrn the men of the island of the 
strong, unless it be accompanied by a demonstrative pronoun, e.g. 
or meint g^yrtheu hwnnw from that amount of miracles, or 
unless the genitive be the equivalent of an adjective, e.g. y werin 
eur the golden chessmen, y moch coet the wild pigs (lit. the pigs of 
the wood), y peir dateni the cauldron of rebirth, the regenerative 
cauldron. 



22 THE NOUN. [§25. 

THE NOUN. 
Numbers and Cases. 

25. In Welsh the old Celtic declension is completely broken 
down. Of the three genders the neuter has been lost. The dual, 
which, as in Irish, is always preceded by the numeral for two, in 
some classes of nouns would phonetically have fallen together with 
the singular; in Welsh this has been generalised so that the dual 
(apart from forms like deu ychen two oxen) coincides in form with 
the singular; a trace of the dual inflection remains in the lenation 
of a following adjective, e.g. deu vul gadarn (from cadarn) two 
strong mules, deu vilgi vronwynnion vrychion two whitehreasted 
brindled greyhounds. In the regular inflexion there remains only 
one case for each number; in the singular this corresponds some- 
times to the old nominative, e.g. C3.v friend =lx. carae^ sometimes 
to the form of the oblique cases, e.g. breuant windpipe = \x, brage, 
g. bragat; a few traces of lost cases still survive in phrases, e.g. 
meudwy hermit (lit. servant of God), where dwy is the genitive of 
duw ; erbynn against ( = Ir. ar chiunn), where pynn (from *pendl, 
from ■'^pendu) is the dative of penn head; peunyd every day, 
peunoeth every night, where peun-, which in O.W. would be 
*poiin-, comes from *popn-, the old accusative singular of pob 
every. 

Syntax of the Cases. 

26. As in Irish, the nominative may stand absolutely at the 
beginning of the sentence to introduce the subject of discourse, e.g. 
y wreic honn ym penn pythewnos a mis y byd beichogi idi, lit. 
this woman, at the end of a fortnight and a month there will be 
conception to her. In prose the genitive follows the noun on which 
it depends, e.g. enw y mab the name of the son; in poetry it may 
precede, e.g. byt lywaydur = llywaydur byt the ruler of the world; 
sometimes, as in Irish, it is used after an adjective meaning with 
respect to a thing, e.g. ny bydy anuodlawn y phryt thou wilt 7iot 



§27.] THE NOUN. 23 

be displeased with her form. The accusative can be recognised only 
from the construction; in poetry the accusative of a place-name is 
common after verbs of motion, e.g. dywed y down Arwystli say 
that we will come to Arwystli MA. i92\ 

Formation of the Plural. 

27. A. The plural is based on Old Celtic plural 
formations. 

(a) Plural with I infection (§ 7b), e.g. march horse : meirch, 
manach monh: meneich, maen stone: mein, oen lamb: wyn, 
asgell wing: esgyll, corn horn: cyrn, escob bishop: escyb, 

g^r man : gwyr. 

Note 1.— This represents the old plural formation of -o- stems, e.g. 
meirch from *marci from *marcoi. In part, however, it might represent 
the plural of -i- stems, of. Ir, suili eyes: stiil eye. In dagr tear the plur. 
deigr ( = Ir. der) comes from *dacru, the plur. of a neut. -u- stem. 

Note 2. — Many substantives which regularly form their plural other- 
wise, particularly such as form their plural in -ion, follow this inflexion 
after numerals above two, e.g. tri gweis three boys, seith meib seven sons 
(GC.2 283). 

(b) Plural in -eu, -ieu (O.W. -ou, -iou), e.g. gen Jaw: geneu, 
penn head: penneu, cledyf sword: cledjrveu, pebyll tent: 
pebyllyeu, glin hnee: glinyeu. 

Note 3. ou, -eu started from -cues, the nom. pi. of -u- stems, cf, 

Gaulish Lugoves. 

(c) Plural in -on -ion, e.g. medyc physician-, medygon, 
cenaw whelp : cenawon, Ueidr robber: lladron, mab son : 
meibyon, dyn man: dynyon, gelyn enemy: gelynyon. This 
is the common ending of adjectives. 

Note 4. — morwyn maiden becomes in the plural morynyon. 

Note 5. on is based on -6nes, the nom. pi. of masc. and fem. -n- stems, 

cf. Gaulish Ling6nes. The borrowed lleidr robber : lladron represents an 
older *latri (from *latrii latro) ; *latr5nes ; similarly dreic dragon : dragon, 
Seis Saxon : Saeson. 

(d) Other old consonantal plurals, e.g. car relative : carant 
(from "^carants : "^carantes = Ir. carae : carait), ci dog: cwn (from 
*kuu : *kunes), ych ox : ychen, brawt brother : broder, 
troet foot: traet, ty house : tei (an old neut.-s-stem, cf. Ir. tech : 



24 THE NOUN. [§27. 

tige). Under the influence of §27a carant became cereint, 
broder became brodyr; in the same way may be explained 
nei nepheiv : neieint, gof smM : goveint. Some neut. -n-stems 
make their plur. in -ein, e.g. enw (O.W. anu) name : enwein, 
cam sfep : cemmein ; here *-en might have been expected as 
in Ir. beim dlow : bemmen ; the change of *-en to -ein may be 
explained as above. 

28. B. The plural is formed by various suffixes, many of which 
appear in the formation of abstract nouns. 

(a) -awr, -iawr, e.g. ysgwyt shield: ysgwydawr, gwaew 
spear: gwajTwawr (also gwaewar, gwewyr), cat battle: 
cadyawr. 

Note. — This formation is mostly poetical. 

(b) -awt ( = -awd), e.g. pysc/^/^.- pyscawt, gorwyd steed: 
gorwydawt. 

(c) -et ( = -ed), e.g. merch daughter: merchet, ^ryiworm: 
pryvet. 

(d) -ed( = -ed), e.g. hysfins^^' byssed, dant tooth: danned, 
g^wreic woman : gwraged. 

(e) -eit, -ieit ( = -eid, -ieid), e.g. mil animal: mileit, barwn 
baron: barwneit, barwnyeit. 

(f) -i, e.g. llestyr vessel: Uestri, cawr giant: cewri, saer 
artificer: seiri. 

(g) -ot ( = -od), e.g. hyd stag: hyddot, llwdn beast: llydnot. 

(h) -oed ( = -oed), e.g. mor sea: moroed, ieith language: 
ieithoed. 

(i) -yd ( = -yd), e.g. avon stream: avonyd, gwlat country: 
g^ledyd, chwaer sister : chwioryd. 

29. C. Some nouns are collective, with a singular formation in 
-ynn masc, -enn fem., e.g. adar birds: ederyn a bird, calaf 
reeds : celevyn a reed, coll hazles : CoUenn a hazle, tywyS ears 
of corn : ty wysen a corn ear. 



§32.] THE ADJECTIVE. 25 

THE ADJECTIVE. 
Gender. 

30. There is a special form of the feminine only in the singular, 
and only in adjectives containing y, w, which in the feminine 
became e, o (§ 7a), e.g. gwynn white : gwen, melyn ysllow : 
melen, bychan small: bechan, brith variegated: breith, 
llwmm bare: llomm, crwnn round: cronn. 

In the singular the adjective is lenated after a feminine noun, e.g. 
gfwreic dec a beautiful woman (§ l6ba) ; in the plural there is no 
lenation. 

Note. — In the Celtic adjective there were -o- stems, -i- stems and -u- 
stems, which are distinguishable in O.Ir., e.g. tromm heavy from *trummo-s, 
cruind round from *crundi-s, and il much from *pelu-s. Only the -o- stems 
had a fem. in -a, so that only in these is the Welsh change of vowel 
etymologically justified. But in Welsh, after the loss of final syllables, the 
three classes were indistinguishable in the masculine, and the vowel- 
change in the feminine spread analogically from the -o- stems to the others, 
e.g. crwnn from *crundis formed a feminine cronn after the analogy of 
tromm : trwmm, etc. 

Formation of the Plural. 

31. The plural is formed : — 

(a) By change of vowel e.g. bychan small: bychein, ieuanc 
young: ieueinc. 

(b) By adding -on, e.g. du black: duon, gwineu bay: 
grwineuon. 

(c) By adding -yon (its usual formation), e.g. gwynn white: 
gwynnyon, melyn yellow : melynyon. 

Concord. 
Gender. 

32. In the singular the attributive adjective agrees in gender 
with its noun, e.g. gwas melyn an auburn lad, morwyn 
benngrech velen a curly-headed auburn maiden. With the 
predicative adjective agreement is also found, e.g. iin ohonunt oed 
amdrom one of them was very heavy RB. 54, 17, oed amdroch 



26 THE ADJECTIVE. [§32. 

llynges the fleet was shattered MA. I5o^ bit wenn g^ylyan the 
seagull is white FB. 247, Hem awel keen is the wind FB. 255, ys 
lledan y lenn its mantle is broad FB. 146, bolch y lauyn his 
blade is notched MA. 172*; but here the masculine form is also 
found, e.g. llym awel keen is the wind BB. 45* i, pan yw gwyrd 
Uinos when the linnet is green FB. 133, oedd bwlch llafn yn Haw 
gynnefin the blade was notched in a practised hand MA. 217^ 
guaedlyd y lein bloody is his spear MA. 184^ 

Number. 

22^' With the attributive adjective there is concord, the dual or a 
singular noun preceded by a numeral having the construction of the 
plural, e.g. danned hiryon melynyon long yellow teeth, deu 
vackwy wineuon ieueinc two auburn young lads, pedeir 
meillionen gwynnyony^^/^r white blades of clover. But there are 
many exceptions; with certain adjectives the singular is regularly 
used; such are adjectives in -awc, -awl, -eid, -ic, comparatives and 
superlatives, some other simple adjectives such as mawr great, tec 
beautiful, and compound adjectives; e.g. gwyr arvawc armed men 
(but exceptionally o vrenhined coronogyon of crowned kings 
WB. p. 90*), Uygeit hebogeid hawklike eyes, niveroed mawr 
great numbers, dyrnodeu calet-chwerw hard bitter buffets. With 
the predicative adjective there are found on the one hand, e.g. 
bychein ynt wynteu they are small RB. 60, wynteu a veynt veirw 
they would be dead Hg. I. 138, oedd beilch g^weilch heroes were 
proud MA. 2 1 7^ kertoryon neud ynt geith now poets are captive 
MA. 157^ on the other hand, e.g. cadarn oed y holl aelodau all 
his limbs were strong CM. 26, balch iawn yw dy eiryeu thy words 
are right haughty CM. 34, marw ynn they are dead MA. 164'', rud 
ynt wy they are red FB. 284, doeth y veirt his bards are learned 
MA. 262*, ys da y gampeu his feats are good MA. 237^ The 
whole subject needs a thorough investigation. 

Order. 

34. (a) In Welsh, as in the other Celtic languages, the adjective 
normally follows the noun, e.g. dyn doeth a wise man, gwreic 



§35.] THE ADJECTIVE. 27 

dec a fair woman, arveu trymyon heavy arms. In Celtic, when 
the adjective preceded, it formed a compound with the noun, e.g. 
Gaulish Cambo-dunum, which would in W. be *cam-din, 
O.Brit. Cuno-maglos lit. lofty chief =W. Cynvael, W. hen-dyn 
old man ( = Ir. sen-duine) from -^seno-dunyos, W. prif-dinas 
chief city (cf. Ir. prTm-dun chief fort), W. hen-wrach old hag, which 
would in Irish be '^sen-fracc. From this principle W. has departed 
in that, under conditions the details of which have still to be 
investigated, the inflected adjective may precede the noun, e.g. 
bolch-lauyn a cutting blade MA. 263% gwen Haw white hand 
MA. 153^ amryvaelon gerdeu various songs. 

(b) In various phrases the noun with the preposition o, a follows 
the adjective, e.g. ys drwc a gedymdeith a uuost di thou hast 
been a sorry comrade, bychan a dial oed an lloski ni our burning 
were a small revenge, ys dyhed O beth it is a straftge thing. 



The Predicative Noun and Adjective 

WITH YN. 

35. A predicative noun or adjective is often preceded by yn 
(lenating), e.g. gwedy llosci canhwyll ohonei yn oleuat idaw after she 
had lighted a candle as a light to him, mi ath roessum yn wreic y 
Uanawydan / have given thee as a wife to Manawyddan, ych gelwir 
chwi yn Grystonogyon ye are called Christians, neum goruc yn 
oludawc he has made me wealthy, a phob ty a welei yn Uawn o 
win and every house he saw full of wine, yd oed ef yn hoUiach he 
was quite well, un a welei yn amdrom one (fern.) he saw very 
heavy, paham y maent hwy yn varw o newyn why are they dead 
with hunger 1 mi a wnaf seith cant ohonawch yn ueirw / will 
make seven hundred of you dead men, an gunel in rit may He make 
us free, eu gwneuthur yn rydyon to make them free, eu clusteu yn 
gOChyon their ears red, eu harwydyon yn purwynn their 
standards pure white. The concord after the feminine and the 
plural still needs investigation. 



28 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



§36. 



Adjective Phrases. 

36. In place of a simple adjective may be found an adjectival 
phrase, e.g. gwr dirvawr y veint a man of huge size (lit. a man 
huge his size), eurwalch balch bolch y daryan a proud golden hero 
with hacked shield (lit. hacked his shield), gwreic digonach y 
thecket a woman of more perfect beauty, dyrnodeu diliessured 
eu meint mighty buffets, drwc a dyn y thygetuen a woman of 
unhappy fate (lit. ill of a woman her fate), ys drwc a wyr eu 
dihenyd vydem ni we should be men of an ill ending, pan 
yttoedynt yn digrifaf gantunt eu gware when they were most 
interested in their play, y wreic vwyhaf a garei the woman whom 
he most loved. 

Comparison. 

37. (a) The regular suffix of the comparative is -ach, of the 
superlative -haf (for the phonetic changes see § Ilg"), e.g. — 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

tec ( = teg) beautiful tegach teckaf 

tlawt ( = tlawd) poor tlodach tlottaf 

cyffelyb like cyffelybach cyffelyppaf 

Note.— In Mod. W. the consonantism of the superlative has spread to 
the comparative, e.g. teg^, tecach, tecaf. 

(b) The following are irregular : — 
agos ^ 



near 



cyfagos / 

bychan small 

da good 

drwc evil 

hawd easy 

hen old (Ir. sen) 

hir long (Ir. sir) 

ieuanc young (Ir. oac) 

isel low (Ir. Tssel) 

Uydan broad i^x. lethan) llet (Ir. letha) 

mawr great (Ir. mor) mwy (Ir. moa) 

tren strong (Ir. tren) trech (Ir. tressa) 

UChel high (Ir. uassal) uch 



nes (Ir. nessa) 

Uei (Ir. lugu) 
gwell 
gwaeth 
haws 

hyn (Ir. siniu) 
hwy (Ir. sTa) 
ieu (Ir. oa) 
is 



nesaf (Ir. nessam) 

Ueiaf (Ir. lugem) 

goreu 

gwaethaf 

hawsaf 

hynaf 

hwyaf (Ir. siam) 

ieuaf (Ir. oam) 

isaf 

llettaf 

mwyhaf (Ir. moam) 

trechaf (Ir. tressam) 

uchaf 



§40.] THE ADJECTIVE. 29 

Construction of the Comparative and Superlative. 

38. (a) The comparative is followed by no, before vowels noc 
than^ e.g. ny bu hwy no \\ywviy it was not longer than that, mwy a 
vyrywys ef y dyd hwnnw noc undyd more he threw on that day 
than on any single day. 

(b) The superlative is followed by the preposition o, e.g. y uorwyn 
deckaf onadunt the fairest maiden of them. 

(c) In sentences like the more the better the superlative is used, 
e.g. pei vwyhaf y lladei ef y march pellaf vydei hitheu y wrthaw 
ef the more he struck the horse the farther she was from him RB. 9, 1 3 ; 
goreu yw gennyf i bo kyntaf the sooner it is the better it pleases me 
RB. 12, 4. 

The Equative. 

39. The possession by two objects of a quality in the same degree 
is expressed by a derivative in -het ( = -hed) from the adjective 
preceded by cyn-, cy-, e.g. kynduhet (du) ar muchud as black 
as jet, kyngadarnet (cadarn) ac Adaf as strong as Adam, 
kyndecket (tec) a hi as fair as she, kynvelynet (melyn) ar eur 
as yellow as gold, kynehofnet (ehovyn) a hynny as fearless as that, 
kynwynnet (gwynn) ar eiry as white as snow, kygadarnet a 
brenhin as strong as a king, kyduet ar muchud as black as jet, 
kywynnet ar alaw as white as the lily. 

Note 1. — The Celtic preposition com- would in Welsh become cym-, 
cyn-, cyf-, cy- according to the following sound, and would be liable to 
various changes in connexion Avith a following consonant, e.g. com + vowel 
> cyf, com + 1- > cyfl-, com + w- > cy-, com + p-> cymh-, com + b- > cymm-, 
com + g-> cyng-, com + d-> cynn-, etc. ; there is an interesting example 
of the regular development in cythrymhet (trwmm) RB. 112, for ntr 
becomes thr. But the form cyn- with analogical lenation became the 
general form before all sounds, though for a time it had to contend with 
cy-, the form which would arise in Celtic before initial w. For a discussion 
oi the formation see Zimmer KZ. xxxiv. 161 sq., Loth Rev. Celt, xviii. 
392 sq., Stem CZ. iii. 135 sq. 

Note 2. — Equality may also be expressed bv mor — a, e.g. pryf mor 
dielv7 a hynny a creature so vile as that, am gyliafan mor anwedus ac a 
wnaethoed on account of a crime so base as he had committed. 

THE ADVERB. 

40. The adverb is regularly formed from the adjective by prefix- 
ing yn (lenating), e.g. yn vawr (mawr) greatly, yn llawen gladly, 



so THE NUMERALS. [§40. 

yn drwmm (trwmm) heavily, yn well better, yn vwyhaf most. 
But, if it precedes the verb, the adjective is used without yn, e.g. 
mynych y dywedut thou didst often say ; in the following sentence 
both forms occur : kanys mwy y karyssei ef hi nor rei ereill eiryoet. 
a hitheu yn y dremygu ynteu yn vwy nor rei ereill j^r he had always 
loved her more than the others, while she contemned him more than 
the others RB. II. 65. 

THE NUMERALS. 



41. Cardinals 


AND Ordinals. 


One^ etc. 




First, etc. 


i. un 




cyntaf 


ii. deu, f. dwy 




eil 


iii. tri, f. teir 




trydyd, f. tryded 


iv. petwar, pedwar, f. 


pedeir petwyryd, petweryd, f. pet- 






wared ; also pedwyryd, etc. 


V. pump 




pyinhet 


vi. chwech, chwe 




chwechet 


vii. seith 




seithvet 


viii. wyth 




wythvet 


ix. naw 




nawvet 


X. dec, deng 




degvet 


xi. un ar dec 




unvet ar dec 


xii. deudec 




deudegvet 


xiii. tri, f. teir, ar dec 




trydyd, f. tryded, ar dec 



xiv. petwar, pedwar, f. pedeir, petwyryd, etc., f. petwared, 
ar dec etc., ar dec 

XV. pymthec, pymtheng pymthegvet 

xvi. un ar bymthec unvet ar bymthec 

xvii. deu, f. dwy, ar bymthec eil ar bymthec 

xviii. tri, f. teir, ar bymthec trydyd, f. tryded, ar bymthec 

xix. petwar, pedwar, f. pedeir, petwyryd, etc., f. petwared, 
ar bymthec, un eisieu etc., ar bymthec 
o ugein 

XX. ugeint, ugein ugeinvet 

Note.— The form deng is found only before nouns beginning with 
certain sounds, cf. Rev. Celt. XXVIII. 201. 



§42.] THE NUMERALS. 31 

xxi.-xcix. In O.W. trimuceint is found for thirty. The 
usual reckoning, however, is by multiples of twenty : — deug"ein(t) 
(O.W. douceint) forty, deugeintvet fortieth^ trugein(t) sixty, 
trugeinvet sixtieth, petwarugein(t) eighty, petwarugeinvet 
eightieth. The intermediate numbers are expressed by addition^ e.g. 
un ar hugein(t) twenty-one, dec erydyr ar hugeint thirty ploughs, 
deudec brenhin ar hugeint thirty-two kings, deng mlyned 
a deugeintf/ty years, deudeng mlyned a thrugeint seventy- 
two years, petwyryd ar Ugeint twenty-fourth. This reckoning 
may extend beyond a hundred, e.g. pedeir gwlat a seith ugeint 
one hundred and forty -four countries. 

C.-CCiDD. Cant hundred, can vet hundredth. From this the other 
hundreds are formed by prefixing the cardinals: — deucant or deu- 
gant,trichant, petwarcant, pumcant, chwechant, seithcant, 
wythcant, nawcant. Mil thousand, dwy vil = /z£/^ thousand, 
etc. Un vlwydyn ar bymthec ar hugeint a deucant = 2jd 
years; chwech marchawc a thrugeint a phu meant =5(5(5 
horsemen; deudeng mlyned a thrugeint ac wythcant = ^72 
years ; deg mlyned a phetwar ugein a chant a mil = ik^o 
years. CCiOD. myrd myriad. 

Syntax of the Cardinals and Ordinals. 

42. (a) After deu, dwy, the singular (i.e. historically the dual 
§ 25) form is regularly used ; but there are exceptions, e.g. deu 
ychen two oxen (where, however, the form might be dual), dwy 
chwiored two sisters LA. 39, RB. II. 39, dwy burloywduon 
hirueinon aeleu two brilliant black loitg slender eyebrows (by dwy 
ael) LA.93, deu rudellyon lygeit tworuddyeyes ib., deu perffeith- 
loyw gochyon rudyeu two perfect brilliant red cheeks ib., deu 
nyeint two nephews RB. II. 69, dwy wraged two wives ib. 239 
dwy vlyned two years ib. 240. As to the higher numbers the general 
rule is that, if there be a plural with internal vowel change (§ 27a), 
the plural is used, e.g. tri meib three sons, but otherwise the noun is 
in the singular, e.g. teir ynys three islands (pi. ynysed), petwar 
marchawc /^^^z- horsemen (pi. marchog^TOn). There are, however. 



32 THE NUMERALS. [§42. 

exceptions, e.g. teir chwioryd three sisters^ pump gwraged 

five 7V07tien, trychant tei three hundred houses ; so very often with 
dyd day pi. dieu, and blwydyn year pi. blyned. Compare the 
exceptions after deu above. Another mode of expression is, e.g. 
tri chawr O gewri three giants, lit. three giants of giants. 

(b) The ordinals precede the noun, e.g. y betwared vlwydyn 
the fourth year. But cyntaf usually follows, e.g. y marchawc 
kyntaf the first horseman ; sometimes, however, it precedes, e.g. 
kyntaw geir a dywedaw the first ivord that I will say BB. 41^ i. 
The ordinal may denote not the order in a series, but, as also in Irish, 
one of a certain number, e.g. odena y kerdus er tir a naw kedem- 
deith ganthav, ar nauvet a las ar hynt thence he came to land 
with nine comrades, and one of the nine was slain at once Arch. 
Cambr. 1866 p. 114, y trydy gwr a dienghis o Gamlan one of the 
three men who escaped from Camlan WB. 463; e tredyt anhebchor 
one of the three indispensables BCh. 8. 

Distributives. 

43. These are expressed by prefixing pob every to the cardinal, 
e.g. eu bwrw pob dec pob deudec throwing them by tens and 
twelves Hg. II. 160, gwin y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin Guy a 
sirth y chegev pop vn pop dvy happy the birch in the valley of the 

Wye, whose branches fall by twos and threes BB. 24*. 

MULTIPLICATIVES. 

44. These are expressed by gweith f. preceded by the cardinal, 
e.g. unweith once, dwy weith twice, teir gweith thrice, pedeir 
gweith/^^/r times etc. 

THE PRONOUN. 

Personal Pronouns. 

The Independent Pronoun. 

45. Independent pronouns fall into three sub-divisions, (a) the 
simple pronoun, (b) the emphatic pronoun, (c) the conjunctive 
or contrasting pronoun (/ also, I on my party I on the other hand^ 



§46. 



THE PRONOUN 



33 



etc.) When attached to a verb as its subject the pronouns are 
liable to weakening, e.g. vi, i for mi, di for ti, ditheu for titheu. 
Classes (a) and (c) are used also to reinforce an infixed pronoun 
(§49a), a pronominal preposition (§52), or a possessive pronoun (§56), 
or possessive adjective (§ 58) ; then, too, they are liable to the same 
reduction (§ 17a). 



(b) Emphatic. 

mivi, myvi, myvy, 

vivi, vyvi. 
nini, nyny. 
tidi, tydi, dydi, 

dydy. 
chwichwi. v^ 
efo. 
hihi. 
(h)wyntwy. 



(c) Conjunctive. 

minheu,minneu, 

inneu. 
ninheu, ninneu. 
titheu, ditheu. 

chwitheu. 
ynteu. 
hitheu. 
(h)wynteu. 



(a) Simple. 
/, me mi, vi, vy, i, y. 

IVe, us ni, ny. 

TAy, thee ti, di, dy, de. 

Ye^ you chwi. 

He, him ef (O.W. em). 

She, her hi, hy. 

They, them (h)wy, 

(h)wynt. 

Note 1. — In chwi the w may be omitted after w in the verb, e.g. ewchi 
go ye, dowchi come ye. 

Note 2. — wy is the earlier form, which became vvynt under the influence 
of the ending -nt of the 3 plur. of the verb, just as O.Ir. e they became in 
Mid.Ir. iat. In Mid.W. wynt is particularly used when it precedes the 
verb, e.g. -wynt a welynt they saw, but y gwelynt wy; this, however, is a 
later distinction, in earlier Welsh wy is used everywhere, e.g. wy 
g^naethant they did, wy ladassant they slew. 

46. The independent pronouns are used as the subject of a 
sentence, as the object of a sentence, where, however, they enter 
into concurrence with the infixed pronoun (§ 48), (which, to judge 
from Irish, was the original method of expressing the object), after 
prepositions which did not enter into a unity with the pronoun 
(§ 52)) and after some conjunctions. The following examples will 
illustrate the usage : — 

(a) mi a wnaf / will do ; pan y gweleis i ef when I saw him ; 
nyt yspeilwys ynteu vi he did not strip me ; a rithwys Duw cyn no 
mi whom God created before me\ ti a wely thou wilt see ; a wely di 
dost thou see ? kymer dy bun ef tahe it thyself; nyt oes seith cantref 



34 THE PRONOUN. [§46. 

well noc wy they are not seven cantreds better than they ; gyt ac 
Wynt along with them. 

(b) kynt y kyuarchawd ef well y mi no miui idaw ef he greeted 
me before I greeted him ; pa le y keisswn i dydi ? pan geissych di 
vyvi, keis parth ar India "where should I seek theeV " When thou 
seekest me, seek towards India " ; gofyn a oruc idi ae hihi oed yn 
peri hynny he asked her if it was she who was causing that. 

(c) Mivi a rodaf vyg cret, heb hi, na charaf i dydi ac nath vynnaf 
yn dragywydawl. minneu a rodaf vyg cret, heb y Peredur, na 
dywedaf ynneu eir byth wrth Gristiawn yny adewych ditheu amat 
vyg caru i yn vwyhaf gwr ^^ I pledge my faith^^^ said she, ''^ that I do 
not love thee and that I will not desire thee to all eternity T "7) on^ 
my part ^'^ said Peredur^ '■'■pledge my faith that I will never speak a 
word to Christian soul, until thou shall confess that thou lovest me 
more than any man ;" ac yn keissaw bwrw y gelein ar y march yn y 
kyfrwy, y dygwydei ynteu yr llawr ac y dodei hitheu diaspat and 
as she sought to cast the corpse on the horse into the saddle, it kept 
falling to the grou7id, and she raised a cry. 

Note. — ynteu etc., is also used before a proper name, e.g. y wybot dy 
atteb di am hynny y deuthum i. Rof i a Duw, heb ynteu Bwyll, llyna 
vy atteb i ytti, "/ have come to learn thy answer about that." 
^'Between God and me,'" said Pwyll, '■'■here is thy ansiver" RB. 11. cf. 
RB. 25, 65, 77, 79, 81, etc., wynteu y Galissyeit CM. 1 ; before a common 
noun, e.g. sef a wnaeth ynteu yr eryr this the eagle did RB. 78, a hitheu 
wreic Teirnon a gytsynny wys and the wife of Teirnon agreed RB. 22 ; after 
a proper name, e.g. Troilus ynteu lleiaf mab y Briaf oed herwyd oet Troilus 
was Priam's youngest son RB. II. 7, so RB. 14, II. 8, 9, 14, 22, Castor a 
Pholux wynteu a aethant Castor and Pollux went RB. II. 9, y Telepus 
ynteu RB. II. 17 ; after a common noun, e.g. a gvoyr Troea wynteu a 
ymhoelassant and the men of Troy on their part returned RB. II. 20 ; and 
m instances like: y geJwit hi Lundein neu ynteu Lwndrys it was called 
Llundein or Lwndrys RB. 93, neu ynteu ony edy hynny udunt or again 
if you do not allow them that RB. II. 44. Cf. Mod.W. ynte. 

47. Issem, ysef, sef. In O.W. the pron. em is used with iss, 
is is in phrases Hke issem i anu that is his name. From issem 
comes in Mid.W. ysef, sef, e.g. ysef a rodaf inneu this is what I 
will give; sef, gwreic a vynnawd Kicua that was the wife he desired, 
Kigfa ; ssef a gafas yn y chyghor fo y ynyalwch this is what she 
resolved upon, to flee into a wilderness ; sef y kyrchassant y dref 
uchaf o Arllechwed they made for the highest town of Arllechivedd \ 



§49.] THE PRONOUN. 35 

arglwyd, heb ynteu, minneu a allaf dy rydhau ditheu. sef ual y 
gallaf ^'"Lord" said he, "/ can free. thee. This is how I can do iff 
SSef y gwelynt varchawc then they saw a horseman. In a similar 
way ef is used by itself, e.g. pan dyuu y thymp idi, ef a dyuu y 
hiawnbwyll idi when her time of labour came, then her right senses 
came to her. 

48. Infixed Pronoun. 

Sing. Plur. 

1. me -m- us -n- 

2. thee -th- you -ch- 

3. him, her, it -S-, -C- them -S-, -e- 

Remarks. 

49. (a) The infixed pronoun may be strengthened by putting 
the corresponding simple or conjunctive pronoun after the verb, 
e.g. a thydi am gwely i and thou shalt see me, euo ath gud ditheu 
he will hide thee. 

(b) In the third person -e- is used after the relative particle a, 
e.g. mi ae gwelaf /i-^^ Mm, and after the conjunction tra, e.g. trae 
llathei pob tri while he slew tjiem_ by threes BB. 48% mi ae kynhalyaf 
hyt trae gallwyf / shall maintain it as long as I can Hg. I, 4 -, 
elsewhere -s- is used. After the verbal particle yd-, however^ if 
the verb begins with a consonant, there is no visible pronoun of 
the third person, e.g. y gwelaf /^^^ her RB. 278, 6; a phan i gweles 
meibion CoUwyn and when the sons of Collwyn saw him MA. 729*; 
if the verb begins with a vowel yh appears, e.g. y hanuones sent it 
WB. 104, y hedewynt they left them WB. 186 ; similarly after yny 
until, e.g. ny dygaf i un daryan yny hanuono Duw im I shall not 
bear any shield till God send it to me Hg. I. 15. After pan when 
the infixed pronoun is regularly preceded by y-, e.g. pan yth 
wnaethpwyt ti whe7i thou wast made; in the third person it is 
pan y(h), e.g. panny harcho udunt when he asks it of them LA. 56. 

(c) In early poetry in connexion with ny and ry there are in the 
third person special forms, nwy, nyw, rwy, ryw, used when the 
A^erb is relative, e.g. ir nep nuy hatnappo to ofie who does not 



Z6 THE PRONOUN. [§49. 

recognise it BB. 4^, nyt kerdaur nyu moluy he is not a poet who does 
7iot praise him MA. I74^ y ren rwy digonsei the King who had 
made them FB. 138. In non-relative usage the infixed pron. after 
ny is -S-, the form of the non-relative infixed pronoun after ry I 
have not been able to establish. 

Note. — The infixed pronoun may, as in Irish, anticipate a following 
object, e.g. ai torro hac ay dimanuo y bryeint hunn who shall violate and 
diminish this privilege, ay enrydedocao y breint hunn who shall respect this 
privilege Lib. Land. 121, y harchwn ni dy drugared we ask thy mercy RB. 
II. 44. 

50. The infixed pronoun follows : — 

(a) The relative particle a, e.g. mynn y gwr a-n gwnaeth by Him 
who made us, Duw a-ch nodho may God protect you, mi a-e harhoaf 
/ will await Mm, her, it, or them, a-e lladawd ef who killed him, 
y niver a-e gwelei wynt the multitude that saw them. 

(b) The verbal particle yd, e.g. y-m gelwir / am called, jrwch 
kymhellasant they have compelled you. 

(c) The infixing particle a- (§ 94), e.g. a-m bo may there be to me, 
a-th volaf I will praise thee, a-S rodwy trindawt trugared may the 
Trinity give him mercy, gwedi a-n gwelwch after ye see us, 
pei a-S archut if thou hadst asked it, kyt a-m llatho though he 
should slay me. So when this a- has been replaced by y-, e.g. 
y-S rodho Duw ymi may God give it me LA. 121. 

(d) The verbal particle ry- in the earlier language, e.g. ry-m 
goruc he has made me. But in later Mid.W. the pronoun is infixed 
before ry- by means of yd-, e.g. y-th ry gereis I have loved thee, 

(e) The particle neil-, e.g. neu-m goruc he has made me MA. 
141% neu-S cud hides // FB. 272. 

(f) Sometimes in early poetry dy- of compound verbs, e.g. 
dy-m ryd gives me. 

(g") The negatives, e.g. ny-m oes there is not to me, ny-S gweleis 

I have not seen him, her, it, or them, cany-ch gwelas neb sifice no 

one has seen you ; na-m gommed do not refuse me, mi a debygaf 

na-ch rydhawyt I think that you have not been freed. 

Note. — In later Mid.W. nys seems sometimes to be used merely in a 
relative sense, e.g. yn y wlat ny-s ry welsei in the country that he had not 
seen.RB. 114, 13 = yn y wlad ny ry welei WB. 471. This usage may have 



§52.] THE PRONOUN. 37 



developed from cases where the nominative stands at the head of the 
sentence introducing it (§ 26), e.g. amheu yr hynn a dywedwch chwi ny-s 
gwnaf i lit. doubting of what you say I will not do it. A meaningless -s-, 
however, is found when the verb is non-relative, e.g. nys gohiryassant 
they did not delay RB. II. 48. 

(h) Certain conjunctions : — tra-e Uathei while he slew them BB. 
48*, yny-m byrywyt i //// I was thrown RB. 169, o-S lledy if thou 
slayest him Hg. I. 368. Some conjunctions are followed by the 
infixing a, see above (c). 

51. The infixed pronoun commonly expresses the accusative 
relation. With the verb ' to be,' however, it regularly expresses its 
dative relation, e.g., am bo may there he to me, may f have^ vn tat 
ae bu one father they had ; it may further express the dative relation 
with other verbs, e.g. y perffeith garyat hwnnw an rodho yr yspryt 
glan may the Holy Spirit give us that perfect love LA. 103, an 
gunel iechid may He work salvation for us BB. 2o^ 

Pronoun with Preposition. 

52. In Welsh as in Irish the pronoun is regularly fused together 
with the preposition. After ac with and gwedy after, however, 
the pronoun follows separately, e.g. a mi with thee, gwedy ni after 
us ; the explanation seems to be that the usage of these words as 
prepositions is secondary. With respect to the formation, the 
following points may be noted. 

(a) In the first and second persons (except after y to) there is an 
intervening vowel a, O (aw), or y (and in 2 pi. also w), so that in 
these persons there are the following series : — 

Sing. Plur. 

1. -af, -of, -yf -am, -om, -ym 

2. -at, -ot, -yt -awch, -och, -wch, -ych 

(b) In the 3 sg. masc. the ending is -aw, in the 3 sg. fern, -i 
(infecting a preceding vowel) and -ei, e.g. oheni and ohonei ; 
sometimes the infected vowel spreads analogically, e.g. 3 pi. 
ohenynt. In the 3 pi. the oldest ending was -u, whence 
developed later -ud (i.e. -ud), -unt, -ynt. In the third persons 
-aw, -u, etc., are commonly preceded by a dental. 



38 



THE PRONOUN. 



§52. 



(c) In the I sg. and 3 pi. there are also endings -wyf, -wynt. 

(d) After the prepositions ar, O, am are inserted respectively 
-n-, -hon-, -dan- (i.e. the prep, tan under). In the 3 pi. there are 
certain other insertions. 

53. The forms assumed by the pronouns in connection with the 
several prepositions will be seen from the following table : — 



Sing. 

am about I. amdanaf, ymdanaf 
2. ymdanat 
3m. amdanaw, ymdanaw 
3f. ymdeni, amdanei, 
ymdanei 



Plur. 

amdanam 

amdanawch 

amdanunt, ymdanunt, 
amdanadunt, ym- 
danadud, ymdana- 
dunt, amdanwynt 



ar on 



attfo 



can, gan 

with 



heb 

without 



I. 


arnaf 


arnam 


2. 


arnat 


arnawch, arnoch 


3m 


. arnaw ] 


arnunt, arnynt, ar- 


3f- 


arnei, arni, erni J 


nadud, arnadunt 


I. 


attaf 


attam 


2. 


attat 


attawch 


3m 
3f. 


attaw 1 
attei, etti J 


attunt, attadunt 


I. 


genhyf, gennyf 


genhym, gennym 


2. 


genhyt, gennyt 


genhwch, gennwch 



3m. gantaw, ganthaw,^ 

gentaw \ 

3f. genti, genthi / 

1. hebof 

2. hebot 

3m. hebdaw | 
3f. hebdi J 



gantunt, ganthu, 
ganthud, ganthunt 



hebdunt 



is below 3f. adisti 



§53 



nem except 

of 
Q from 



THE PRONOUN, 

Sing. 



39 



Plur. 



1. ohonaf, ohanaf, 

ohonof 

2. ohonat, ohonawt, 

ohonot 
3m. ohonaw 
3f. oheni, ohoni, ohonei, 

ohanei, ohenei 



rac before 



1. ragof 

2. ragot 

3m. racdaw, rogdaw 
3f. recdi, racdi, rocdi, 
rygthi 
ro between i. yrof 
2. yrot 
3m. yrydaw I 
3f. yrydi J 



rwng be- 
tween 



I. 

2. ryngot 

3m. ryngtaw, ryng^thaw, 

ygrythaw 
3f. ryngthi 



nemoch 
ohonam, ohonom 

ohonawch 



ohonu, ohonunt, 
ohenynt, onadu, 
onadunt 

ragom, rogom 
ragawch, ragoch 

I racdu, racdunt, 
j rocdunt 

yrom 
yryoch, yroch 

yrydunt 

jV-f.-^.t'TA.H.vy"""" 

yrynghom 
ryngoch 

[ryngdunt, ryngtunt, 
j ryngthunt, ryndynt 



Note. — In O.W. there is also a 3 pi. igridu Lib. Land. XLIII, 1. 9, and in 
poetry from cyfrwng a 3 pi. cyfryngthud. 



tan, dan i. adanaf 
under 3m. ydanaw, adantaw 
3f. deni, adanei 

tros over I. trossof 
2. trossot 
3m. trostawl 
3f. trosti j 

Usually with initial d, drossof etc. 



ydanam 

adanunt, ydanunt, 
adanadunt 

trossom 
trossawch, trossoch 

trostud, trosdunt 



40 


THE PRONOUN. [§5^ 


trwy 

through 


Sing. 

1. trwydof 

2. trwydot 
3m. trwydawl 
3f. trwydi J 


Plur 

trwydunt 


UCh above 


I. 

3m. od3mchtaw\ 

3f. oduchti J 


uchom 


wrth 

towards 


1. wrthyf 

2. wrthyt 
3m. wrthaw -k 
3f. wrthi / 


wrthym 

wrthych, wrthywch 

wrthu, wrthunt 


y(O.W.di)i. im 
to 2. itt 

3m. idaw \ 
3f. idi / 


in 
ywch 

udu, udud, udunt 


ynin 


1 . ynof 

2. ynot 

3m. yndaw \ 
3f. yndi ^ 


ynoch 
yndunt 


yrfor 


1. yrof 

2. yrot 
3m. yrdaw 


erom 
yroch 
yrdunt, erdunt 



54. The above forms may be strengthened by the addition of the 
simple or the conjunctive pronouns, e.g. arnaf i, gennym ni, itti, 
ohonawch chwi, idaw ef, erni hi, udunt hwy ; yrof injifi.u, 
attat titheu, gennwch chwitheu, ohonei hitheu, attunt 
wynteu. 

55. Possessive Pronouns. 



1. mine meu 

2. thine teu 

3. his eidaw 
hers eidi 



ours emom, emym 
yours einwch, einjrwch 
theirs eidud, eidunt 



§56.] THE PRONOUN. 41 

56. They are used (a) alone, (b) preceded by the article, 
(c) preceded by a possessive adjective, (d) after a noun, which 
may be preceded by a possessive adjective. They may be 
strengthened by a following personal pronoun. The following 
examples will illustrate the usage : — 

(a) y sawl a uo meu all that are mine ; ny bo teu dy benn may 
not thy head be thine, milwriaeth kymeint ac a oed eidunt all the 
valour that was theirs, y rei a oed eidaw ef those that were his, 
nyt yttoed y Hew yn deu ytti the lion was not thine Hg. I. 63, 
nyt oes petrus genyf gaffel holl Freinc yn einym / have no doubt 
that we should get all France as ours RB. II. 116. 

(b) neb un mor wedus cledyf ar y ystlys ar meu i none whose 
sword on his side is so becoming as mine ; y mae y meu i y lie 
hwnn this place is mine; ath gedymdeithas yssyd adolwyn gennyf 
y gaffel. keffy, myn vyg cret, a dyro ditheu y teu, " and I would 
pray to have thy friendship. ^^ ''''Thou shall have it, by my faith, and 
give me thine ;" deu parth vy oet a deu parth y teu ditheu two- 
thirds of my life and two-thirds of thine; dwc uendith Duw 
ar einym gennyt take with thee God's blessing and ours ; ef a daw 
y dwyn yr einwch he will come to carry off your property ; py darpar 
yw yr einywchi yna what preparation is that of yours there'i nyt 
oed olwc degach nor eidi there was no aspect fairer than hers. 

(c) pa vedwl yw dy teu ti what purpose is thine? mivi a dodaf 
vyg korff yn erbyn y eidaw / will set my body against his. 

(d) ar dy drugeinuet or rei teu ditheu with sixty of your men 
CM. 8; o rei eidaw ei of his LA.; or petheu einym nynhev of 
our things LA. 164; dy ymadrawd teu di thy speech Hg. II. i. 



57. Possessive Adjectives. 

a b a b 

1. wy vy,vyn (before explosives) 'm our an, yn 'n 

2. thy dy 'th your ach, ych, awch 'ch 

3. his y 'e, 'y their eu, y 'e, 'y 
her y 'e, 'y 



42 THE PRONOUN. [§58. 

Remarks. 

58. (a) The b forms occur in fusion with a preceding preposition 
or conjunction. Such forms in the 2 pi. seem to be comparatively 
rare, e.g. ych plith in your midst by yn ych plith LA., etc. 
ach rydit and your freedom RB. II. 189; more usually yn awch 
medyant chwi in your power RB. II. 50. 

(b) With the prep, y in the third persons there is a variety of 
forms : y, /w, eu, oe, oc eu. 

(c) The possessives may be strengthened by the addition of a 
simple or conjunctive pronoun after the noun. 

59. Examples ; (a) vy arveu my arms, vy nyuot (dyvot) my 
coming, an meirch ninneu our horses, dy benn thy head, awch 
cledyveu your swords, y wreic ef his wife, y phenn her head, 
eu hieith their tongue. 

\<^^rt^\ (b) ym tat to my father, ^.m. arveu and my arms, yn porthi 
tli supporting us (lit. ou.r supporting), ath teulu with thy 
household, ach rydit and your freedom, ydys ych gwahawd 
you are invited, jrwch didanu to comfort you, och pechodeu 
from your sins, ae waet ynteu and Ms blood, y ( = yw WB.) letty 
to his lodging RB. 284, ae ueirch yw y rei hynn and these are his 
horses RB. 28, o^ chladu to bury her, y cheissaw to seek her, 
oe hanvod against her will, oe harveu/r^w their arms, y kestyll 
to their fortresses, oe gwlatoed to their countries, OC eu porthi to 
support them. 

Note. — Sometimes, as in Irish, the possessive seems to anticipate a 
following genitive, e.g. yn y geissaw ynteu Peredur seeking for Fe-redur 
WB. 140, y hwyneb hitheu Riannon the face of Eiannon RB. 18, 27, am y 
mynwgyl (without y RB. 117, 19) y uorwyn about the neck of the maiden 
WB. 475. 

Self. 

60. This is expressed by sg. hun, hunan, pi. hun, hunein 
added to personal pronouns or to possessive pronouns or adjectives, 
e.g. my hun, myvy vy hun / myself, ohonaf vy hun by me 
myself ym vy hunan to me myself, yyiTLpenn vy hun my own head, 
arnom ny hunein upon us ourselves-, dy hun thou thyself yth 



§62.] THE PRONOUN. 43 

person dy hunan in thy own person-, or tat ehunan from the 
father himself ny digawn ehunan he is not able himself ef ae 
byryawd ehun he cast himself idaw ehun to himself \ hi ehunan 
she herself ohonei ehunan by her herself; wynt ehun they 
themselves^ yr etholedigyon ehunein the elect themselves, yrydunt 
ehun WB. 2 1 1 = yryngtunt ehunein RB. 2^] 2, between them- 
selves, yn eu cnawt ehun in their own flesh, yn eu rith ehunein 
into their own form. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 



Plur. 



61. hwnn this, hwnnw that. 


n 

Sing. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


M. hwnn 


^ 


hwnnw 


F. honn 


hynn 


honno 


N. hynn 


^ 


hynny 



hynny 



62. These pronouns are used : — 

(a) absolutely, e.g. beth yw hwnn ? heb y Peredur wrth y 
kyfrwy. kyfrwy yw, heb yr Owein ^'' What is this V^ said Peredur, 
with reference to the saddle. ^^It is a saddle,''^ said Owein', Peredur 
oed y enw, a ieuhaf oed hwnnw Peredur ivas his name and he 
was youngest; yna y kymerth ynteu yr hutlath. camma di dros 
honn, heb ef then he took the magic wand. " Step over this^' said 
he ; yn ol honno y kerdwys ef he went after her ; a hyn a dy wedaf 
ytti and this I will tell thee ; mi a wnaf na chaffo ef viui vyth. pa 
ffuryf vyd hynny? heb j Pwyll '■^ I will effect that he shall never get 
me'' '•''How will that beV said Pwyll; yn ol hynny after that. 

(b) After a substantive preceded by the article, e.g. ger Haw auon 
a el wit yn yr amser hwnnw Sabrina, yn yr amser hwnn y 
gelwir hitheu Hafren, beside a river that was called at that time 
Sabrina, at this time it is called Severn ; yn yr ynys honn in this 
island; y nos honno thatni^ht; yr anniveileit hynn these animals; 
yr enweu hynny those names. Similarly in the plural with rei, 
e.g. pa ryw aniveileit yw y rei_ hynny? what kind of animals 
are those ? 



44 THE PRONOUN. [§62. 

(c) Preceded by the article, e.g. dywet, heb y Gereint, py fford 
oreu inni gerdet or dwy hyn. Goreu itt gerdet hon, heb ef, ot 
ey yr hon issot ny deuy trachefyn vyth " Tell,"' said Gereint^ 
^'"ivhich of these two roads is best to travel ^ ^^ It is best for thee to 
travel by this one" said he; ^Hf thou travel by the lower one^ thou 
wilt never come back." It may be followed by a genitive, e.g. Heuel 
ar doytbyon .... a ossodassant eu hemendyth ar honn Kemry 
holl Howell and the wise men set their curse and that of all the 
Welsh BCh. i. In particular yr hwnn, etc., is frequently followed by 
a relative clause, e.g. bei dywetut ti y peth a ovynnaf ytti, minneu a 
dywedwn yr hynn a ovynny ditheu if thou wouldst tell the thing 
that I desire of thee, I would tell that which thou desirest', ef a vennyc 
fford itti ual y keffych yr hynn a geissy he will show thee a road so 
that thou mayest obtain what thou seekest ; pwy bynnac ... a drem- 
yckont dysgu yr hynn a dylyynt y wneuthur whoever despise learn- 
ing what they ought to do ; Bryttaen oreu or ynyssed yr hon a elwit 
gynt y wen ynys Britain, the best of the islands, whij^h was formerly 
called the White Isle ; yr heul yn yr hwnn y mae tri pheth the sun 
in which are three things. In this usage the plural is y rei, e.g. 
gwraged oil eithyr y rei oed yn gwassanaethu all the women except 
such as were serving; gweirglodyeu . . . yn y rei y maent ffynhoneu 
gloew eglur or rei y kerdant ffrydeu meadows in which are clear 
bright springs, from which issue streams. This device for expressing 
an inflected relative is particularly common in the translation 
literature. 



Article + Substantive + Adverb. 

63. Some adverbs have a demonstrative force along with a 
substantive preceded by the article, e.g. deu ychen, y lleill yssyd or 
parth hwnt yr mynyd ar Hall or parth yma two oxen, one of them 
is on yonder side of the mountain, the other on this side; beth yw 
y rei racko ? what are those j^mder^ att y vorwyn draw to the 
maiden yonder. 



§68.] THE PRONOUN. 45 



Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives. 

64. neb ( = Ir. nech) some one is used : — 

(a) Substantivally, e.g. a weleist di neb hast thou seen any one? 
nyt adwaeney neb efo no one recognised him. 

(b) With the article before a relative clause, e.g. ediuar uyd yr 
neb ae wnaeth whoever has done it will repent it ; ny chigleu i dim 
or neb a ouynnwch chwi / have heard nothing of him of whom you 
ask RB. 129. 

(c) Adjectivally, e.g. gwell yw dedyf Cristonogaeth no neb dedyf 
or byt the law of Christendom is better than any law in the world. 

65. pawb ( = Ir. each) every one is used substantively, e.g. sef a 
orugant pawb or teulu that is tvhat each one of the household did ; 
Peredur a rodes y bawp gystal ae gilyd Peredur gave to every one as 
much as to the other. 

66. pob (the unaccented form of pawb, = Ir. each, cech) is used 
adjectivally, e.g. pob peth every thing. Pob is also used with un 
one, e.g. pob un onadunt every one of them ; the plural is pob rei, 
e.g. a phob rei ohonunt o bop parth a gladassant y rei meirw and 
both sides buried the dead RB. II. 30. 

67. oil a//, e.g. y deulu oil all his household', gwraged oil all the 
women ; cewri ynt oil they are all giants. Before a noun is found 
holl, e.g. yr hoU gwn all the dogs. In composition with numerals 
there appear ell, ill, yll e.g. ell deu, ill deu, yll deu both) ell 
pedwar, yll pedwar all four. 

Note. — A compound hollre is found, e.g. y rolre seint all the saints 
BE. 36^, yn holre oludoed in all manner of wealth LA. 165, hollre 
genedyl anifeileit every kind of animals LA. 166. 

68. arall another, pi. ereill, is used : — 

(a) Substantivally, e.g. kymer ef a dyro y arall take it and give it 
to another \ da arall the goods of another ; penneu rei a dygynt, 
llygeit ereill, a chlusteu ereill, a breicheu ereill they took away the 
heads of some, the eyes of others, and the ears of others, and the arms 
of others. 

(b) Adjectivally, e.g. marchawc arall another horseman; y 



46 THE PRONOUN. [§68. 

g^meint arall as much again ; arveu gwell nor rei ereill arms 
better than the others. 

69. neill one of two^ e.g. y neill or llewot one of the two lions ; y 
gwydyat vot yndaw y neill ae gwr ae gwreic he knew that there was 
in it either a man or a woman Hg. I. 54; ar y neill law y gwr oed 
Peredur yn eisted Peredur was seated on one hand of the man ; pob 
un ar neilltu each one separately. 

70. y Hall the other ^ pi. y lleill, e.g. y kymerth Peredur banner y 
bwyt idaw ehun ac adaw y Hall yr vorwyn Peredur took half of the 
food to himself and left the other to the maiden ; ar vn y bydei borth 
ef idaw a goUei y gware, ar Hall a dodei awr and the one whom he 
was helping lost the game, and the other raised a shout ; pabam na 
chadarnnhawyt y lleill velle why were not the others thus strengthened? 
LA. 8 ; cwymp y lleill the fall of the others LA. 8 ; y daw y Hall 
his other son-in-law, an brodyr y lleill our other brethren LA. 

71. y neill, y lleill, — y Hall the one — the other, e.g. y neill 
ohonunt yn was gwineu ar Hall yn was melyn one of them an auburn 
lad, the other a yellow lad', yn y orffei y lleill ar y Hall till the one 
overcame the other. With a substantive arall is used in place of 
Hall, e.g. or neill tu — or tu arall on the one side — on the other side. 

72. y g"ilyd is used for the other in expressions like : — dyrnodeu 
calet a rodei bawp onadunt y g"ilyd each of them gave hard buffets 
to the other; yn un or teir person noe gilyd in one of the three 

persons than in another; or mor pwy ^\[y^ from sea to sea ; corph 
ni glivit pa leueir y g"ilit body, who hearest not what thy fellow says 
BB. Io^ 

Note. — y gilyd ( = Ir. a chele) means literally his fellow, but, as in 
Irish, the phrase has become petrified in this form, and is used without 
respect to gender, number, or person. 

Substantives in a Pronominal Function. 

73. dim thing, e.g. kymer gret y mackwy na dywetto dim or a 
welas ymdin pledge the youth that he ivill not tell aught of what he has 
seen here ; heb allel gwneuthur dim lies without beiftg able to do 
any good. 



§79.] THE PRONOUN. 47 

74. peth m. things e.g. kymmer dy varch nu a pheth oth arueu 
take thou thy horse then and some of thy arms ; onyt ef a wyr peth 
or hynn un/ess he knows something of this. 

75. rei, e.g. rei onadunt some of them, rei drut rei mut some 
bold, some dumb FB. 164, cf. § 62 (c). 

76. rjTW m, kind, e.g. pa ryw chwedleu yssyd germyt what kind 
of news hast thou ? na allei neb ryw dyn marwawl datkanu so 
that no mortal man could proclaim; ymlad ar ryw dyn hwnnw to 

fight such a man as that RB. II. 182; gwelet y ryw gatwent 
honno to see such a fight as that ib. 58; drwy y ryw edewidyon 
twyllodrus hynny through such false promises as those ib. 104. 
Similarly cyvryw, e.g. yr kyfryw wr hwnnw to a man of such a 
kind ib. 65. 

Note. — Observe that in expressions like y ryw dyn hwnnw the 
pronoun is attracted in gender and number to the noun preceding. Cf . 
the similar attraction with sawl below. 

77. sawl f. multitude and meint greatness, e.g. yr sawl a 
dihagassei oe wyr yn vy w to those of his men who had escaped alive ; 
yr honn (sc. breich) a ladawd y sawl gewri which slew so many 
giants ; by sawl nef ysyd how many heavens are there ? y sawl 
nifer hwnnw such a number as that RB. II. 139; y SSawl 
vlwynyded hynny s^ manj/ jears as that ib. 44; colli y meint 
gwyr a oed idaw to lose all the men that he had ib. 46; blyghau a 
oruc Goronilla rac meint oed o varchogyon gyt ae that Goronilla 
became angry because there were so ma7iy soldiers with her father 
ib. 66; ymerbynyeit ar ueint allu hwnnw to encounter such a 
force as that ib. 348; yn y veint perig"yl honno in so great danger 
as that ib. 160; y veint uudugolyaetheu hynny such great 
victories as that ib. 199. 

78. lin one, e.g. eithyr bot yn prudach pryt Gwydyon noc lin y 
gwas except that the aspect of Gzvydyon was graver than thai of 
the lad. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

79. pwy who, what, used substantivally, e.g. pwy wyt who art 
thou ? y bwy y rodit (they discussed) to whom it should be given 



48 THE PRONOUN. [§79. 

RB. 258; dywet pwy a uu yma tell who was here-, govyn pwy yw 
eu tystyon to ask who are their witnesses ; pwy yw dy enw di what 
is thy name? LA. 128; pwy well genhyt ivhich dost thou prefer? 
WB. 487; dayar pwy y llet neu pwy y thewhet the earthy what 
is its breadth or what its thickness'^ FB. 133; pwy kynt ae tywyll ae 
goleuat what was firsts darkness or light} FB. 301. In the sense of 
what thing ? is used pa beth, py beth, commonly abbreviated to 
peth, beth, e.g. peth yw y rei racko what are those yonder? 
a wdost ti peth wyt pan vych yn kyscwyt knowest thou what thou 
art when thou art asleep? FB. 145; a gofyn idaw beth a wnaei a 
phwy oed and asked him what he was doing and who he was. 

Note — The use of pwy before a noun is exceptional, pwy ystyr WB. 
454, 456 = pa ystyr RB. 101 =py ystyr 103. 

80. pa, py what? adjectivally, e.g. pa drwc digoneis inheu ytti 
what evil have I done to thee ? py drwc yw hynny what evil is 
that? This interrogative enters into various phrases, e.g. pa le, 
py le (also ble) where ? pa veint, py veint how great ? pa 
ryw, py ryw of what kind? pa sawl how many? Pa and py 
are also found with the addition of un, pi. rei, e.g. pa un wyt 
titheu who art thou ? ef a ovynnawd udunt pa rei oedynt he asked 
them who they were, 4,m»^ = J*m*m^ , /*^ i*'^ /*«- W^ ^^ ' '^^^^ 

Note 1. — Pa and py seem to be used without distinction of meaning. 
In the Mabinogion when the Red Book has pa the White Book has very 
frequently py. 

Note 2. — In the earlier literature pa and py are found also without a 
noun, e.g. pa roteiste oth olud what hast thou given of thy wealth? BB. 10^; 
pa wnaf what shall I do ? FB. 282 ; hyt na wydat or byt pa wnaei ( = py 
wnaei WB. p. 212) so that she did not know at all luhat she should do RB. 
273 ; py holy di y mi what seekest thou of me ? RB. 128, cf. further FB. 127, 
145, 216, MA. 189^ Cf. also pa daruu y Garadawc what has been the fate 
ofCaradawG? RB. 41, so 59,287 ( =py WB. p. 221), py derw itti 176 ; pathawr 
( = pa-th-dawr) what does it matter to thee ? WB. 430 = pythawr p. 215 ; Duw 
reen py bereist lyvwr Lord God, why hast Thou made a coward? FB. 
251 ; py liuy di why dost thou colour? RB. 102. 

Note 3. — Pa and py are followed by a preposition in pahar for what? 
e.g. pahar e roet /or what it was given BCh. 30; paham, pa rac, py rac and 
pyr (=py yr) why? e.g. pyr ( = py rac RB. 126) y kyuerchy dy why dost 
thou call? WB. 486. 

Note 4. — pa diw, py diw. The following occurrences of this may be 
noted : — Quid (i. pa dm, lit. for what) tibi Pasiphae pretiosas sumere vestes? 
Ox. 41*. Cunctis genitoris gloria uestri laudetur celsi thronus est cui 



§83.] THE PRONOUN. 49 

regia caeli, where est cm regia caeli is translated literally and unidiomatic- 
ally by issit padiu itau gulat luv. 39^. Gwynn y uyt py diw y rodir kerennyd 
Duf a hoedyl hir blessed is he to whom is given the friendship of God and 
long life FB. 308. (If a man gives a thing, and a dispute arises between 
two men as to to which of them it has been given, the word of the donor shall 
decide) pa dyu y rodes to whom he gave it BCh. 31. pa diw y damweinei 
y nudugolyaeth to which the victory should fall RB. II, 57 (so with 
y to, y by diw y damweinhei y nudugolyaeth onadunt 162, cf. CM, 
32). pa diw bynnac y mynnynt hwy y rodi hi to whomsoever they desired 
to give it RB. II. 24, cf. further 181, 185. Here the use of yd, not a (§ 84), 
indicates that diw is a prepositional phrase ( = to him, to it ?). 

81. pwy bynnac, pa, py— bynnac, pa beth bynnac, peth 
bynnac. The addition of pynhac or pynnac gives the sense of 
whosoever^ whatsoever, e.g. pwy bynnac ae kaffei whoever should 
take it ; pa dyn pwyllauc benac a ladho enuyt whatever sane man 
shall slay an idiot; pa le bynnac y gwelwn vwyt wherever I saw 
food ; py fford bynnac y ffoynt whatever way they fled ; peth 
bynnac a dywettei Peredur whatever Peredur said. 



Relative Pronouns. 

82. In Welsh there is no inflected relative. In clauses which 
according to the Welsh idiom are relative, relativity is expressed by 
the relative particle a when the clause is positive, by the negative 
ny (cf. § 21 note) when the clause is negative, e.g. pechodeu a 
gyffesser ac ny wneler yr eilweith sins that are confessed and that 
are not committed a second time. Before the details of relative usage 
are considered, there are several general points to be noted. 

83. (a) The relative a is not used : — 

(a) Before the relative form yssyd, syd who is, which is, e.g. 
nifer a uu ac a uyd uch nef is nef meint yssyd the multitude that 
has been and that will be, above heaven, below heaven, all that 
there are FB. 114. 

(/5) Before the verb pieu (§ 161), e.g. Efrawc iarll bioed iarllaeth 
yn y gogled Evrawc the earl had an earldom in the north. 

(7) Regularly in the earlier Welsh, and usually throughout the 
Mid.W. period before the verbal particle ry, e.g. mi ryth gereis 
/ have loved thee. 



50 THE PRONOUN. [§83. 

(8) Before the copula when preceded by the predicate (§ 159), 
e.g. llawen UU /le was glad ; pwy wyt wko art thou ? (but pwy 
a UU yma who was here ?) 

(b) (a) In Mid.W. prose a is frequently absent before oed was, 
e.g. Arthur oed yg Kaerllion Arthur was in Caerllion. In the 
Mabinogion the White Book has often a oed when the Red Book 
has oed, cf. WB. 227, 229, 250, 453, with RB. loi, 165, 166, 183. 

ifi) In early poetry a is very often omitted, e.g. Duu vet 
( = Duw a ved) God rules BB. is'-by Duw a wet I3^ The 
details have still to be investigated. 

84. In certain constructions the preverbal particle yd ( = Mod.W. 
yr) seems to enter into concurrence with relative a, and in Mod.W. 
grammars yr is given along with a as a relative particle. This, 
however, comes from reading English syntax into Welsh ; historic- 
ally, the use of yd, yr points to a non-relative construction. In 
the Celtic languages the rules for the use of the relative are 
peculiar. In particular it should be noted that in Welsh an 
adverbial or prepositional phrase is not as such followed by the 
relative construction, e.g. mwyhaf oe vrodyr y karei Lud y 
Lleuelys Llud loved Llevelys more than any of his other brothers ] pan 
uei mwyhaf yd ymgerynt when they most loved one another ; bit 
chwero y talhaur in y diwet bitterly will it be paid for in the end ; 
mi a brynaf dy gerennyd. pa delw, heb ynteu, y pryny di "I will 
buy thy friendships ''^ In what way,''^ said he, '"''wilt thou buy itV 
lie y gwelych eglwys wherever thou seest a church', or He yd oed 
from the place where he was; yn y rei y maent ffynhoneu in which 
there are fountains ; ar hynny att y kwn y doeth ef thereafter he 
came to the hounds. With the first instance may be contrasted 
expressions like y wreic vwyhaf a garei the woman whom he most 
loved, where without mwyhaf the clause would be relative, y wreic 
a garei the woman whom he loved; similarly gwreica da it 
a wedei to wed would suit thee well WB. 453. 

85. In the Celtic sentence the verb normally comes first, e.g. 
y kymerth y marchawc y march the horseman took the horse. In 
Irish, when part of the sentence is to be emphasised it is brought 



§87.] THE PRONOUN. 51 

forward by means of the copula, e.g. is e beres it is he who carries ; 
sometimes the copula is omitted. In Welsh a part of the sentence 
is emphasised in the same way; the copula form, however, is 
regularly omitted. Thus in the example given above, if the subject 
were to be emphasised, the sentence would run : y marchawc a 
gymerth y march ; if the object, y march a gymerth y marchawc. 
In accordance with the preceding paragraph, if the subject or 
object be thus brought forward, the following clause will be relative in 
form, but not if an adverbial or prepositional phrase be brought 
forward, e.g. mwy y karei he loved more-, attunt yd aeth he went 
to them. 

Note. — In the development of Welsh yd tends to spread at the expense 
of a. 

The Expression of Case in the Relative. 

86. In the relation of subject or object of a following verb, in 
positive clauses a is used (except in so far as it must or may be 
omitted, § 83), in negative clauses ny, e.g. y gwr a doeth the man 
who came ; y vorwyn a weleist the maiden whom thou hast seen ; 
y wreic yssyd yno the woman who is there \ meibon ny ellynt 
ymlad boys who could not fight. 

87. In connection with the use of a, ny, the following* points 
call for special notice : — 

(a) or a (Mod.W. ar a), neg. or ny, ar ny, Ht. of that which (or 
which not), of what (or what not), e.g. pawb or a oed yno everyone 
who was there (lit. of that which was there) ; or a welsei o helgwn 
ny welsei cwn unlliw ac wynt of all the hounds that he had seen he 
had never seen hounds of the same colour as they ; pob peth or ny 
damweinassant eiroet everything that has never happened LA. "^y, nyt 
oes neb or ath welei ar nyth garei no one who saw thee would not 
love thee ; pob peth or a uu ac yssyd ac a vyd everything that was 
and is and will be (where rel. a is regularly omitted before yssyd) ; 
llawer or yssyd da many who are good. In the above examples 
the relative a appears in positive clauses. But after ov = of that by 
which, etc., in accordance with § 84, yd is used, e.g. gorchymynneu 



52 THE PRONOUN. [§87. 

Duw a wneynt o bop fiford or y gellynt they did God's commandments 
in every ivay in which they could LA. 1 1 9 ; ffo . .a oruc Pandrassus a 
gwyr Groec y gyt ac ef y bob mann or y tebyckynt cafFel dianc 
Pandrassus with the Greeks fled to every place from which they thought 
to find escape RB. 11. 44. In sentences like: paup or y rodho y 
brenhyn ofrum idaw everyone to whom the king gives a present^ or ba 
hustyng bynnac .... or y kyfarffo y gwynt ag ef every whisper 
that the wind meets RB. 60, the use of yd is due to the form of the 
relative clause (§ 89). 

Note. — As Zimmer has shewn, CZ. II. 86 sq. or, ar is made up of the 
preposition o, a + the article yr. Similarly yr=y ^o + yr: ef a dely 
medhecynyat rad jr a lio en e Uys he is obliged to give free medical 
attendance to such as are in the palace BCh. 18. 

(b) Without an antecedent a, neg. ny, is used in the sense of 
2vhat as the subject or the object of a sentence, in a genitive 
relation, and after a preposition, e.g. a g'ahat o uedic da ivhat was 
got of good physicians ; mi a wnaf yssyd waeth it / shall do what is 
worse for thee ; ys tir ( = dir) nithiau ny bo pur it is necessary to sift 
what is not pure BB. 42^; y kymerth yntev gwrogaeth a oed yno 
onadunt he received the homage of such of them as were there RB. 
267 ; yr a welsynt o vwyt on account of what they had seen of food; 
or a glywyssynt o gerd of what they had heard of song; mi a 
vydaf wrth a dywedeisti / shall follow thy advice ; hyt na 
chefTwch byth werth un geinawc OC yssyd yn y dref so that you 
shall never get a pennyworth of what is in the town Hg. II. 169. In a 
sentence like : sef a oruc Scuthyn yn llaOen gOneuthur yr oedit yn 
y erchi idaw Scuthyn did gladly what was asked of him LA. in, 
the form of the relative sentence does not admit of a (§88). 

88. The genitive relation whose, of which, is expressed with the 
help of the possessive adjective before the noun on which in English 
the whose would depend. In Welsh, if the noun following the 
possessive be not under the government ot a preposition the clause 
is relative, if it be under the government of a preposition the clause 
is non-relative, e.g. (a) Teithi Hen a oresgynnwys mor y kyuoeth 
Teithi Hen whose kingdom the sea subme7'ged RB. 108; peth arall ny 
ellych byth y gaffel another thing that thou wilt never be able to get; 



§90.] THE PRONOUN. * 53 

(b) y gur y buost neithwyr yn y dy the man in whose house thou 
wert last night ; y gwr y buost yn y geissaw the man whom thou 
hast been seeking. 

Note. — In : yr hynn a odologyssynt ac a yttoedynt yn y damunaw that 
which they craved and tvere desiring RB. II. 34, a is used Avhere the above 
rule would require yd. In MA. 2&1'^ occurs : gwr am dotyw gwall oe golli 
a m/xn from whose destruction loss has come to me. Further exceptions 
seem to be very rare ; I have noted : amperffeith yw caru y peth y galler 
y gassau it is imperfect to love the thing that may he hated LA. 86 ; wrth 
na bu yn dyn y bei arnaf i y ofyn because there ivas no living man the fear 
of ivhom teas on me CM. 30. 

89. Where in English the relative is preceded by a preposition 
(to whom, etc.) in Welsh the relation is expressed by a preposition 
+ personal pronoun, and the clause is non-relative, e.g. hyny 
elych yr koet y dodhwyt trwydaw ti// thou goest to the wood 
through which thou hast come WB. 228 ; yno y byd eneideu ry darffo 
udunt penydyaw there are souls that have finished penance (lit. to 
whom penance is past) LA. 129. 

Note 1. — In the inverted sentence {§ 85) Madawc uab Maredud a oed 
idaw Powys Madawg son of Maredudd had Powys RB. 144, the clause is 
expressed relatively. Similarly in another special type of sentence : 
Achelarwy a uu lawen gantaw Achilles ivas pleased RB. II. 31, cf. RB. II. 
189*20, RB. I. 94-5. In the translation literature a number of exceptions 
occur : — y rei a uo ragor arnunt those on whom there is pre-eminence LA. 32, 
cf. 130-27, 131-2, 135-8, 149-17, all in sentences of the same type; y rei 
hynny a ry daroed ( = earlier W. rydaroed) udunt gwrthlad Maxen those who 
had succeeded in expelling Maxen RB, 11. Ill ; mein a ellit gwneuthur 
gweith onadunt stones from which building could be Tnade RB. II. 167; 
gwr... a wedo idaw a man to whom it is fitting CM. 77. 

Note 2. — The following is an exceptional construction: — gwelet y bed a 
vynnei trw y kaffei ( = trw yt gaffei WB. 453) gwreicka he wished to see the 
grave through which he might be able to marry RB. 101 ; na chadarnhao 
dyn kelwyd trwy twng trwy y coUetto y gj^modawc that a man shall not 
confirm a falsehood by an oath through which he may ruin his neighbour 
LA. 143 ; trwy y bei through which there should be LA. 144. 



Substitutes for the Relative. 

90. Particularly in the translation literature there are various 
devices for getting an equivalent of the relative admitting of 
a casual construction. Such are yr hwnn, pi. y rei (§ 62c), 
y neb (§ 64b), y sawl (§ 77). 



54 THE VERB. [§91. 

THE VERB. 

Preverbal Particles. 

The Particle yd. 

91. In Mid.W. prose this particle usually appears as yd (i.e. yd) 
before a vowel or h, as y before other consonants. But by the side 
of yd there is found from the fourteenth century yr, which in 
Mod.W. has completely superseded yd. 

Note 1. — Occasionally y appears before h, e.g. y hanoed RB. II. 109, 
y hanoed LA. 

Note 2. — In RB. 3rt with lenation appears before a consonant in jrt 
gweirwyt (from cyweirwyt) 120. In the WB. version of the Kulhwch 
story yt (i.e. yd) is more frequent : yt gaffei, yt gaffe 453, yt uo 458, 
yt werthey 470, yt vyd 471, yt uerwit 478. In BB. yt (= yd) is regular 
before vowels: it oet 10^, it aethant 11^, it imne 15^, it elher 17% yt hoet 
22^, 23^, it adcorssant 23^, it vif 25^, it arwet 51 % it aw 51^; it is written 
id twice in id aeth 49* marg. Before consonants there appears both y and 
yd ( = yt of WB.); the latter lenates, though the change is not always 
expressed. Before g, t, d, ff, s, m, n, y only appears: y godriccawr 51*; 
y tirran 1^, y talhaur 16*, y tereu 32*, y tragho 35^ ; y deuthan 1^, y 
daeth, y doethan 2*, y doethan 2^, y darparan 3*, y dylanuan, y daruuan 
3^, y diadaud 10^, y dinwassute 11^, y deuth, y del 21*, y doeth 22^, y 
deuthant 23^, y deuant 25*, y dav 32*, y dinwassune 44*, y due 44^, y 
diwedi 51^, y dodir 53*'; y ffoes 22^; y sirthei 50*; y mae 13^, 32*, 34*, 34'', 
35*, 4P ; y nottvy 38^. Before p and r yd only : id pridaw 21*, yd portheise 
27* ; yd rotir 23^. Before other consonants the usage varies, — c : y kuynan 
(infixed pron, ?) 2*, y kisceisse 25*, y keweis (infixed pron. ?) 43^, but id 
gan 8*, id keiff 43*, id cuitin 48*, yd gan 54*. gw : y gvna 34^, y gweleise 
36*, 36^, y guystluy 38*, y guiscav 4P, but id woriv 9*, yd welese 27*, 
yd vna 32*. b : y bu 33^, y bit 28*, but yd vei 34^, yd vo, yd vit 42*, yd 
uit 44^. 11 : y lias 36^, y lleinw 51*, but id lathennawr 26*, id lathei 48^'. 
In the O.W. glosses it only appears: it dagatte Mart. Cap. 4^^, it darnesti 
luv, p. 88. From all this it may be inferred that there was a period in 
Welsh when the particle was yd before vowels, yd Avith lenation before 
consonants. As to the origin of non-lenating y, it is probable 
that it started from verbs beginning with d. As adyn wretch comes from 
*ad-dyn, so, e.g. *yd due would give *yd ue. From association with 
the other forms of the verb this would naturally come to be regarded 
as y due, and hence, probably with the help of y containing an infixed 
pronoun (§ 50^), y might spread as the general form before consonants. 
As to the later yr : y for yd : y, it is probably due to the influence of the 
forms of the article yr : y. 

Note 3. — In ae yr gysewys RB. 28, ual yr lygryssit RB. 54, ual yr 
notayssynt CM. 57, yr=y ry, cf. § 93 note 4. 



§93.] THE VERB. 55 

Usage of yd. 

92. In normal Mid.W. prose the particle yd, which has no 
appreciable meaning, is, with certain exceptions, used regularly 
before indicatives and subjunctives, e.g. yd af yn egyl gyt ac wynt 
/ will go as angel along with them ; y deuei y kythreul the devil 
used to come ; ac yno y g"welas ef pedeir gwraged and there he saw 

four women ; yn y lie y gwelsei Gynon in the place where he had 
seen Cynon ; lie y gwelych eglwys wherever thou seest a church ; 
val y gwelas y gwr Peredur yn dyuot as the man saw Feredur 
coming; megys y mynnei ehun as he himself desired ; hyt y buant 
as long as they were. 

93. But it is not used : — 

(a) at the beginning of a clause before a subjunctive of wish or 
command, e.g. diwyccom-ne a digonhom o gamuet may we make 
atonement for the iniquity which we have done BB. 15^; hanpych 
gwell hail I dos titheu ar Arthur . . . ac erchych hynny idaw go 
thou to Arthur and ask that of him WB. 454 ; Agamemnon . . . 
a dwawt . . . g"OSSOttynt hwy y neb a vynnynt yn y le ef 
Agamemnon said they should set whomsoever they pleased in his 
place RB. 11. 24. 

Note 1, — Contrast yng ngoleu addef nef yt nodder in the light of the 
heavenly home may he he protected MA. 174*. 

(b) When the verb is repeated in answers, e.g. a bery di ? 
paraf wilt thou effect ? I will. 

(c) In such instances as the following : — Bei dywedut ti y mi y 
peth a ovynnaf ytti, minneu a dywedwn y titheu yr hwnn a ovynny 
ditheu. Dywedaf yn llawen, heb yr Owein '^ if thou wouldst tell 
me what I ask of thee, I would tell thee what thou askest.^' ^' I tvill 
tell gladly,''^ says Owein ; ath gedymdeithas yssyd adolwyn gennyf y 
gaffel. Keffy myn vyg cret " and 1 pray to obtain thy friendship.''^ 
" Thou shall obtain it by my faith ;" ac yna y dywawt Peredur : 
diolchaf ynneu y Duw na thorreis vy llw and then Peredur said : 
" I give thanks to God that I have not broken my oath '' (cf. the use 
of na § 237 c). 



56 THE VERB. [§93. 

(d) When the predicate precedes the copula, e.g. llawen vuant 

they were glad. 

Note 2. — But with verbs of naming yd with an infixed pronoun is used 
when the predicate precedes, e.g. Peredur ym gelwir / am called Peredur. 

(e) After a negative, e.g. ny welas he did not see ; pony wdost 
dost thou not know ? 

(f ) In relative construction, e.g. ef a doeth he came. 

(g) After the interrogative a, e.g. a wely di dost thou see ? 

(h) After the particle neut, e.g. neud ynt geith now they are 
slaves MA. i57\ 

(i) After mad well, e.g. mad devthoste happily didst thou come, 
BB. 44% unless there be an infixed pronoun, e.g. mat yth anet 
happily wert thou born FB. loi. 

(k) After moch soon ( = Ir. mos), e.g. moch guelher soon will 
be seen BB. i''. 

(1) After certain conjunctions, e.g. can buost since thou hast 
been) kwt g"affei where he should get WB. 453; cyn gwnel 
though he does ; kyt dy wetto though he should say ; o gwely if 
thou seest ; pan welsant when they saw ; pei kaffwn i/ I should 
get ; tra vych while thou art ; yny dig"wyd till he falls. But it 
is used with an infixed pronoun after pan, e.g. yr pan yth weleis 
since I saw thee; so after tra (but cf. § 49^), e.g. hyt tra yn 
dygyrcher so long as we are visited RB. 105. 

Note 3. — After gwedy after the usage is not very clear. Before a 
following vowel, we have on the one hand gwedy ed eystedont after they 
sit BCh. 53, gw^edy yd elont after they go Hg. I. 11, gfwedy yd elom after 
we go Hg. II. 146, on the other hand gwedy aruerych after thou dost 
practise LA. 90. Before a following consonant, in BCh. gwedy y (e.g. 
gwedy e kafo after he gets 34) is more common than gwedy (e.g. gwedy 
roder after she is given 130) ; in BB. is found wide kywisscaran (leg. 
kywisscarun) after we separate 12^ ; gwydi darffo after it is over 4^ ; in 
Mid.W. prose gwedy is much more common than gwedy y, but it is a 
question how far gwedy comes after fusion from gwedy y. It is to be 
noted that infixing a- (§ 94) is found after gwedy as well as after the 
conjunctions which are not followed by yd ; this would seem to suggest 
that the use of yd after gwedy was not original, but there is need for 
further investigation based on fuller material. 

Note 4. — In Mid.W. prose yd is sometimes found before ry, even when 
there is no infixed pronoun, e.g. fford y ry [djuuost the way hy which thou 
hast come WB. 138 ; ym pob gwlat or y ryfuum in every country in which I 
have been ib. 144; y ry dugassei he had brought RB. II. 139; megys y 
ry wnathoed as he had done ib. 161. Cf. the instances of yr § 91 n. 3. 



§96.] THE VERB. 57 

94. In later Mid.W. the use of yd is more extensive than at an earlier 
period. In the archaic prose of the story of Kulhwch and 01 wen it is often 
wanting in the White Book version where it is present in the Red Book, 
and in the earlier poetry it is rarer still ; the conditions of the earlier usage 
have still to be investigated. It may be noted that in earlier Welsh, when 
yd is not syntactically permissible, a- is used to infix a pronoun, e.g. 
a-m bo may there he to me BB. Vl^; ath uendiguiste he has blessed thee 18*; 
as attebwys answered them FB. 139; as redwn (leg. rodwn) we will give it 
WB. 475. In prose this usage survives after some conjunctions, e.g. 
gwedy an gwelwch after ye see us Hg. II. 1 ; gwedy as cladawch hi after 
ye bury her LA. 81 ; pei as rodei if he gave it RB. 136. This a tends to 
become y under the influence of the infixed pronoun after yd (y-m, etc. ), 
e.g. ys po "may there be to him, BB. 53*'; bei yscuypun if I had known it 
BB. 41*; bei ys gattei if it had permitted it WB. 424 = pei as gattei RB. 274; 
kyt ym lladho though he slay me RB. 280 = kyt am llatho Peniarth MS. 4. 
With fusion, e.g. pais mynnynt if they desired it LA. 69. 



The Particle ry. 

95. The particle ry, which corresponds etymologically to the 
Jr. verbal particle ro-, and resembles it in its uses, is in Welsh a 
disappearing particle; it is much less frequent in Mid.W. prose than 
in the early poetry. 

Note. — Ry is sometimes reduced to r, e.g. nyr darffo WB. 230=:ny 
darffo RB. 168; nar geueis that I did not get Hg. II. 265; ar ethynt (v.l. a 
ethynt) that have passed RB. II. 205; ar doethoed (=:a dathoed RB. 197) 
who had come WB. 62 ; wedyr vligaw ( = wedy y vlingaw Hg. It. 1 12) after 
his flaying CM. 102. From neu + ry has come the common Mid.W. neur, 
cf. neur dialawd ( = neu ry dialawd WB.404) he has avenged RB. 259; neur 
daroed ( = neu ry daroed WB. 402) it was over RB. 258. For yr= y ry see 
§ 91 n. 3. 

96. In Mid.W. prose ry is used : — 
A. With the indicative. 

(a) Optionally with the perfect (as distinguished from the 
preterite, § 108), e.g. uy llysuam ry dygvys ( = a dynghwys RB. 
102) im my stepmother has sworn to me WB. 454 ; pawb ry g^auas 
( = a g'auas RB. 113) y gyuarws everyone has received his boon 
WB. 470; drycheuwch y fyrch uy aeleu ry syrthwys ( = a 
Syrthwys RB. 119) ar aualeu vy llygeit raise the forks of my eye- 
lashes which have fallen on my eyeballs WB. 478 ; llawer dyd yth 
ry gereis I have loved thee many a day RB. 118; nys ry g"eiieis 
( = nys keueis RB. 126)/ have not got him WB. 487 ; ny ry giglef 
i eirmoet dim y wrth y uorwyn / have never heard anything of the 



58 THE VERB. [§96. 

maiden RB. 113 ; a ffan ry dyuu amser mab a anet a elwit Bown 
and when the time was come, there was born a son who was called 
Bown Hg. II. 119. 

(b) Optionally with the pluperfect, e.g. gwallocau a oruc y ryn 
ry adawsei ( = yr hyn a adawssei RB. loi) he neglected what he 
had promised WB. 453; a thrist oed genthi, kany ry welsei (•= 
kany welsei RB. 116) eiroet y uynet ae eneit ganthaw a delhei y 
erchi y neges honno and she was sad, for she had never seen anyone who 
came on that quest depart with his life WB. 474 ; a chael yn y uedwl 
na ry welsei eiryoet mab a that kyndebycket ar mab y Pwyll and 
he thought that he had never seen son and father so like as the boy was 
to Pwyll; a chynn ymgyweiryaw yn y gyfrwy neur ry adoed heibyaw 
and before he had settled himself in his saddle, she had passed by. In 
the sentence : dechreu amouyn a gwyrda y wlat beth uuassei y 
arglwydiaeth ef arnadunt hwy y vlwydyn honno y wrth ry UUassei 
kyn no hynny he began to ask the nobles of his country how his rule 
over them had been that year compared with what it had been before 
RB. 7, ry uuassei seems to express priority relatively to the pre- 
ceding buassei. 

B. With the subjunctive. 

(a) With the present subjunctive ry appears sometimes when it 
has a perfect sense, e.g. ohonot ti yt gaffo ef kanys ry gaffo ( = yr 
nas kaffo RB. 101)0 ^x2^from thee he shall get {offspring) though he 
has not got it from another WB. 453; kyt ry wnelych di sarhaedeu 
. . . kyn no hynn nys gwney bellach though thou hast committed out- 
rages before this, thou shall not commit them further RB. 99 ; yno y 
byd eneideu ry darffo vdunt penydyaw there are the souls that have 
ended their penance LA. 129. But also without ry, e.g. a chyn 
gwnel gameu it . . ny buost ti hawlwr tir a dayar eiryoet and though 
he has wronged thee, thou hast never been a claimant of land and 
earth RB. 44. 

(b) With the past subjunctive, when it has the sense of a 
pluperfect, ry not infrequently appears, e.g. mynet a oruc serch y 
uorwyn ym pob aelawt itaw kynnys ry welhei ( = yr nas gwelsei 
RB. 102) eiroet love for the maiden entered every limb of him though 



§97.] THE VERB 59 

he had never seen her WB. 454 ; nyd oed waeth kyuarwyd yn y wlad 
ny ry welei ( = nys ry welsei RB. 114) eiroet noc yn y wlad ehun 
he was not a worse guide in a country that he had never seen than in 
his own country WB. 471 ; a chyn lawenet vu a chyt ry delei idaw 
iechyt and he was as joyous as though health had come to him RB. II. 
183; pei mi ry wascut ( = a wascut RB. 116) uelly ny oruydei ar 
arall uyth rodi serch im if it had been me whom thou hadst so 
squeezed^ no other one would ever have been able to show me love WB. 
474. But also without ry, e.g. pei ys gwypwn ny down yma if I 
had known it, I would not have come hither RB. 29, 20. 

C. With the infinitive when it has a perfect or pluperfect sense, 
e.g. adnabot a oruc ry gaffel dyrnawt ohonaw he perceived that he 
had got a buffet ; gwedy ry goUi eu kyrn after their horns had been 
lost RB. 1 94. 

97. In early Welsh poetry the use of ry is much more common than in 
prose ; there it has also some syntactical uses which have heen lost in 
prose (cf, Eriu II, 215 sq.) 

(a) With the indicative preterite, when it has a perfect sense, ry is 
much more frequent than in the prose language. As in the case of Irish 
ro, the general definition of this usage is that the past is viewed from the 
standpoint of the present. There may be a reference either to the 
personal experience of the speaker, e.g. mi ryth welas / have seen thee BB. 
51*, rim artuad / have heen blackened BB. 12% or to an indefinite past, e.g. 
ry gadwys Duw dial ar plwyf Pharaonus God has kept vengeance on 
Pharaoh's people Y^. 170. 

With respect to this usage, however, the following points have to be 
noted : — 

1. ry is not found : — 

(a) After a negative, e.g. ni threghis ev hoes their life has not passed 
away BB. 11*; contrast ry treghis eu hoes FB. 128, There are rare 
exceptions in the later poetry. 

(^) After mad well, e.g. mad devthoste yg corffo\a,eth. happily hast Thou 
come into the flesh BB. 44*. 

(y) After the interrogative a, e.g. a gueleiste gureic hast thou seen a 
woman? BB. 22*^. But in prose a ry fu has he been? WB. 121, 

2. ry is not preceded by relative a. In the later poetry there are very 
rare exceptions. 

3. A pronoun is infixed after ry ; it is not put before it with yd or a, e.g. 
ry-n gwarawt has helped us FB, 126, os Dofyd ry-n digones */ it is the 
Lord that has made us FB. 113. In the later poetry there are rare 
exceptions. 

(b) With the subjunctive of wish it is used optionally in positive (but 
never in negative) sentences, e.g. ry phrinomne di gerenhit may we buy 
Thy friendship BB. 44^; rym gwares dy voli may Thy praise help me FB. 
109, by ath uendicco may it bless thee BB. 18*; but ny buve trist may I not 
be sad BB. 17^ 



6o THE VERB. [§97. 

(c) With the present indicative : — 

1. Ry may express possibility, e.g. ry seiw gur ar vn conin a man can 
stand on a single reed BB. 45*. ' 

Note. — In prose there is an instance of ry with the present indicative 
in : ef a ry eill ych neckau he may refuse you RB. 60. With gallu, ry is 
also found in the potential, e.g. ef ar allei vot yn wir a dywedy di what 
thou sayest may he true Hg. I. 81, similarly 224, 267, 272; without ry: ef a 
allei llawer mab colli y eneit many youths might lose their life WB. 100. 
From the perfect sense inherent in the verb, ry is found with the present 
and imperfect of darvot to he finished, e.g. os y uwrw ry dery w if he has 
heen thrown WB. 125; neur daroed idaw diffeithaw traean Iwerdon he had 
already laid waste the third part of Ireland RB. 135. 

2. In a subordinate clause of a general sentence it may have the sense 
of a perfect, e.g.Jii a nodyd a ry geryd Thou savest those ivhom Thou hast 

is f 01 ' " ' 



FB. 180. The same sense is found in the subjunctive, when that 
mood is syntactically required, e.g. ry brynw[y] nef nyt ef synn whosoever 
has purchased heaven will not he confounded FB. 307 ; a ry gotwy glew 
gogeled ragtaw let him who has angered a brave man shun him MA. 191*. 

(d) In the later poetry it is used with the future, or with the subjunctive 
in a future sense, without any apparent meaning, e.g. arth o Deheubarth a 
dirchafuy. ry llettaud y wir ew tra thir mynvy a hear from the South will 
arise. His men will spread over the land of Mynivy BB. 30* ; bydinoed 
Katwaladyr kadyr y deuant. ry drychafwynt Kymry, kat a wnant the 
hosts of Cadwaladr m,ightily will they com,e. The Cymry will rise up, they 
will give hattle FB. 126. 



Conjugation of the Verb. 
Verbal Classes. 

98. In Celtic as in Latin there were various types of verbal 
conjugation. In Old Irish the different types may still to a great 
extent be distinguished, e.g. 3 sg. -beir carries from "^beret, -guid 
prays from '^g'odit (cf. Lat. capit)^ -cara loves from "^carat (cf. 
Lat. amat), -leici leaves from "^lancit or the like (cf. Lat. audit or 
monet; in Celtic e became i). In Welsh the several types have 
become obscured. There remain, however, some traces of an 
original difference. Such are the different forms of the 3 sg. pres. 
ind., e.g. geill (to gallu to be able) which would go back to "^galllt 
or the like, cymmer takes which would correspond to an Ir. 
con-beir and would go back to com-beret, car loves = Ir. -cara ; 
further the various forms of the 3 sg. pret. act. in -as, -es, -is and 
of the pret. pass, in -at, -et, -it. In particular should be noted 
such series as g-eilw (to galw, to call) : gelwis : gelwit ; ceidw 
(to cadw to preserve) \ cedwis : cedwit ; Uysg (to llosgi to 



§ loi.] THE VERB. 6i 

burn)', llosges: llosget; ceiff (to caffael to get): cavas: 
cavat. Here there is great need for a collection of material from 
early texts. In some cases an original radical conjugation is 
indicated by certain formations peculiar to verbs of the root class, 
e.g. the -t preterites aeth = Ir. -acht and cymmerth = Ir. con-bert 
to pres. a = Ir- -aig and cymmer = Ir. con-beir; the pret. gwarawt 
= Ir. fo-raith to gwaret to help; and preterites passive like llas = 
Ir. -slass to Had to kill. 

Voice. 

99. There are two voices, the active and the passive. The 
deponential form which is found in Old-Irish has disappeared in 
Welsh. 

Number. 

100. In the active there are two numbers, the singular and the 
plural. In the passive there is only one form for both numbers. 

10 1. In the concord of a verb with a plural subject Welsh shews 
certain peculiarities : — 

(a) If the subject be unexpressed, or if it be a personal pronoun, 

the verb is in the plural, e.g. y doethant, y doethant wy, wynt 

a doethant they came. 

Note. — Exceptions are rare, e.g. os wynteu ae med hi if it is they that 
possess it RB. 91 ; poet wynt athiffero let it he they who defend thee CM. 35 ; 
nyt wy dyweit geu llyfreu Beda the hooks of Beda do not lie FB. 159 ; wy 
a gynheil y bit they support the tvorld FB. 217 ; hwy a orfyt they shall 
prevail MA. 14P. An example with the copula is : ys hwy yr rei hynny 
( = sef yw y rei hynny RB. 121) Nynhyaw a Pheibyaw they are Nynnyaw 
and Peihyaw WB. 480. 

(b) Otherwise in the prose of the Mabinogion the singular is the 
usual construction, e.g. y kerdwys y kennadeu the messengers set 
out; beth yw y rei racko? egylyon ynt what are those yonder? 
They are angels. But sometimes the verb is in the plural, particu- 
larly in WB. and in the more archaic texts, e.g. y deu vrenhin a 
nessayssant the tivo kings drew near RB. 5 ; a meicheit Math- 
olwch a oedynt ( = oed RB. 35) ar Ian y weilgi and the swineherds 
of Mathohvch were by the shore of the sea WB. 50 ; y trywyr a 
ganant eu kym the three sound their horns WB. 485 = RB. 125, 18; 



62 THE VERB. [§ loi. 

naw brenhin corona wc a oedynt wyr idaw nine crowned kings who 
were his men RB. 244 ; seithwyr a oydynt y danaw seven men 
were under him (by naw eglwys ereill a vydei there were nine 
other churches) WB. 385 = RB, 245; y rei a oedynt ( = oed RB. 

165) yn gwassanaethu those who were serving WB. 227 ; bliant 
oedynt ( = oed RB. 165) y Uieinyeu y bwrt the tablecloths were 
of fine linen WB. 227 ; kwt ynt ( = ble mae RB. loi) plant y gwr 
where are the children of the man ? WB. 453. Sometimes the plural 
is found with a collective noun, e.g. gfwelsant niuer Otgar eu 
meint the people of Odgar saw their number RB. 136, 3. In the earlier 
poetry the plural is quite common, and in corresponding 
constructions in Old Irish the plural is regular. In Welsh there has 
been an encroachment of the singular upon the plural, as there has 
been in later Irish. 

Person. 

102. In the active there are three persons of each number. In 
the passive there is only a third person, the first and second 
persons being expressed, as in Irish, by means of pronouns, e.g. 
y-m g"elwir / am called^ y-th elwir thou art called, ny-n cerir 
we are not loved, ny-ch cerir ye are not loved ; kattwer vi let me 
be kept. 

Note. — In the third person there are instances of an infixed pronoun, 
when the verb is non-relative, e.g. kyt ys galwer though they are called 
LA. 88, megys pei as gossottit as if it were placed Hg. I. 304; but, on the 
other hand, e.g. na rodher that it he not given RB. 258, pan ollyngit when 
it was set free Hg. I. 315. The matter calls for further observation. 

103. The verb regularly agrees in person with the subject, e.g. 
mi a welaf / see, ti a wely thou seest, ny a dy wedwn we say, 
mi a thi a ryuelwn thou and I will fight, mi a Bown a 
wysgwn yn arueu ymdanam a thitheu a wysgy ymdanat Bown 
and I will put on our arms, and thou wilt put on thine. In the 
passive, where there is no distinction of person, the third person is 
used everywhere, e.g. mi a g^erir / am loved. The 3 sg. copula 
form ys is used, like the corresponding Ir. is, with pronouns of 
the first and second persons, e.g ys mi ( = Ir. is me) it is I. 



§ 105.] THE VERB. 63 

Occasionally in a relative clause the verb is in the 3 sg. when the 
antecedent is in the first or second person, e.g. mi ryth welas 
/ have seen thee BB. 51*; ae ti a eirch uy merch? ys mi ae 
heirch is it thou who askest for my daughter .? It is I who ask for 
her WB. 479 ; mi ay had[e]ilyawd / built it WB. 394. 

Note. — These last examples represent the original construction, which 
has in Welsh heen replaced hy congruence with the pronoun. The 3 sg. 
is the regular construction in Breton, e.g. me guelas / saw, in Cornish, e.g, 
why a ergh ye seek, and in Old Irish, e.g. is me asbeir it is I who say. 

The Moods. 

104. There are three finite moods, the indicative, the subjunctive 
and the imperative. The Celtic languages have developed no 
proper infinitive; the place of the infinitive in Welsh as in the 
other Celtic languages is taken by a verbal noun, with nominal 
inflexion and with nominal construction. There is a passive par- 
ticiple in -edic and a verbal of necessity in -adwy (corresponding 
to the Irish verbal of necessity in -thi). 

The Indicative. 

105. The tenses of the indicative are present, imperfect, preterite, 
and pluperfect. Syntactically the present serves also as a future ; 
in the earlier language, however, there are also special future forms 
(§ 130). The imperfect is used both as an imperfect indicative and 
as a conditional (in the latter usage it corresponds in usage to the 
Irish secondary future). The preterite is used both as preterite and 
as perfect ; in the latter usage it is often preceded by ry, particularly 
in the earlier language (§§ 96, 97)- The pluperfect is a new 
development of the British division of Celtic; it has the same 
endings as the imperfect, and has been formed to the preterite stem 
on the analogy of the imperfect to the present. It is used (a) as a 
pluperfect indicative, (b) as a pluperfect conditional, in which sense, 
however, the imperfect continues to be used in Mid.W., (c) as a 
pluperfect subjunctive, in which usage it tends in Mid.W. to replace 
the past tense of the subjunctive (§ III). The following examples 
will illustrate the uses of the tenses of the indicative. 



64 THE VERB. [§ io6. 

Present. 

106. (a) Actual present, e.g. beth yw hwnn ? Kyfrwy yw what 
is this ? It is a saddle ; ti a wely y sawl vorynyon hygar yssyd yn 
y llys hon thou seest all the amiable maidens who are in this court 
WB. 155. 

(b) Consuetudinal present, e.g. ef a wyl pawb or a del y mywn 
ac nys gwyl neb efo he sees everyone who enters and no one sees him 
WB. 156. 

(c) Of an action lasting into the present, e.g. ys gwers yd wyf 
yn keissaw a olchei vyg cledyf / have been seeking for a while some 
one to burnish my sword RB. 126 ; pump mlyned ar ethynt yr pan 
yttym ni yn arueru or ryw seguryt hwnnvN five years have passed 
aivay since we have been enjoying that ease RB. II. 205. 

(d) Historic present, e.g. nyt kynt yd yskynn ef ar y uarch noc 
yd a hitheu hebdaw ef no sooner did he mount his horse tha?t she 
passed him RB. 1 1 ; nachaf gwr du . . . a welant lo ! they saw a 
black man WB. 486; a phan" daw ( = doeth WB. p. 204) hyt lie 
yd oed Gwenhwyvar kyuarch gwell a oruc idi a7td when he came to the 
'blace where Gwenhwyvar was he greeted her RB. 262 ; gossot a oruc 
ynteu ar y marchawc . . . yny hyllt y daryan ac yny dyrr yr aruev 
he made an onset on the horseman^ till he cleft the shield and broke the 
arms RB. 271. 

(e) As future, e.g. dywet y Arthur pa le bynnac y bwyf i gwr 
idaw vydaf, ac o gallaf lies a gwassanaeth idaw, mi ae gwnaf. 
A dywet na deuaf y lys vyth yny ymgaffwyf ar gwr hir say to Arthur 
that wherever I am I will be his man, and if I can do him advantage 
and service, I will do it. And say that I will never come to his court 
till I encounter the tall 7nan. 

Imperfect. 

107. (a) Of an action going on or a state existing in past time, 
e.g. val y kyrchei ef y bont ef a welei varchawc yn dyuot as he was 
making for the bridge, he saw a horseman coming WB. p. 216; 
nyt y fford a gyrchei y tref or bont a gerdawd Gereint it was not by 
the road that went from the bridge to the town that Gereint went 



§ 107.] THE VERB. 65 

WB. p. 217; yma yd oedwn yn kerdet ui ar gwr mwyaf a garwtl. 
ac ar hynny y doeth tri chawr o gewri attam we were travellings I 
and the man whom I most loved. And thereupon there came to 
us three giants WB. 441 ; pan deuthum i yma gyntaf, eingon gof 
a oed yma, a minneu ederyn ieuanc oedwn when first I came here 
there was here a smithes anvil, and I was a young bird RB. 129. 

Note 1. — Note the use of the imperfect with a negative in such 
sentences as the following : nyt eynt hwy oe bod they would not go willingly 
RB. 32; yr hynny ny thawei yny dygwydwys kysgu arnei /or all that she 
would not he silent, till sleep fell upon her RB, it. 51. 

Note 2. — The imperfects of clybot to hear and of gwelet to see are 
frequent in narrative, parallel with the preterite of other verbs, e.g. y dyd 
yd aeth ef parth a chaer Dathyl, troi o vywn y llys a wnaeth hi ; a hi a 
gly wei lef corn the day that he went towards Caer Dathyl, she walked within 
the court, and she heard the sound of a horn RB. 74, 6 ; a dyuot yr brifford ae 
chanlyn a orugant. A choet mawr a welynt y wrthunt. A ffarth ar coet 
y deuthant. Ac yn dyuot or koet allan y gwelynt pedwar marchawc 
aruawc. Ac edrych a orugant arnunt and they came to the highway and 
followed it. And they saw before them a great wood. And they went 
towards the wood. And they saw four armed horsemen coming out of the 
wood. And they gazed upon them RB, 270, 19. 

(b) Representing in indirect speech a present indicative of direct 
speech, e.g. a galvv a wnaeth attaw y verch hynaf idaw Goronilla a 
gofyn idi pa veint y karei hi efo. A thygu a wnaeth hitheu y nef a 
daear hot yn vwy y karei hi euo noe heneit ehun. A chredu a 
wnaeth ynteu idi hynny, a dywedut, kan oed kymeint y karei hi 
euo a hynny, y rodei ynteu draean y gyuoeth genti hi y wr a dewissei 
yn ynys Prydein and he called to him his eldest daughter Goronilla, 
and asked her how much she loved him. And she swore by heaven 
a7id earth that she loved him more than her own life. And he believed 
her in that ajtd said that, since she loved him so much as that, he 
would give the third of his ki7igdom with her to the man whom she 
should choose in the island of Britain RB. II. 65. 

(c) Of a repeated or customary action in past time, e.g. a phy 
beth bynnac a dywetei ar y dauawt, ef ae kadarnhei oe weithret 
ae arueu and whatever he said with his tongue, he used to make it 
good by his deeds and his arms RB. II. 41; kymeint ac a wnelit y 
dyd or gweith, tranoeth pan gyuotit neur daruydei yr dayar y 
lynku as much of the work as was done by day, overnight when they 
arose the earth had swallowed it RB. II. 141 ; ar rwym a wneyit 



66 THE VERB, 



lo: 



yna rwng deu dyn a wnaethpwyt y rwng Gereint ar uorwyn and the 
bond that used to be made then between two persons was made between 
Gereint and the maiden RB. 262, 25. 

(d) As secondary future or conditional. 

(a) As a secondary tense to the future, e.g. can gwydywn i y 
dout ti ym keissyaw i for I knew that thou wouldst come to seek me 
WB. 249 ; diheu oed genthi na deuei Ereint uyth she was sure that 
Gereint would never come WB. 441 j ny wydyat hi beth a wnaei 
she did not know what she should do RB. 268, 29. 

{P) In the apodosis of a future or possible conditional clause, e.g 
bei gwnelhit uyg kyghor i ny thorrit kyfreitheu llys yrdaw if my 
counsel were followed, the laws of the court would not be broken on his 
account WB. 458 ; pei clywhut ti ymdidan y marchogyon racco . . . 
mwy vydei dy oual noc y mae if thou heard the discourse of yonder 
horsemen, thy anxiety would be greater than it is. 

(7) In the apodosis of a past or impossible conditional clause^ 
e.g. py ham vilein, heb ef, y gadut ti efo heb y uenegi imi. 
Arglwyd, heb ef, ny orchymyneisti euo imi; pei as gorchymynnut nys 
gadwn ''''why, villain,^^ said he, ''''didst thou let him go without letting 
me knowV^ ''^ Lord,^^ said he, ''^ thou didst not give me such 
instructions. If thou hadst instructed me I should not have let him 
go" WB. p. 216; pei oet idaw, ef a ledit ( = ladyssit RB. 193, 8) 
if he had been of age, he tvould have been slain WB. 117. 

Note 3. To bot to he the regular conditional is bydwn. The imperfect 
oed, however, (like Ir. ba) is used in a modal sense in expressions like the 
following: oed well genhyf ( = Ir. ba ferr limm) noc yssyd ym gwlat bei oil yt 
uei val hynn I should prefer to all that is in my kingdom that it should he 
all like that WB. 487. 

Preterite. 

108. (a) As preterite (the regular narrative tense), e.g. ac ymhoy 
lud a oruc ar y marchawc, ac ar y gossot kyntaf y uwrw yr llawr y 
dan draet y uarch. a thra barh[a]awd yr un or pedwarugein 
marchawc, ar y gossot kyntaf y byryawd pob un onadunt. Ac o 
oreu y oreu y doe[t]hont attaw eithyr y iarll. Ac yn diwethaf 
oil y doeth y iarll attaw and he turned on the horseman, and at the 



§ 109.] THE VERB. 67 

first onset he threw him to the ground^ under the feet of his horse. 
And while there remained one of the eighty horsemen ^ at the first 
onset he overthrew every one of them. And there cam^e to him. always 
one better than the last, except the earl. And last of all the earl came 
to him WB. 432 ; y gysgu yd aethant y nos honno. a phan welas 
y meichat lliw y dyd, ef a deffroes Wydyon that night they went to 
sleep. And when the sivineherd saw the hue of day, he aroused 
Gwydyon RB. 78^ 12. 

(b) Corresponding to a perfect in indirect speech, e.g. a thranoeth 
Agamemnon a wyssywys y bobyl y gyt, ac a diwadawd na bu ef 
eiryoet chwanawc yr amherodraeth honno. ac a dywawt nas kymerth 
ef hi onyt o uedwl iawn and next day Agamemnon summoned the people 
together, and denied that he had ever been desirous of that sovereignty. 
And he said that he had not taken it except with just intention RB. 
II. 24. 

(c) As perfect, e.g. coet ry welsom ar y weilgi yn y lie ny 
welsam eiryoet vn prenn we have seen a wood upon the sea where 
we have never seen a single tree RB. 35, 24; pwy a ganhadwys itti 
eisted yna who has given thee permission to sit there? WB. p. 225 ; 
Bendigeit Uran ar niuer a dywedassam ni a hwylyassant parth ac 
Iwerdon Bendigeit Vran and those whom we have mentioned set out 
toivards Ireland RB. 35, 14. 

Pluperfect. 

109. (a) As pluperfect indicative, e.g. or a welsei ef o helgwn 
y byt ny welsei cwn un lliw ac wynt of all the hounds that he had 
seen anywhere he had never seen dogs of the same colour as them RB. 
I, 21; ual y gnottayssei tra uu yn llys Arthur kyrchu twrneimeint 
a wnaei he resorted to tournaments as he had been wont to do while he 
was in Arthur's court RB. 268, 6 ; a dyuot kof idaw y dolur yna yn 
uwy no phan y cawssei and then there came to him the recollection 
of his sorrow more than when he had received it WB. p. 218. 

(b) As pluperfect conditional, e.g. buassei well itti pei rodassut 
nawd yr mackwy it would have been better for thee if thou hadst given 
protection to the lad; a phei nat ystyriei yr Arglwyd Duw ohonunt 



68 THE VERB. [§ 109. 

wy, ef a wnaethoed oual tra messur udunt and if the Lord God had 
not co?isidered them he xvould have caused anxiety beyond measure to 
them Hg. 11. 71. 

(c) Replacing the subjunctive in a pluperfect sense, e.g. bei 
buassut wrth vy gyghor i, ny chyuaruydei a thi na thrallawt na 
gofit if thou hadst followed my counsel, neither affliction nor trouble 
would have come nigh unto thee Hg. II. 123 ; pei doethoed ef yn y 
He wedy dilyw, wynt a dywedynt y mae vrth Noe ac Effream y 
dywedassei Duw pob peth or a dywedessynt if he had come 
immediately after the Flood they would have said that it was to Noah 
and Abraham that God had said everything that they had said LA. 17. 

The Subjunctive Mood. 

The Formation of the Subjunctive. 

110. The sign of the subjunctive is h; for the changes that h 

undergoes in conjunction with a preceding sound see § llg". 

Examples : — sg. 3 pres., coffaho : coffau to remember; carho : 

caru to love; sorho: sorri to be angry; talho: tdilvLpay; prynho: 

prynu to buy; mynho: mynnu to desire; bendicco: bendigaw 

to bless; cretto: credu to believe; atteppo: attebu to answer; 

Uatho: Had to slay; tyffo: tyvu to grow. After a preceding h, 

h is lost by dissimilation, e.g. parhao: parhau to continue; 

amheuo : amheu to doubt. Further h does not appear after ch, 

e.g. archo: erchi to ask, after ff, e.g. caffo: caffael to get, after 11, 

e.g. gallo: gallu to be able, or after s, e.g. keisser BB. 26^ 

llafassed BB. 27% yssynt WB. 467. In the present tense the 

subjunctive has distinctive endings ; in the past tense the endings 

are the same as in the imperfect indicative, so that here the h 

is the only distinguishing mark, except in the few verbs that have 

a special subjunctive stem. 

Note 1. — In Mid.W. a new h subjunctive is formed analogically to the 
indicative of verbal stems ending in d, e.g. cerdho RB. 293 = certho WB. 
p. 211 : cerdet to go, lladho WB. p. 210 = llatho WB. 419 : Had, rodhom 
RB. 105 = rothom WB. 458: rodi to give; from stems ending in v the 
regular form is rare, tyffei : tyvu WB. 453, but prouher : provi prove 
BB. 3^ safhei : sevyll to s^rtwc^ WB. 466 = RB. 110. There are already 
in Mid.W., particularly in its later period, examples of complete confusion 



§111.] THE VERB. 69 

of the subjunctive with the indicative stem, e.g. clywut RB. 274 = clyvut 
WB. 423 = clywhut WB, p. 212 : clybot to hear, clywych RB. 270 = 
clywhych WB, p. 209, guelud : gwelet to see BB. 29^ talo RB. 268=talho 
WB. 415, sorro : sorri BB. 28^*, cenich : canu to sing BB. 42^, medrei RB. 
76=metrei WB. 104 : medru aim at, mynnei RB. 277 = mynhei WB. p. 214, 
cerdo RB. 273=:certho WB. p. 211, Uado RB. 270 = lladho WB. p. 210= 
llatho WB. 419, rodo RB. 286 = rotho WB. p. 220, yvei : yvet to drink BB. 
48^. This confusion has spread analogically from cases like gallu, 
erchi, etc., where the subjunctive stem was in Old Welsh identical with 
the indicative, and from cases where later the two forms fell together by 
the operation of phonetic law, e.g, mynho to mynno, like minheu / to 
minneu. The old forms are most persistent in stems in g, d, b. 

Note 2. — The earlier history of the Welsh subjunctive is very obscure. 
Vendryes, however, in the MSmoires de la Societe de Unguistique de Paris, 
XI. 258 sq. has made it probable that h came from prehistoric s, so that 
the formation would resemble that of the Irish ^-subjunctive, from which, 
however, it differs in that in Welsh there must have been a vowel between 
s and the final consonant of the verbal stem. The explanation given by 
Stern, CZ. III. 383 sq. is untenable. In Early Welsh there are two sub- 
junctives identical in formation with the Irish ^-subjunctive : — duch may 
he lead from *douc-set : dwyn to lead, and gwares may he help from 
*vo-ret-set : gwaret to help. 

The Tenses of the Subjunctive. 

III. In early Welsh, as in Irish, the subjunctive had two tenses, 

a present, which syntactically had the function of a present and of 

a perfect, and a past, which syntactically had the function of an 

imperfect and of a pluperfect; in the sense of perfect and pluperfect 

the subjunctive may be preceded by ry (§ 96B.) In the later Mid.W. 

period the past subjunctive in a pluperfect sense tended to be 

replaced by the pluperfect indicative (§ lOpc); sometimes in the 

same passage one text has the original subjunctive while another 

has the pluperfect indicative, e.g. kyn nys ry welhei WB. 454 = yr 

nas gwelsei RB. 102^ 5 though he had not seen her; pei 

as gorchymynnut WB. p. 216 = pei as gorchymynnassut RB. 

280, 7 if thou hadst commanded it. The indicative origin of the usage 

is particularly clear in forms like pei doethoed if he had come 

LA. 17. 

Note. — This substitution is parallel to the general tendency to replace 
the subjunctive stem by the indicative ; it was noted above that no 
instances have been found of subjunctive h after s ; thus, if ysswn from yssu 
to eat might be either indicative or subjunctive, a pluperfect indicative like 
carasswn / had loved might easily have come to be used in a subjunctive 
sense. In ry wnelsut WB. p. 223 = gwnelut WB. 445, RB. 290, a 
pluperfect has been formed analogically to the past subjunctive gwnelut 
(§ 142). 



70 THE VERB. [§ 112. 

The Usages of the Subjunctive. 

112. A thorough investigation of the uses of the subjunctive as 
contrasted with the indicative in Mid.W. is still wanting^. The 
following examples may serve to illustrate the principal types; 
further instances will be found under the conjunctions. Under the 
various headings are given, so far as they occur, (a) instances of the 
present subjunctive, (/S) instances of the past subjunctive. 

113. A. The subjunctive in main clauses. 
(a) Wish. 

(a) an duch ir gulet may He bring us to the feast BB. 20^; Duw a 
rotho da itt may God give good to thee WB. p. 204 ; ny bo teu dy 
benn may not thy head be thine RB. 103, 6. 

Note. — A wish with reference to the past is expressed by the indicative, 
e.g. Ocli lessu na dyffv wy nihenit Jesus! that my death had come 
(lit. Alas! Jesus, that my death did not come) BB. 25^; och Gindilic na buost 
gureic would, Cynddilig, that thou hadst been a woman BB. 46*. 

(b) Command. 

(a) yscythrich fort a delhich ti. a llunhich tagneuet make 
smooth a road that thou may est come and cultivate peace BB. 42^; dos 
. . . ac erchych hynny idaw^^ and ask that of him RB. 102, 1 1 ; dyuot 
a wnelhych gennyf come with me RB. 118, 2 ; dabre genhiw nym 
gwatter come with me^ let me not be refused BB. 51*. 

ifi) In indirect speech a command is transferred to the past sub- 
junctive, e.g. Agamemnon ... a d[y]wawt y peidei ef ar llywodraeth 
honno yn Uawen ... a g"OSSOttynt hwy y neb a vynnynt yn y le ef 
Agamemnon said that he would gladly give up that command^ and that 
they should set whomsoever they pleased in his place RB. II. 24. 

(c) Futurity. This usage is common in poetry, but rare in prose, 
(a) ohonot ti yt g"afifo ef kanys ry gafifo o ^xdiSS.from thee he shall 

get it, though he has not got it from another WB. 453; nyth atter ti 
( = nyth ellyngir di RB. 104, 8) y mywn thou shall not be admitted 
WB. 457 ; nyt arbettwy car corff y gilyd one kinsman will not 

* A beginning has been made by Atkinson, On the Use of the Sub- 
junctive Mood in Welsh, " Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 1894," 
pp. 459 sq., but he deals only with the present subjunctive. 



§ 114.] THE VERB. 71 

spare the body of another FB. 127 ; cad a uyt ym Mynyt Carn a 
Thrahaearn a later there will be a battle in Mynydd Carn, and 
Trahaearn will be slain MA. I42^ 

114. B. The subjunctive in subordinate clauses. 

(a) Negatively after verbs of thinking, swearing, etc. 

(a) ny thybygaf inheu na wypych ti haedu ohonaw ef hynny 
/ do not think that thou dost not know that he has deserved that RB. 
II. 157 ; hyt na bo neb a wypo na bo ti vo Gwrlois so that no one 
may know that thou art not Gwrlois RB. II. 179; mi a tynghaf 
dynghet idaw na chaffo ef enw yny kaffo gennyf i / lay this fate 
on him that he will not get a name till he gets it from me RB. 69, 21 ; 

rodwch gret na wneloch gam idi if ye pledge yourselves to do her 
no wrong RB. 117, 15. 

Note 1. — But in indirect speech as such the indicative is the mood used. 
With the last example contrast : y Duw y dygaf vyg kyflfes nae werthu 
nae ellwng nas grvnaf i / vow to God that I will neither sell it nor let it go 
RB. 56, 8 ; similarly 215, 15. 

(/5) nyt er tebygu ohonaw ef na bei deilwg it was not because 
he thought that it was not worthy RB. II. 26 ; neb or ae gwelei ny 
wydyat na beynt eur no one who saw them knew that they were not 
gold RB. 62, I. After a primary tense : — na wn . . . pei kahwn dysc 
nas gwypwn / do not know that, if I got instruction, I would not 
know how to do it WB. 127. 

(b) In indirect interrogation. 

(a) aet un y wybot pwy vo let some one go to learn who he may be 
RB. 9, I ; manac y mi pa furyf y g"allwyf hynny show me how I can 
do that RB. 3, 4 ; yny wyper a uo byw until it be known whether he 
will live RB, 261, 4 ; y edrych a allwyf y dial arnaw to see whether 

1 can avenge him on him RB. 204, 12 ; dewis ae ti a elych yr llys ae 
titheu a delych gyt a mi y hela ae minneu a yrro vn or teulu 
choose whether thou wilt go to the court, or whether thou wilt come 
with me to the chase, or whether I shall send one of the household 
RB. 237, 9. 

ifi) heb wybot pwy vei eu gelynyon pwy vei eu gwyr ehunein 
without knowing who were their enemies, who their own mejt 
RB. II. 105; val yd oed Kynan Meiradawc yn pedrussaw beth a 
wnelei as Kynan Meiradawg was hesitating as to what he should do 



72 THE VERB. [§ 114. 

RB. II. 114; a medylyaw pa ffuruf y gellynt ymlad ar deu lu and 
they considered how they could fight with the two armies RB. II. 76; 
ef a peris y dwyn yw lys y edrych a uei vyw he caused him to be 
brought to his court to see whether he would live WB. p. 222, 

Note 2. — But in dependent interrogation as such the subjunctive is not 
required, e.g. ny wn i pwy wyt ti / do not know who thou art KB. 2; s:ovyn 
a oruc pA\'y oedynt a pha le pan hanhoedynt a phy daear y magyssit amei 
a phy achaws y dathoedynt y deyrnas ef he asked who they were, and 
whence they came, and in what land they had been reared, and for what 
reason they had come to his kingdom RB. II. 131 ; gouyn a wnaeth ae 
offeiryat oed ef he asked if he was a priest Hg. I. 33 ; edrych yn y chylch 
a oruc a yttoed ef yn defFroi she looked round about her to see if he was 
awaking RB. 274, 30. 

(c) Concessive clauses: — 

(a) a chyt archo ef ytti yr eil na dyro and though he ask thee for 
a second {blow), do not give it RB. 3, 19; tydi am gwely i kany 
welwyf i dydi thou shall see me, though I do not see thee RB. 173, 18. 

(/5) a chyt bei lityawc ef wrthi hi ef a gymyrth y rybud and 
though he was angry with her, he took her warning WB. p. 215. 

(d) Conditional clauses: — 

(P) e.g. pei as gwypwn mi ae dywedwn if I knew it, I would 

tellifKB. 130, 5; bei ys CUypun...nys gunaun if I had known it 

I would not have done it BB. 41*; or gwnelei ef hynny ynteu a 

rodei y verch idaw ef if he did that he would give him his daughter 

RB. II. 26. 

Note 3. — In present conditional clauses the present indicative wdth o is 
used (§ 224*). 

(e) Clauses of comparison : — 

(a) gwnaet iawn mal y barno goreugwyr y llys let him give satis- 
faction as the nobles of the court shall decide RB. 261, 4. 

(/3) mal y dyckei eu teghetuenneu y ffoassant they fled as their 
fortunes led them RB. II. 73. Of unreal comparison, e.g. llyma 
yssyd iawnhaf itti . . . dyuot yma auory ym kymryt i mal na 
wyppwn i dim y wrth hynny that is thy most proper course, to come 
here to-morrow to take me as if I knew nothing about it WB. p. 215. 

(f ) Temporal clauses : — 

(a) o lladaf i y gwr racco mi ath gaf ti tra vynhwyf. a gwedy 
nath vynhwyf mi ath yrraf ymdeith if I slay yonder man, I will 



§ 114.] THE VERB. 73 

take thee as long as I desire ; and ivhen I no longer desire thee, I 
will cast thee forth WB. p. 215 ; pan agorer y creu beunyd yd a 
allan when the sty is opened every day, it goes out RB. 78, 7 ; pan 
delych dy hun yth wlat ti a wely a wneuthum yrot ti when thou 
thyself contest to thy land, thou wilt see what I have done for thee RB. 6 ; 
ny luniaf i esgydyeu idi yny welwyf y throet / will not shape shoes 
for her till I see her foot RB. 70, 24. 

ifi) a pheri yr kigyd gwedy y bei yn dryllyaw kic dyuot idi 
a tharaw bonclust arnei beunyd and he made the butcher, after he had 
been cutting up the flesh, come to her and box her ears every day RB. 
34, 9 ; a ffan uei hyttraf Gereint y llawenhaei y gwr and whenever 
Gereint prevailed, the man rejoiced WB. 398 ; tra uei y mywn coet 
ar vric y coet y kerdei while he was in a wood, he would travel on the 
top of the wood RB. 108, 21; y byryw[y]t y kalaned yn y peir yny uei 
yn llawn the corpses were thrown into the cauldron till it was full 
RB. 39, 23. 

(g) Final clauses, and clauses following verbs of effecting, 
commanding, desiring, etc. 

(a) carchara wynt hyt nat elont dracheuyn imprison them so that 
they may not go back RB. 34, 14; mi a wnaf na chaffo ef viui vyth 
/ shall effect that he shall never get me RB. 13, 16; ny allaf i na 
chysgwyf / cannot refrain from sleep RB'. 277, 4; sef y harchaf itt 
na mynnych wreic my request of thee is that thou shall not seek a 
wife RB. 100, 20. 

{fi) ereill a gyghorei it rodi dy uerch y un o dylyedogyon y 

deyrnas hon ual y bei vrenhin gwedy ti others counselled thee to give 

thy daughter to one of the nobles of this kingdom, so that there might 

he a king after thee RB. II. 114; Andromacta...a anuones at Briaf 

y beri idaw wahard Ector nat elei y dyd hwnnw yr vrwydyr 

Andromache sent to Priam to get him to prevent Hector from going to 

the battle that day RB. II. 22; adolwyn a wnaeth Elenus na wnelit 

hynny Helenus begged that that might not be done RB. II. 32. 

Note 4.— But in mere consecution the indicative is used, e.g. ar y Ilech 
y mae kawc aryant wrth ^adwyn aryant mal na ellir eu gwahanu on the 
Hag there is a silver goblet on a silver chain, so that they cannot he 
separated RB. 167 ; kyscu a wneuthum i ual na wybuum pan aeth ef / slept 
so that I did not know when he went RB. 247, 26. 



74 THE VERB. [§ 114. 

(h) Relative clauses, including similar clauses of a non-relative 
type. 

(a) wely di a wnelych here is what thou must do RB. 271, 23 ; 
kein wlad nef boed ef yt el the fair land of heaven^ may it be there 
that he goes MA. 263b; a vo penn bit bont let him who is head be 
bridge RB. 36 ; y gymeint a wypwyf i mi ae dywedaf all that I 
know I will tell RB. 131 j o mynwn nineu arueru o rydit a vo hwy 
if we wish to enjoy freedom any longer ; pwy bynnac a vynno 
kanlyn Arthur bit heno y Ghernyw gyt ac ef whoever wishes to 
accompany Arthur^ let him be with him to-night in Cornwall RB. 160; 
kymer y march kyntaf a welych take the first horse that thou seest 
RB. 9; na uyd...yr a dotter yndi vyth however much be put into it 
it will never be {full) RB. 15; ny cheiff ymwan...y gwr ny bo gyt 
ac ef y wreic vwyhaf a g'arho no man will be allowed to contend who 
has not with him the lady whom he most loves RB. 252 ; a oes 
ohonawch chwi a adnapo y uarchoges racco is there any ofie oj 
you who knows yonder horsewoman? RB. 8; keis ath ladho seek 
someone to slay thee RB. 5; gwna ty...y g"eing"ho ef make a house 
in which he may find room RB. 37, 21 

(/?) Sef y gwelei y Hew yn y ganlyn . . . ual milgi a uackei ehun he 
saw the lion following him like a hound that he had reared himself 
RB. 187 ; pedeir meillonen gwynnyon a dyuei yn y hoi myn yd elhei 
four white blades of clover grew after her wherever she went WB. 
476 ; digavn oed hynny yn tal gwasanaeth a uei uwy nor un a 
wneuthum i that were sufficient as pay for a greater service than that 
which I have done WB. 426 ; a pheth bynnac a dywettei Peredur 
wrthi chwerthin a wnay hitheu yn uchel and whatever Peredur said 
to her, she laughed aloud KB. 237; a chymeint oed eu gwybotac nat 
oed ymadrawd . . . yr isset y dywettit . . . nys g'wypynt and such 
was their knowledge that there was no conversation., however low it 
was uttered., that they did not know RB. 94, 18. After a primary tense : 
kynhebic yw yr neb a wasgarei gemeu mawrweirthyawc dan 
draet moch he is like one who should scatter precious stones under the 
feet of swine RB. II. 122. 



§ 117.] THE VERB. 75 



The Imperative. 

115. In the active the imperative has two persons in the singular 
and three in the plural ; in the passive it is identical in form with 
the subjunctive. The negative is na. Examples : — gat i mi vynet 
allow me to go ; na wiscet dim ymdanei let her not put anything 
on ; kyrchu tref arall a wnawn let us make for another town ; na 
rodher let there not be given. The only idiom that calls for special 
notice is the following : — mi a rodaf vy iarllaeth yth uedyant a 
thric gyt a mi / will give my earldom into thy possession, if thou 
wilt stay with me (lit. and stay with me) RB. 278, 14. 



The Participle Passive in -edic. 

116. Examples : — arueu y gwyr lladedic the arms of the slain 
men ; ynteu madeuedic yw ganthaw y godyant ef as for him, the 
injury done to him is forgiven by him WB. 404 ; Gwawl ... a doeth 
parth ar wled a oed darparedic idaw Gwawl went to the feast 
that was prepared for him ^K^. 14, 22. 



The Verbal in -adwy. 

117. Examples : — nyt barnadwy yn volyant it is not to be judged 
a praise Hg. II. 83 ; nyt kredadwy it is not to be believed CM. 
1 1 1 ; a chanys credadwy y w y anedigaeth credadwy y varwoly- 
aeth and since his birth is credible, his death is credible CM. 2 1 ; 
midwyf bard moladwy / am a poet worthy of praise FB. 203 ; odit 
a uo molediw few are worthy of praise FB. 272 ; os da gennyt ti 
ac or byd ragadwy bod it if thou approvest and if it is pleasing to 
thee RB. II. 133; a phrofadwy yw ry golli ohonaf i vyn ngolwc 
and it is clear that I have lost my sight Hg. I. Zt^ ; vegys bilein 
profadwy lihe a proved villain Hg. II. 129. 



76 THE VERB. [§ ii8. 

The Verbal Noun or Infinitive. 

Formation. 

118. The following are the chief types of formation of the verbal 
noun : — 

(a) The prehistoric suffix has disappeared, so that the verbal 
noun is now identical in form with the stem of the verb. Examples : 

ammeu doubt \ amheu-af/ galw^^//: galw-af 

doubt gellwng /.?/^<?: gellyng-af 

C3r7arch ask : cyvarch-af gwarandaw ti'sten : gwaran- 
dianc escape: diangh-af daw-af 

diodef sufer : diodev-af Had s/ay : llad-af 

Further in some denominatives, e.g. bwytta eatmg : bwytta-af, 
cardotta beggings lledratta stealing, pyscotta fishing. 

119. (b) The verbal noun still shows a suffix. 

(a) -i, e.g.— 

bod-i drown : bod-af mol-i (O.W. molim) />raise : 

cyvod-i rise : cyvod-af mol-af 

erch-i (O.W. erchim) ask : per-i cause : par-af 

arch-af tew-i be silent : taw-af 

meneg-i shew : manag-af torr-i break : torr-af 

(/?) -u, e.g.- 
ca.n-u sing: can-af gwassanaeth-u minister: 

car-u love : car-af gwassanaeth-af 

dysg-u teach ; dysg-af mynn-u desire : mynn-af 

gall-u be able : gall-af pryn-u buy : pryn-af 

This is the common form of the verbal noun from denominatives 
in -ha-, e.g. cennatta-u send message : cennatta-af, dynessa-u 
approach : dynessa-af, rydha-u free : rydha-af. 

(7) -aw, e.g.— 

gwisg-aw clothe: gwisg-af bedydy-aw baptize: bedydy-af 
Uiw-aw colour : lliw-af medyly-aw think : medyly-af 



§ I20.] THE VERB. 77 

(8) -at, -et, -ut, e.g.— 

adeil-at build-, adeil-af gorderch-at make love: gor- 

derch-af 

cerd-et go : cerd-af 3rv-et drink -. yv-af 

gwel-et see : gwel-af 

dywed-ut (also dywedwyt) ymchoel-ut lum ; ymchoel-af 
say: dywed-af 
(e) Various suffixes found only in a few verbs : — 

cyvaryttake: cymmer-af 6i\\t follow: dilyn-af 

dyffryt protect : differ-af ymlit pursue : ymlyn-af 

edvryd restore : adver-af godiwes overtake : godiwed-af 

goglyt shun : gogel-af arhos await : arho-af 

adolwyn entreat : adolyg-af dwyn lead : dyg-af 
2S£ivryw protect \ amyg-af 

ehed-ec7?F : ehed-af red-ec run : red-af 

ered-ic plough : ard-af 

caffael, cael get: caff-af gallel (by gallu) be able: gall-af 

gadael (by gadu) allow : sev-yll stand: sav-af 

gad-af 

chwerthin laugh : chward-af igian sob : igi-af 
dsLrWein read : darlle-af Wevain cry: Uev-af 

Usage. 

120. The infinitive, being merely a verbal noun, has all the con- 
structions of a noun ; it has, however, become so far attached to the 
verbal system that it forms a perfect by prefixing the particle ry 
(§ 96c). Examples : — 

(a) nyt oed vynych yt gaffel bud it was not a common thing for 
vou to get profit ; mynneu a ryuedeis gallu ohonaw ef mynet yn 
dirybud y mi / wondered that he could go without informijig me ; 
gwedy Had y gwyr hynny after those men had been slain ; cyn awch 
mynet ymdeith atteb a geffwch before you depart (lit. before your 



78 THE VERB. [§ 120. 

going) you shall get an answer; heb y uenegi imi without showing 
it to me;y eu gochel to avoid them. 

(b) gwedy clybot yn Rufein ry oresgyn o Garawn ynys Brydein 
after it had been heard in Rome that Carawn had conquered the island 
of Britain. Sef a wnaethant llidiaw yn vwy no meint am 
ry wneuthur ac wynt kyfryw dwyll a hwnnw they were exceeding 
wroth that such treachery had been done to them RB. II. 75. 

121. The verbal noun has no distinction of voice. If it depends 
upon g"allu to be able or dylyu to owe., then^ if the sense be passive, 
g"allu and dylyu are put in the passive, e.g. gwreic y g"ellir 
dy wedut idi y bot yn deckaf or gwraged a woman of whom it can 
be said that she is the fairest of women; ni a atwaenwn y neb a 
dylyer y kymryt y gantaw we know those that ought to be taken 

from him RB. 16, 20. 

122. The agent with the verbal noun is commonly expressed by 
the preposition o following the noun (cf. the corresponding Irish 
construction with do)^ e.g. gwedy g"orwed ohonaw ef ar traws yr 
auon after he had lain across the river; gwedy ry g^SCU ohonaw 
after he had slept ; rac dy lad ohonaw lest thou shouldst be slain by 
him. It may also be expressed by the preposition y, e.g. tygu 
llyein mawr udunt wynteu y vot yn wir they swore great oaths 
that it was true Hg. II. 131 ; kymryt ofyn mawr y Vradmwnd 
Bradmwnd became sore afraid Hg. II. 133; gwedy udunt oresgyn 
yr holl wlat after they had conquered the whole country RB. II. 116 ; 
gwedy y Amic gaffel kennyat after Amic had got permission Rev. 
Celt. IV. 218; nyt oed neb o vilwyr y vort gronn heb idaw eu 
bwrw oil yr llawr there was no one of the warriors of the Round 
Table that he had not thrown down Hg. I. 9 ; yr y pawb 
disgynnu though everyone else dismounted RB. 105, 7. Or the 
verbal noun may be preceded by a possessive adjective, e.g. gwedy 
eu dyuot yr weirglawd after they came to the meadow Hg. I. 9. 

123. The verbal noun is often used in periphrasis with 
gwneuthur to do, e.g. dysgynnu ar y pren a wnant they will 
alight upon the tree ; ac yna ymlad a wnaem ninneu am y maen 
and then we would fight for the stone ; a cherdet recdi yr coet a 



§ 126.] THE VERB. 79 

oruc y uorwyn and the maiden went on to the wood ; rodi penn y 
karw a wnaethpwyt y Enid the head of the stag was given to Enid. 
124. The verbal noun may carry on the construction of a finite 
verb, e.g. drychauel y wyneb a oruc ynteu ac ydrych arnei yn 
llidiawc he raised his face and looked on her angrily WB. 419; 
kennatau y mab a orucpwyt, ae dyuot ynteu yr llys and the boy was 
sent for and came to the court WB. 454; ac a dywawt na wnaethpwyt 
oe bleit ef drwc yn y byt y Briaf, namyn rodi Esonia idaw ef o 
achaws y dewret and he said that on his part no evil in the world 
had been done to Priam, but that Hesione had been given to him for 
his valour RB. II. 5 ; pan bebiUo Lloegir in tir Ethlin a 
guneuthur Dyganhuy dinas degin when the English shall 
encamp in the land of Ethlin, and make Deganwy a strong fort 
BB. 28*; pan gyfodes y bobyl a chael Lawnslot megys yn uarw 
when the people rose and found Launcelot like one dead Hg. I. 155. 

125- Without a preceding finite verb the verbal noun may serve 
as an historical infinitive, e.g. tra yttoed vilwyr Arthur yn ymlad 
ar gaer, rwygaw o Gei y uagwyr a chymryt y carcharawr ar y 
geuyn while Arthur's warriors were fighting with the city, Kei broke 
through the wall and took the prisoner on his back RB. 131, 28; deuy 
yrof a Duw, heb ynteu. ae dwyn gyt ac ef yr uort oe hanuod, ac 
erchi idi vwyta yn uynych ^^ between God and me thou shall come," said 
he. A nd he took her to the table against her will and asked her repeatedly 
to eat RB. 289 ; a gwedy disgynnu Arthur yr tir dyuot seint Iwerdon 
attaw y erchi nawd idaw and after Arthur landed, the saints op 
Ireland came to him to ask his protection RB. 136; dyiiot ( = dyUOt 
a oruc RB. 126) y porthawr ac agori y porth the porter came and 
opened the gate WB. 487. 

126. The verbal noun has special uses with certain prepositions. 

(a) With yn the verbal noun has the force of a present participle 
(cf. the Irish construction with oc), e.g. val y gwelas y gwr...Peredur 
yn dyuot as the man saw Feredur coming; lleidyr...a geueis yn 
lletratta arnaf a thief whom I caught stealing from me. It is often 
used with the substantive verb to express continuing action; e.g. yr 
hynny hyt hediw yd wyf i yn darparu gwled ytti from that tim^ 



8o THE VERB. [§ 126. 

till to-day I have been preparing a feast for thee RB. '182 ; canys ar y 
medwl hwnnw yd wyt titheu yn trigfyaw since it is on this purpose 
that thou art fixed RB. 253 ; ual yd oed y sarff yn dyuot or garrec, 
y tharaw a oruc Owein a chledyf as the snake was coming from the 
rock, Owein struck it with a sword. When the verbal noun precedes 
the verb yn may be added, but it is more commonly omitted, e.g. yn 
eisted yd oedynt ar garrec Hardlech they were seated on the rock 
of Harlech RB. 26, yn adolwc y mae y ti arglwyd ( = adolwyn 
itti arglwyd y mae Erbin WB. p. 205) ellwng Gereint y uab attaw 
he entreats thee, Lord, to let go his son Gereint to him RB. 264; 
dywedut yrydunt ehun y maent they are saying among themselves 
WB. p. 211; medylyaw yd vjyil am considering RB. 75, 26 (but 
yd wyf yn medylyaw RB. 76, 22). 

(b) With gwedy after the verbal noun has the force of a perfect 
participle (cf. the use of Irish iar n-\ e.g. y mae gvedy mynet gyd 
a Gwenhwyvar y hystavell he has gone with Gwenhwyvar to her 
chamber WB. 408, a phan yttoedynt gwedy gware talym, sef 
y klywynt kynnwryf mawr when they had played a while, they heard 
a great din RB. 157; a ffan welas y gwr... Gereint gwedy caffel 
dyrnawd and when the man saw that Gereint had received a blow 
WB. 398; Enyt a oed heb gyscu y mywn ystauell wydrin, ar heul 
yn tywynnu ar y gwely, ar dillad gwedy ry lithraw y ar y dwy 
uron ef Enid was sleepless in a chamber of glass, with the sun 
shining on the bed, while the clothes had slipped from his breast 
WB. 416. 

(c) With can with and tan under the verbal noun is used in 
sentences like the following: Pascen...a gyffroes y bobyl honno... 
gan adaw udunt anheruynedic amylder o eur ac aryant Pascen 
stirred up that people, promising them an unlimited abundance of gold 
and silver RB. II. 169 ; tywyssawc Kernyw ae hymlynawd gan eu Had 
the prince of Cornwall followed them slaying them RB. II. 191 ; dyuot 
dracheuynt at Wenhwyuar dan gwynaw y dolur she came back to 
Gwenhwyuar bewailing her anguish RB. 249; (wynt) a gyrchassant 
parth a Ruuein dan anreithaw a wrthwynepei udunt they set out 
towards Rome, plundering all who resisted them RB. II. 75. 



§ 127.] 



THE VERB. 



8i 



Paradigm of the Regular Verb. 

127. Types: cam to love, and the denominative rydhaii to 
set free. Forms in brackets are forms that have not been noted 
from a verb of the type. 

INDICATIVE. 

Present and Future. 





sing. 


plur. 


sing. 


plur. 


I. 


car-af 


car-wn 


rydha-af 


rydha-wn 


2. 


cer-i, cer 


-y cer-wch 


rydhe-y 


rydhe-wch 


3' 


car 


car-ant 


rydha 


rydha-ant 


pass. 


cer-ir 




rydhe-ir 








Imperfect and Conditional. 




I. 


car-wn 


car-em 


rydha-wn 


(rydha-em) 


2. 


car-ut 


car-ewch 


rydha-ut 


ryda-ewch 


3- 


car-ei 


cer-ynt;^ 


rydha-ei 


rydhe-ynt 


pass, 


cer-it 




rydhe-it 








Preterite and Perfect. 




T. 


cereis 


carass-am 


rydheeis 


rydhaass-am 


2. 


cereis-t 


carass-awch 


rydheeis-t 


rydhaas-awch 


3- 


caras 


carass-ant 


rydha-awd 


rydhaass-ant 


pass. 


carat 




rydha-wyt 





Pluperfect. 

1. carass-wn (carass-em) (rydhaass-wn) (rydhaass-em) 

2. carass-ut (carass-ewch)(rydhaass-ut) (rydhaass-ewch) 

3. carass-ei (carass-ynt) rydhaass-ei rydhaess-ynt 
pass, carass-it (rydhaass-it) 





IMPERATIVE. 




I. 


car-wn 


(rydha-wn) 


2. car 


cer-wch rydha 


rydhe-wch 


3. car-et 


car-ent rydha-et 


(rydha-ent) 


pass. car(h)-er 


rydha-er 





82 THE VERB. |§ 127. 







SUBJUNCTIVE. 








Present. 




I. 


car(h)-wyf 
car(h)-oef 


car(h)-om 


rydha-wyf 


rydha-om 


2. 


cer(h)-ych 


car(h)-och 


rydhe-ych 


(rydha-och) 


3. 


car(h)-wy 


car(h)-wynt 








car(h)-oe 


car(h)-oent 


.,/ 




^r^~ 


car(h)-o 


car(h)-ont 


rydha-o >^^ f" 


rydha-wynt 
rydha-ont ^ 


pass, 


. car(h)-er 




rydha-er 








Past. 




I. 


car(h)-wn 


car(h)-em 


rydha-wn 


(rydha-em) 


2. 


car(h)-ut 


car(h)-ewch 


rydha-ut 


rydha-ewch 


3. 


car(h)-ei 


cer(h)-ynt 


rydha-ei 


rydhe-ynt 


pass. 


cer(h)-it 




rydhe-it 





Remarks on the Verbal Paradigm. 

Present and Future Indicative. 
128. (a) Sg". 3. Many verbs show vowel infection (§ 5), e.g. 
eirch : arch-af / ask, ceidw : cadw-af I preserve, ceiff : caff-af 
/ get, geilw : galw-af / call, lleinw : llanw-af / fill, peir : 
par-af / cause, peirch : parch-af / honour, seif : sav-af / stand, 
teifl : tafl-af / ^^5^/, etteil : attal-af / stop, gweheird : gwa- 
hard-af / forbid, lleveir : Uavar-af / speak, edeu, edy ; 
adaw-af / leave, edeu : adaw-af / promise, gwerendeu, 
gwerendy ; gwarandaw-af / liste?i, teu : taw-af / am silent, 
tereu, tery : traw-af / strike, gwyl : gwel-af / see, gweryt : 
gwared-af / help, cyll : coU-af / destroy, dyt : dod-af I put, 
Uysg : liosg-af / bum, hyllt : hollt-af / split, ryd : rod-af 
/ give, tyrr : torr-af I break, egyr : agor-af / open, envyn : 
anvon-af* / send, ervyll : arvoU-af / receive, erhys : arhos-af 
/ await, deffry : deffro-af / arouse, ffy : ffo-af I flee, try: tro-af 
/ turn. It should be noted that, except in the 3 sg. of the present, 



§ 129.] THE VERB. 83 

no vowel but a is subject to infection in the verb, e.g 2 pi. 
gwel-wch, rod-wch, fFo-wch (cf. § 7 note i). 

Note. — Irregular are: menyc : manag-af I shew; dyv^reit: dywed-af 
/ say. Z 

(b) From the denominatives in -hail, -a spreads as an ending to 
other verbs, e.g. cerda : cerdet ^0 go, teruyna : tervynu to e?id. 
Further, it is added again to the denominatives, e.g. gnottaa : 
gnotta-af / am ivont. Form -aa comes by contraction in 
Mod.W. -i. 

129. In the older language some other forms apj)ear. 

sg". I . By -af, -if is sometimes found, e. g. gwneif / xmll niake FB. 62, 
cenii I will sing MA. UC^, gweinif i I will serve 142^, cerif i / will love 147^ 

sg. 2. In this person there is also an ending -yd (i.e. yd, cf. Bret, -ez, 
Corn, -yth), e.g, ceryd thou lovest, gwesceryd thou scatterest, dywedyd thou 
say est, nodyd thou protectest, clywyd thou hearest. Cf. Arch. Cambr. 1873, 
pp. 143 sq. 

sg. 3. In O. Irish there are two forms of the ending, a longer which 
is found only in simple verbs, and a shorter which is used in compound 
verbs, and also in simple verbs when a negative or certain other particles 
precede, e.g. berid (from *bhereti) he carries, but ni beir (from *bheret) he 
does not carry, do-beir he gives. In Early Welsh there are traces of a 
similar distinction of ending, e.g. pereid y rycheu. ny phara ae goreu the 
trenches remain, he who made them remains not FB, 289 ; and in the 
proverb: trengid golud, ni threingmolud wealth perishes, fame perishes not. 
Further examples of the ending are : prinit buys, agit, egit goes ( =Mid.W. 
eyt FB. 304) in the 0,W. glosses ; llicrid : llygru destroy, reuhid : rewi 
freeze, ottid : odi snow, gosgupid simeps, tohid ; toi cover BB. 45=^, meccid : 
magu nourish BB. 45^, briuhid : briwaw break BB. 46^, cf. further Arch. 
Cambr, 1872, pp. 303 sq., 1873, pp. 145 sq. It will be seen that 
the h which appears in the old future (§ 130), and in the subjunctive 
has also made its way into these presents. In usage ivIid.W. 
agrees with O.Ir. in that the longer ending is not found when the 
verb is preceded by a negative, it differs from O. Ir. in that the 
longer ending has spread to compound verbs. In early poetry there 
seem to be instances of a corresponding present in -awt (which would 
originally belong to a-stems, cf. O, Bret, -ot in fleriot gl. ridolet, O. Ir. 
caraid, from *carati, loves, Lat. amat) : barywhaud grows a beard, 
gvyrhaud bends BB. 45*, llewychawt shines FB. 117, gwisgav^t clothes 
FB. 307. 

pi. 3. In the O.W. flosses by the ending -ant in itercludant gl. subigant 
there appears also -int in limnint gl. tondent, nertheint gl. armant, 
scamnhegint gl. levant. This ending seems to survive in Mid.W. poetry, 
e.g. diuryssint hasten BB. 45=\ 54^ (cf. pan vryssyant FB. 257), dywedynt 
will say FB. 223, torrynt will break FB. 229. It seems probable that this 
served as a primary ending, but the matter demands further investigation. 

Passive. — In the passive there is found in poetry and occasionally in 
proverbs a variety of forms in -tor, e.^^ megittor urill be nourished 15B. 
31^^, kenhittor will be sung BB. 26*', kwynitor is lamented FB. 280; 
kymysgetor is mixed FB. 181, kyrbwylletor voiY^ 6c mentioned Y)i.Wd', 



84 THE VERB. [§ 129. 

traethattor will he discoursed FB. 137, canhator** sung FB. 209 : brithottor 
is variegated BB. 17*. Cf. Arch. Cambr. 1872 pp. 305 sq., Dottin, Desinences 
verhales en B, 177 sq. These forms, which are clearly based on the longer 
form of the 3 sg. act., are especially common in the poetry of the twelfth 
century. Their syntactical function is present or future. 

130. In Early Welsh there are also some specially future forms : 

sg. 3 (a) -hawt (i.e. -hawd), e.g. parahaud will continue BB. 50^, 
briuhaud will break BB. 29^, methawd will fail WB. 457, lletawt loill 
spread FB. 236, llwyprawd ( : Uwybraw) will travel MA 232^. Cf. CZ. III. 
402. 

(b) After a negative, -haw : ny chafFaw will not get BR. 4^, nys gwnaw 
will not make FB. 126 ; but also a wnaw who will make FB. 150. 

PI. 3. -hawnt, e.g. O.W. cuinhaunt gl. deflebunt, gwnahawnt will 
make FB. 124, pebyllya^wnt will encamp FB. 212. 

Pass, -hawr, e.g. agorawr will he opened WB. 456, ffohawr there will he 
flight FB. 126, talhaur ivill he paid BB. 16'', nyn lladawr ive shall not he 
killed WB. 475, edmyccaur will he honoured BB. 29^. Cf. Dottin, op, cit., 
169 sq., CZ. III. 403. 

Note. — There also occur forms of the type of -ettor, -attor above, e.g. 
torredawd will hreak FB. 236, llettatawt will spread FB. 129, dygettaur 
ivill be led BB. 13*, lloscetawr unll he burned FB. 119, galwetawr will 
he called FB. 165. 



Imperfect Indicative and Conditional. 

131. sg". 3. (a) In poetry there is also an ending -i^, infecting a 
preceding a, e.g. ceri /oved, nQ6\ protected^ torri broke^ clywi heard. 
Cf. Arch. Cambr. 1874, p. 117, Cymmrod. IX. 54, Rev. Celt. VI. 16. 

(b) There is also an ending -at (i.e. -ad); see the irregular verbs 
gwybot (§ 143), adnabot (§ 144), pieu (§ 160), and the verb bot ^e\v-^-^ 
(§ 152). So in the plup. ry dywedyssyat had said MA. 48 5\ s^ ^ 

pi. 3. In this person there is an ending -eint : — achubeint ^ ' -.^ 
WB. 466 = pass, achubit RB. no, 28, caneint LA. 95 = cenynt " ^^^ 
Hg. II. 447, deueint, syrthyeint LA. 97, traweint Hg. II. 184, • 
llauuryeint ib. 213; cf. the subjunctive ket yyjeivt'- though they ^^-^ ' 
drank FB. 66, wyntwy yn Had gyt as ledeint they slaying though dlu^ ^£ 
they slew them FB. 2 76 = a chin ri llethid ve latysseint and before 
they were slain they had slain FB. 2i^, cf. Cymmrod. IX. 67. This 
-eint is an analogical formation to sg. 3 -ei. 

Note. — More peculiar is ny lesseint BB. 32* which seems to mean they 
were not slain (cf. yt lesseint FB. 285, lleseint MA. 194*^), apparently based 
on lias was slain ; cf. further meithyeint if a6' reared? lledeseint were slain? 
colledeint were destroyed? FB. 264, MA. 94\ 



§133.] THE VERB. 85 

Preterite and Perfect Indicative Active. 

^ 132. Sg. 3. In this person there is a variety of endings. 

(a) -as, e.g. bradas betrayed, caffas^<?^, gwelas saw. 

(b) -es, e.g. agores opened, dodes put, gweles saw. 

(c) -is, e.g. erchis asked, edewis left, gelwis called. 

(d) -wys, becoming -ws, e.g. bendigwys and bendigws 
blessed, cyscwys and cyscws slept. In the southern dialect -ws 
became the characteristic ending in this person. 

(e) -awd (i.e. awd), e.g. parawd caused, cerdawd journeyed, 
parhaawd continued. This is an encroaching ending, whence 
comes the Mod. literary Welsh ending -od. 

Note. — In early poetry there is an absolute ending -sit (corresponding 
to the present ending -it (§ 129), e.g. kewssit p'o^, prynessid bought, delyessid litfe,,,^ ^* 
(: dala) held. Cf. Arch, Cambr. 1873, pp. 151 sq. It corresponds to the 1 ^ 

O. Bret, ending in tinsit gl. sparsit, toreusit gl. attriuit. ""*' 

I I pi., 3 pi. In these persons by -sam, -sant, there appear also 
-som, -sont. 

Plur. — In the plural there are three types of formation, (a) 
-sam, etc., (b) -assam, etc., (c) -yssam, etc., e.g. — 

(a) cawsam, cawsawch, cawsant : caffael get, kymersam, 
kymersant : cymryt take, gwelsam, gwelsant : gwelet see. 

(b) d3rwedassam : dywedut say, Uadassant: Had slay, 
nessaassant : nessaii approach. 

(c) dodyssam, dodyssant: dodi place, kwplayssam: 
kwplaii complete, nessayassant : nessaii approach. 

133. In Mid.W., as in Mid.Ir., the s-preterite has become the 
prevalent formation, in which the other types of the preterite tend to 
merge. But particularly in poetry, and especially in the 3 sg., there 
are examples of two other types of the preterite. 

(a) The t-preterite (corresponding to the Irish t-preterite, e.g. 
asbert he said-, asbeir says), 
canu sing : sg. i ceint and ceintum, sg. 2 ceuntost, sg. 3 cant. 

gwan pierce : sg. i gweint, sg. 3 gwant. 

cymryt take : sg. 3 kymerth, kymyrth. 

diffryt protect : sg. 3 differth, diffyrth. 



86 THE VERB. [§ 133. 

mynet go : aeth ( = Ir. acht) wenf (§ 140) ; in composition 
doeth (§ 141), and sg. I ymdeith zven^ about^ sg. 3 ymdaeth. 
gwneuthur make : gwnaeth (§ 142). 
magu nourish : sg. 3 maeth, pi. 3 maethant. 

' ^ dyrreith returned ( sjr^g-). ^r- -,(<■>.. 

amwyn protect : sg. 3 amwyth. 

dydwyn bring : sg. 3 dydwyth. 

(b) Forms with reduplication, or imreduplicated forms of the , , 
type of O.Ir. raith ran\ rethid runs. %'"«/- ^-' # ^- ^^^Z,^(Vd^T'"^' ^ 

clybot hear', sg. i kigleu ( = Ir. cuala from ^cuklova) and A^*-*/^ 

:kiglef, sg. 3 kigleu. ( Jj;j~ .^.u^.^-^ 

adnabot recognize \^'eXvj2^^vi (§ 144). j, \ )j ;,^,.,,. 

' dywedut say : sg. 3 dywawt, also dywot, dywat (cf. Ir. 

adcuaid has related from *ad-co-fajth)Pf" 
godiwes overtake : sg. 3 godiwawd. . 

gwaret help : sg. 3 gwarawt ( = Ir. fo-raith helped). (^*^^^^'^? ^*^ ^ 
The same form of inflexion is exhibited by : — . \^'^r> » ^ ^,^.'\ 

amwyn defend: sg. 3 amuc. ^'""" ' ac-u.^ \^''' 

dwyn lead: sg. i dugum, sg. 2 dugost, sg. 3 due, pi. i 

dugam, pi. 3 dugant. 
gwneuthur make :' goruc (§ 142). 
Here seems to belong also amkawd said, pi. 3 amkeudant, 

frequent in the WB. text of Kulhwch and Olwen. 

Preterite and Perfect Indicative Passive. 

134. In origin the Welsh like the Irish preterite passive developed 
out of a past participle passive in -to-, identical in formation with 
Latin participles like captus, amatus, etc. 

(a) In lias ( = Ir. -slass) : Had slay and gwys ( = Ir. -fess) : 
gwybot know, the t of the suffix together with the dental of the 
root has become SS, S (§ Iia; cf Lat. missus : mitto, etc.). 

(b) -at, e.g. gwelat : gwelet see, caffat ; caffael get. 

(c) -et, e.g. dodet : dodi place, llosged : Uosgi bum. 

(d) -it, e.g. edewit : adaw promise, erchit : erchi ask^ 
gelwit: galw call. 



§ 136.] THE VERB. 87 

(e) -wyt, liable to become -wt, e.g. cymerwyt : cymryt 
take, hewyt ; heii sow, lladwyt : Had slay, kennatawyt : 
kennataii send. 

(f) Forms in -pwyt, e.g. dywespwyt and dywetpwyt : 
dywedut say, clywspwyt, clywyspwyt; clybot hear, dech- 
reuspwyt : dechreu begin, roespwyt : roi give, kanpwyt : 
canu sing, gwanpwyt : gwanu pierce,^ ducpwyt : dwyn lead, 
maethpwyt : magu nourish, gwassanaethpwyt : gwassan- 
aethu serve, talpwyt : tdXupay. Cf. Cymmrod. IX. 75 sq. 



Pluperfect Indicative. 

135. Corresponding to the three types in the plural of the 
preterite active, there are in the pluperfect three types (a) -swn, 
(b) -asswn, (c) -ysswn, e.g. : — 

(a) cawssei : caffael get, gwelsei, gwelsynt, pass, gwelsit : 
gwelet see, edewssit : adaw leave. 

(b) mynasswn : mynessynt, pass, mynassit : mynnu desire, 
cysgaissei : cysgu sleep, lladassant, pass. Uadessit : Had slay, 
gnottaessynt : gnottaii be accustomed. 

(c) archyssei, pass, erchyssit, archyssit: erchi ask, 
managyssei : menegi shew, Uadyssit : Had slay, mynnessynt : 
mynnu demand, gnottayssei : gnottaii be accustomed. 

136. (a) In the active there is a periphrastic pluperfect with -oed 
was in athoed (§ 140), doethoed (§ 141), gwnaethoed (§ 142). 
Forms in -oed occur also from caffael get, e.g., sg. i cawssoe- 
dwn, sg. 2 cawssoedut, sg. 3 cawssoed, cassoed, cawssoe- 
dyat, pi. 3 cassoedynt, pass, cassoedit ; further mynnassoed : 
mynnu ; planasoed ; rodassoed, roessoed ; rassoed, pass. 
rossoedit : rodi. Cf. Cymmrod. IX. 76 sq. 

(b) In the passive there are some periphrastic forms with -oed I — 
sg. 3 archadoed had been asked : erchi ask, dysgadoed : dysgu 
teach, ganadoed, ganydoed: geni be bom, managadoed: 
menegi shew; further cathoed : caffael get. Cf. Cymmrod. 
IX. 77. 



88 THE VERB. [§ 137. 

Imperative. 

137. Sg. 2. From denominatives in -hail a spreads as an ending 
to other verbs, e.g. prydera : pryderu ^e anxious, paratoa: 
paratoi prepare. Further a is added again to the denominatives, 
e.g. cwplaa : cwplali complete, naccaa : naccaii refuse. From 
-aa comes Mod.W. -a. 

Sg". 3. There appears sometimes an ending -it, e.g. bernit (v.l. 
barned): barnu judge MA. 182^ elhid: mynet go WB. 31*, 
gobwyllit: gobwyllaw take heed FB. 199, gwrthledit : 
g^wrthlad repulse LA, 26, gwrthottit : gwrthot repel Y^. 125, 
rwydheyt: rwydhali make easy RB, 228, madeuit: maddeu 
forgive Hg. II, 185, rothit: rodi give BB. 47*. It will be observed 
that these forms shew the subjunctive stem. 

Present Subjunctive. 

138. In the 3 sg. and 3 pi. the o forms become the regular forms 
in Mid.W. Sometimes o spreads to the i sg., e.g. gwysgof WB. 
97. In the pass, an wy form appears in rothwyr FB. 109. 

Note. — For duch may he lead, gwares may he help, see § 110, note 2. 

Past Subjunctive. 

139. In the passive by -it there is found sometimes -et : 
cladhet WB. 469 = cledit RB. 112: cladu bury, gofynnet WB. 
p. 2 2o = gouynnit RB. 286 : govynnu ask, Uafassed : llavassu 



'" ^^* ^/ • 


Irregular 


[VE. 




140. myn( 

Indicat] 




Present and 


Future. 


sing. 






plur. 


I. af 






awn 


2. ey 






ewch 


3- a 






ant 


pass, eir 








Note 1.— sg. 


3 absolute O.W. 


agit, egit, Mid.W. eyt. 



§140.] IRREGULAR VERBS. 89 

Imperfect and Conditional. 



I. 

2. 

3- 

pass. 


sing. plur. 

awn aem 

aut 

aey eynt 

eit 


I. 
2. 
3- 


Preterite and Perfect. 
euthum aetham 
aethost aethawch 
aeth aethant, aethont 



pass, aethpwyt 
Note 2.— sg. 3 absolute eithyd FB. 179, 188. 

(b) I. athwyf, adwyf, ethwyf, ethym 
edwyf 

2. athwyt, adwyt 

3. ethyw, edyw ethynt, edynt 

Note 3. — Forms (b) have a perfect sense, cf. § 141, note 4. 





Pluperfect. 


I. 


athoedwn 


2. 

3- 


athoed, adoed athoedynt 




Imperative. 


I. 


awn 


2. 


dos ewch 


3- 


aet aent 


Note 


4.— sg. 3 also elhid (§ 137). 




Subjunctive. 




Present. 


I. 
2. 

3- 

pass. 


el(h)wyf el(h)om 
el(h)ych el(h)och 
el el(h)wynt, el(h)ont 
. el(h)er 


J^OTE 


5.— Also, in future sense, sg. 3 aho RB. 140, 16, pi. 3 ahont FB. 128. 



90 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§140. 

Past. 
sing. plur. 

1. el(h)wn 

2. el(h)ut 

3. el(h)ei el(h)ynt 



pass, (el(h)it) 






141. dyvot come. 

Indicative. 

Present and Future. 

1. deuaf deuwn, down 

2. deuy, doy deuwch 

3. daw deuant, doant 

Note 1.— sg. 2 doit (i.e. doyd) BB. 51^1. 

Note 2. — In poetry there is also another set of forms in a future sense^: 
1 dybydaf 

/dybyd, d3rvyd, dybydawt dybydant 

o j deubyd 



j dypi,' dybi, dyvi 



,deupi, deubi 
Note 3. — Preceded by dy-: sg. 3 dydaw, pi. 3 dydeuant, pass, dydeuhawr. 

Imperfect and Conditional. 

1. down 

2. dout, deuyt 

3. deuei, deuhei, doey, doynt cA-a^-^fl---^ j'^ "^ 

doi 
pass, deuit 

Preterite and Perfect. 

(a) I. deuthum, doethum doetham 

2. deuthost, doethost, doethawch, doethoch 

daethost 

3. doeth, deuth, daeth deuthant, doethant, 

dothant, doethont 
pass, deuthpwyt, doethpwyt 



§141.] IRREGULAR VERBS. 91 

sing. plur. 



(b) 

(c) 



dyvuost 

dybu, dyvu, deubu dybuant, dsrvuant 

dothwyf, dodwyf dodym, deuthym 

dothwyt, dodwyt dodywch, doethywch 

doethyw, dothyw, dodynt, dethynt 
dodyw, dedyw 

Note 4. — Forms (b) are chiefly poetical, but dyvuost, dyvu, dyyuant 
occur in the prose of WB. Forms (c) are perfect in sense; in later Mid.W. 
they are replaced by forms (a), e.g. deuth RB. 126, 9 = dodyw WB. 486, 
deuthum RB. 105, 21 = dothwyf WB. 459, doeth RB. 115, 25, deuth RB. 
126, 9, = dodyw WB. 473, 486. 

Pluperfect. 
I. dathoedywn 
2. 

3. doethoed, daethoed, doethoedynt, dothoedynt 
dathoed, dothoed 

Imperative. 

1. down 

2. dyret, dabre dowch 

3. deuet, doet deuent, doent 

Note 5.— There is also a 3 sg. deuit Hg. II. 51, and delit Hg. I. 4, 307. 

Subjunctive. 
Present. 
T. del(h)wyf del(h)om 

2. del(h)ych del(h)och 

3- del del(h)wynt, del(h)ont 

^ pass. del(h)er 

Note 6. — There are also forms sg. 1 dybwyf, sg. 3 dyppo, dyffo, dyvo, 
deupo, dideuho, pi. 3 dyffont, pass, dyffer. 

Past. 

1. del(h)wn 

2. del(h)ut del(h)ewch 

3. del(h)ei del(h)ynt 

Note 7.— There is also 3 sg. dybei and dyffei. 



92 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 142. 





142. gwneuthur to make. 




Present and Future. 


sing. 


plur. 


I. gwnaf 


gwnawn 


2. gwney 


gwnewch 


3. gwna 


gwnant 


pass, gwneir 





Note 1.— Fut. sg. 3 gunahaud BB. 27^, gwnawt FB. 224, gwnaw FB. 
126, 150, pi. 3 gwnahawnt FB. 124. 

Imperfect and Conditional. 

1. gwnawn gwnaem 

2. gwnaut gwnaewch 

3. gwnaei gwnaent 
pass, gwneit 

Preterite and Perfect. 

(a) I. gorugum gorugam 

2. gorugost 

3. gpruc gorugant 
pass, gorucpwyt 

(b) I. gwneuthum gwnaetham, gwnaethom 

2. gwnaethost gwnaethawch 

3. gwnaeth, gwneuth gwnaethant, gwnaethont 
pass, gwnaethpwyt 

Note 2. — In poetry there is also sg. 3 goreu, cf. Mid. Bret, guereu. 

Note 3. — The gwnaeth forms encroach at the expense of the goruc 
forms, e.g. gorucpwyt WB. 452, 477, 487 = gwnaethpwyt KB. 100, 118, 127. 

Pluperfect. 

1. gwnathoedwn 

2. gwnaethodut 

3. gwnaethoed,gwnath- gwnathoedynt 

oed, gwnadoed 
pass, gwnathoedit 



§ 143.] IRREGULAR VERBS. 93 







Imperative. 




sing. 


plur. 


I. 




gwnawn 


2, 


gwna 


gwnewch 


3- 


gwnaet 


gwnaent 


pass. 


. gwnel(h)er 


Subjunctive. 
Present. 


I. 


gwnel(h)wyf 




2. 


gwnel(h)ych 


gwnel(h)och 


3- 


gwnel 


gwnel(h)wynt, gwnel(h) 
ont 


pass. 


gwnel(h)er 





Note 4.— sg. 3 also gunelwy BB. 24% gunaho BB. 35^ gwnaho FB. 119, 
235, pi. 3 gvnahont BB. 31% gwnahon FB. 155. With fut. ending 
gwnelawr FB. 213. 

Past. 

1. gwnel(h)wn 

2. gwnel(h)ut 

4. gwnel(h)ei gwnel(h)ynt 



pass. gwnel(h)it 



143. gwybot know, A.^x..<.-'^-^....^. 



Indicative, 
Present. 

1. gwnn gwdam, gwdom 

2. gwydost, gwdost gwydawch, gwdawch, 

gwdoch 

3. gwyr gwydant, gwdant 
pass, gwys 

Imperfect. 

1. gwydwn, gwydywn gwydem, gwydyem 

2. gwydut, gwydyut 

3. gwydat, gwydyat gwydynt 
pass, gwydit 



94 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 143. 

Iterative Present and Future. 
sing. plur. 

1. gwybydaf 

2. gwybydy gwybydwch 

3. gwybyd gwybydant 
pass, gwybydir 

Note 1. — In poetry there is also 3 sg. gwybi. 

Iterative Imperfect and Conditional. 

T. gwybydem 

2. gwybydut gwybydwch 

3. gwybydei 
pass, gwybydit 

Note 2. — This comes to be used for the past subjunctive, e.g. Bei ath 
wybydem if we had known thee FB. 122. 

Preterite and Perfect. 

1. gwybuum 

2. gwybuost 

3. gwybu gwybuant 
pass, gwybuwyt 

Pluperfect. 
3. gwybuyssynt 

pass, gwybuassit 

Imperative. 

1. gwybydwn 

2. gwybyd gwybydwch 

3. gwybydet, gwypet gwybydent 
pass, gwybyder 

Subjunctive. 
Present. 

1. gwypwyf gwypom 

2. gwypych gwypoch 

3. gwypwy, gwypo gwypwynt, gwypont 
pass, gwyper 



§ 144.] IRREGULAR VERBS. 95 

Past. 
sing. plur. 

1. gwypwn 

2. gwyput 

3- gwypei gwypynt 

144. adnabot recognize. •>- 

Indicative. 
Present. 

1. adwaen, adwen, atwen atwaenwn 

2. atwaenost etweynwch, atweynwch, 

etwenwch 
9. edwyn, atwen atwaenant 

Imperfect. 

1 . atwaenwn adwaenam 

2. atwaenut 

3. atwaenat, atwaeniat atwaenynt 
pass, etweinit 

Iterative Present and Futurb. 

1. adnabydaf, etnebydaf adnabydwn 

2. adnabydy 

3. adnebyd, ednebyd adnabydant 
pass, adnabydir 

Iterative Imperfect and Conditional. 

I . adnabydem 

2. 

3. adnebydei 

Preterite and Perfect. 

I . adnabuum adnabuam 

2. 

3. adnabu oiXottK^ y ^ adnabuant 



96 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 144. 

Imperative. 
sing. plur. 

I. 

2. ednebyd, adnebyd adnebydwch 

3- 

Subjunctive. 
Present. 

1 . adnapom 

2. adnepych 

3. adnapo adnappoent, adnappont 
pass, adnaper 

Past. 
I. 
2, 

3. adnapei 
pass, adnepit 

145. caffael, caffel, cahel, cael get. 

Indicative. 

Pres. and Fut. : — caffaf, ceffy, ceiff, etc.; also caf, cehy, 
cey, etc. 

Imperf. and Cond. : — caffwn, etc , also cawn, etc. 

Pret. and Perf. : — ceveis, ceis, ceveist, cavas, cawssam, 
cawssawch, cawssant, cawssont ; pass, caffat, cavat, 
cahat, cat. 

Pluperf. '.—{a) cawsswn, etc, {b) cawssoedwn, etc. (§ 136^). 

Subjunctive. 

Pres. : — caffwyf, etc. 

Past : — caffwn, etc., also cahwn, cawn, etc. . 

Note. — For an enumeration of forms see Cymmrod. IX. Ill sq. 



§151.] IRREGULAR VERBS. 97 

146. rodi, roi give. 

The peculiarity of this verb is that it has forms with and without 
d, e.g. ind, pres. sg. 2 rody and roy, imper. sg. 2 ro, subj. pres. 
sg. 3 rotho, rodo and ro. In the ind. pret, by rodeis, rodeist, 
rodes occur roesum, roesost, roes, and in the pass, by rodet, 
also roespwyt. In the plup, by the regular forms occur sg. 2 
roessut, sg. 3 roessei, royssei, roessoed, rasoed, pi. 3 
rassoedynt. 

147. tawr, dawr. 

This verb is used impersonally, e.g. ny-m-tawr if does not 
concern me RB. 284, 28, pathawr ( = pa-th-dawr) what does it 
concern thee? RB. 279, 19, ny-m-torei WB. 1 7 2 = ny-m-torei 
RB. I. 238, it would not concern me, ni-m-dorbi BB. 3o^ In the 
same sense is found the compound didawr ; verb, noun didarbot 
Hg. I. 320. 

148. VdO^Sgive. 

Only as imperative : — sg. 2 moes, pi. 2 moeswch. 

149. hwde take. Used only as imperative. 

150. med says. 

Inflected in the present and imperfect ; it is used in quotation, 
e.g. a wdost di pwy yw ? heb hi. gwnn, heb ynteu. Edyrn uab Nud 
5rw, med ef ^^dost thou know who he isV says she. '^Yes," said 
he. ^'' He is Edyrn son of Nudd, he says,^^ RB. 259; y gouynnei 
beth yssyd yman. Broch, medynt wynteu he asked what was 
there. ^^A badger," said they RB. 15. 

151. heb says. 

This word, of adverbial origin and uninflected, is used like Ir. 
ol to give the very words of the speaker, heb ef says he^ heb 
wynt they say, etc. 

Before a proper name heb is followed by y, yr, e.g. heb y 
Goewin, heb y Gwenhwyfar, heb yr Arthur. The same is 
not infrequently found before a pronoun, e.g. heb y mi RB. 32, 7, 
heb yr ynteu RB. 245, 181 =heb ynteu WB. 386, p. 217, heb 
yrefWB. 386 = heb ef RB. 245, heb yr wynt WB. 185 = eb 
wynt WB. p. 93* ; cf. Mod. W. ebr. No satisfactory explanation 
of this has yet been given. 



98 



THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. 



[§ 152. 



The Substantive Verb bot to be. 
Paradigm. 

Indicative. 

152. Present. 
sing. plur. 

1. wyf ym 

2. wyt ywch 

3. iw, yw ynt 
mae maent 
oes 

ys 

neut 

nyt is not 

nat is not (dependent) 

OS if it is 

yssit there is yssydynt 

OSSit if there is 

yssyd, syd, yssy, sy, rel. who^ which is^ are 

Impersonal ys, ydys 



/^,£>.'-v,.- 



e^. 
■^ 



X.'.^^ 



rH 



Past. 

1. oedwn oedem 

2. oedut, oedyt oedewch 

3. oed, oedat, oedyat oedynt 

Impersonal oedet 

Note 1. — There are also forms preceded by ytt, yd: yttwyf, yttiw, 
ydiw, yttoedwn, etc. 



Iterative Present and Future. 

1. bydaf bydwn 

2. bydy bydwch 

3. byd bydant 

Note 2. — Specially future forms : sg. 3 bythawt, bydhawt, bydawt, 
biawt, bi ; pi. 3 bydawnt. 

Note 3. — In poetry there seems to be a consuetudinal sg. 3 bit, cf. FB. 
245, 247, where the imperative sense does not suit. 



152.] THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. 99 

Iterative Imperfect and Conditional. 
sing. plur. 



1. bydwn 

2. bydut 

3. bydei 
impers. bydit 

Note 4.— Poetical forms: 


bydem 

bydewch 

bydynt 

sg. 3 buei, bwyat, pi. 3 buyint (i.e. bwyynt). 


Preterite and Perfect. 


I. buum, bum 


buam 


2. buost 


buawch 


3. bu 


buant, buont 


impers. buwyL 
I. buasswn 


Pluperfect. 


2. buassut 




3. buassei 


buassynt, buessynt, 
buyssynt 




Imperative. 


I. 

2. byd 

3. bit, boet, poet 


bydwn 

bydwch 

bint 


Note 5.— bynt is clearly imperative BCh. 17, cf. bint LA. 81. RB. 105 
las bint where WB. 457 has the future bythawd. 




Subjunctive. 




Present. 



1. bwyf, bof bom, bwym 

2. bych boch 

3- bo bwynt, boent, bont 

Note 6. — There are, particularly in poetry, analogical subjunctive 
forms from the indicative stem : sg. 1 bydwyf, sg. 2 bydych, sg. 3 bytho, 
pi. 3 bydont. 

Past. 

1. bewn beym 

2. beut 

3- bei beynt 

Note 7. — Both in poetry and in prose the past indicative is often used 
for the subjunctive, e.g. kyny bydwn WB. 172 = kyn ny bewn KB. 238. 
The impersonal pan uythit WB. 104 = pan vydit RB. 76 is a subjunctive 
form based on the indicative. 



100 THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. [§ 153. 

Remarks on bot. 
Present and Imperfect. 

153. The precise syntactical functions of the various forms of 
these tenses still require a detailed investigation, particularly their 
uses in early poetry. From the material to hand the following 
points of prose usage may be noted, (A) where the forms have 
the function of a substantive verb predicating existence, (B) where 
the forms are merely copular. 

154. A. Substantive verb. 

(a) In the 3 sg. pres. he is, etc., is expressed by mae, pi. maent, 
unless the verb is preceded by the negative or by other preverbal 
particles and conjunctions which are not followed by the particle 
yd (§ 93 g sq.), e.g. yma y mae brenhin Iwerdon here is the king of 
Ireland; o ellwng Riannon or poen y mae yndidiw from releasing 
Riannonfrom the punishment in which she is\ nat gan y vod y mae 
yn dyuot that it is not with his will that he is coming ; y mae y 
enw yn barawt his name is ready ; y maent yn symudaw enweu 
they are changing names. Mae is also used in the sense of where 
are ? e.g. mae Ynwl iarll . . . ae wreic ae uerch. maent ( = y 
maent RB. 256) yn y loft racco where are Ynwl and his wife and his 
daughter ? Ihey are in the chamber yonder WB. 400. In the sense 
of there is, there are yssit, yssydynt are found, e.g. yssit nas 
keffych there is something that you will not get RB. 121 sq.; chwedleu 
porth y gennyt. ysydynt gennyf hast thou tidings of the gate ? I 
have RB. 126. If the verb is preceded by a negative, etc., then 
(a) if the subject is definite yttiu, ydyw, pi. yttynt, ydynt are 
used, {P) if the subject is indefinite oes is used, e.g. — 

(a) nyt yttiu y clawr y lie kyntaf y kefeist the board is not where 
thou didst get it first RB. 241 ; nat ydiw y uorwyn honno yn y byt 
that that maiden is not in the world RB. 113; nyt yttynt namyn 
pedwar they are only four CM. 46 ; neut ydynt yn gynyon boneu 
vy esgyll the stumps of 7?iy wings are like wedges RB. 130 ; a yttiw 
Kei yn llys Arthur, yttiw is Kei in Arthur's court ? He is WB. 
143- 



§ 154.] THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. loi 

(/3) nyt oes yndi neb nyth adnapo there is no one in it who 
will not recognize thee RB. 3 ; a oes borthawr. oes is there a porter"^ 
There is RB. 103. With o if^ the definite form is ot ydiw, e.g. ot 
ydiw yg karchar if he is in prison RB. 179, the indefinite ossit, e.g. 
OSit rann y mi oth uab di if I have any part in thy son RB. 109; 
OSid ay hammehuo if there is any one who doubts it BCh. 53. The 
relative form is yssyd, e.g. y gwr hir yssyd yno the tall man who 
is there ; pa ryw chwedleu yssyd gennyt. nyt oes namyn da what 
kind of news hast thou ? Only good news. 

Note 1. — In poetry yssit is found also with a definite subject, e.g. 
yssit imi teir kadeir / have three seats FB. 154 ; yssit ym argluyd / have a 
lord MA. 176*. It seems to be a disappearing form, cf. y mae yni beth a 
wnelom we have something to do Hg. 1. 10, y mae ym ..a wnelwyf 69. 
Ossit also seems to be a disappearing form ; for ossit a uynho if there is 
anyone who desires WB. 122, RB. 197 lias : or byd neb kyenofnet. 

(b) In the first and second persons the subject is always definite, 
and here after negatives etc., yttwyf, ydwyf are usual both in the 
present and in the imperfect, e.g. nyt yttwyf ( = nyt ydwyf i 
WB. 437) yn ansawd / am not in a condition WB. p. 219; nyt 
yttoedwn i yn holi dim ytti / was not claiming anything from thee 
R13. 5. In the third persons of the imperfect there is in the 
Mabinogion a very general distinction after negatives etc., between 
(a) yttoed, ydoed when the subject is definite, (b) oed when the 
subject is indefinite, e.g. (a) ydrych yn y chylch a oruc a yttoed ef 
yn deffroi she looked about her to see if he was stirring WB. 424 \ 
pann yttoed ( = pan ydoed WB. 99) y dyd yn dyuot when the day 
was coming RB. 7 2 ; tra yttoed ef yn hynny while he was in that 
RB. 133 ; yny yttoyd y chwys ar gwaet yn dwyn lleuuer y llygeit 
udunt until the sweat and the blood were taking the light of their eyes 
from them WB. 398 ; (b) nyt oed dim yno there was 7iothi7ig there 
RB. ; Gereint a ofynnnawd y wr y ty a oed getymdeithon 
idaw . . . oes, heb ynteu Gereint asked the master of the house if he 
had friends. " / havej'^ said he. 

Note 2. — But there are a good many instances of (b for (a) : nat oes 
(=natydiwRB, 113) hi yn y byt that she is not in the world WB. 470; 
kwt ynt plant y gwr whe^x are the children of the mant WB. 458 ; pan oed 
y dya yn goleuhau when the day was beco'ming light RB. 72 ; yny oed yn y 
eidaw ef Ardudwy till Ardudwy was in his possession RB. 77 ; yny oed y 



102 THE SUBSTANTIVE VERB. [§ 154. 

gwaet yn lliwaw y llenn till the blood was colouring the mantle WB. 391 = 
KB. 249 ; yny oed ( = hyny j^ttoed WB. p. 218) eu llygeit yn colli eu Ueuuer 
till their eyes were losing their light WB. 435 = E,B. 283. 

Note 3. — In a number of cases the ytt-, yd- forms are found not 
preceded by a negative, etc.: berth yd ytwyt (=ydwytE,B. \\5) finely 
thou art WB. 473 ; yth ewyllys yd ydym we are at thy will RB. 66 ; hyt 
yd ydiw dayar as long as the earth is WB. 459 = RB. 105 ; ar hynny yd jrttoed 
yn deffroi thereupon he was stirring WB. p. 212; y^ma yd yttoedwn (=yd 
oedwn WB. 441, RB. 287) yn kerdet there I was journeying WB. p. 221 ; 
ual yd yttoed yn kerdet WB. 170== RB. 236; ymlodeu dy dewred yd 
yttwyt (=yt vyt WB. 413 = yd wyt RB. 266) thou art in the flower of thy 
might WB. p. 2f)7; for: o hynny yd yttoed RB. 218, WB. 149 has ac 
hyny yttoed, and for ae yd yttoed yn troi RB. 215 WB. 145 has y doeth 
yd ydoed yn troi. So in the present impersonal forms occur: vyg 
karcharu yd ydys (yd ydys om. WB. 235) / am imprisoned RB. 187 ; yn y 
gyveistydyaw yd ydys (=yd yttys WB. 167) it is being besieged RB. 233, 
by yd ys yn kadw or enw hwnnw that name is preserved RB. 60 ; yd ys yn 
Uuydaw yn an hoi there is a hosting after us RB. 63, 1. 

Note 4. — In Hg. I. yttiw, etc., are not unfrequently copula forms, e.g. 
gwell yttiw vy marw it is better that I should die 145, pa un ytwyt who 
art thou 95; cf. hyny yttoedynt (=yny oedynt WB. 446, RB. 291) kystal 
ac y buont oreu eiroet till they were as good as they had ever been VVB. 
p. 223. 

155. B. Copula. 

(a) In the third person of the present there is a variety of 
forms : — 

(a) ys, used (like Ir. is) at the beginning of a clause before its 
predicate, e.g. is gwell it is better; is gohelyon hwnn he is a 
remnant ; ys mi ae heirch it is I who ask her. It is often preceded 
by the conjunction can, e.g. kanys gwell yw genyt ti since thou 
preferrest \ kanys arnam ni y berneist since it is on us that thou 
hast passed judgment. 

Note 1. — In poetry ys is used with an infixed personal pronoun, e.g. 
yssim ediuar / repent BB. 51*, cf. O.Ir. issum ecen it is necessary for me. 

iP) yw, used when the predicate precedes, e.g. negessawl yw 
wrthyt he has business with thee ; pwy yw hi who is she ? miui 
yw Llwyt I am Llwyd ; y deu lyg'at yw y dwy lynn the two lakes 
are his two eyes ; nyt gwr yw hwnnw that is not a man ; kanys 
mawr yw since it is great. It is also used after the conjunction 
pan, e.g. y dyuedassant wynteu pan yw merchet ieirll oedynt 
they said that they were daughters of earls (cf. § 226, 5). 

(7) ynt is the plural form, e.g. bychein ynt wynteu they are 
small ; nyt ynt iach they are not whole. 



§ 156.] THE COPULA. 103 

(8) nyt is a negative form, e.g. nyt oet ymi gwreicka ^V is not 
time for me to wed; nyt egylyon y rei racko those yonder are not 
angels; nyt wyntwy bioed yr antur it is not to them that the 
adventure belonged. 

(e) nat is the dependent negative, e.g. menegwch . . . nat hawd 
gennyf ynheu nae lad ef nae diuetha declare that it is not easy 
for me to slay him or to destroy him. 

(f) OS is the form with o if, e.g. OS da gennyt ti if it seems good 
to thee ; OS wynteu ae med hi if it is they that have it in their 
power. 

(rj) ae is the interrogative = is it ? e.g. ae gwell is it better ? 
ae kySCU yd wyt ti art thou asleep ? 

(0) ponyt is the interrogative = is it not ? e.g. ponyt dros y neb 
yssyd yna is it not for one who is there ? 

(t) neut is the copula form with the particle neu (§ 220), e.g. 
neut araf he is gentle. 

(k) The relative form is positively yssyd, negatively nyt, e.g. 
kanys mi yssyd athro itt for it is I who am thy teacher ; gwaew 
nyt gwaeth a spear that is not worse. 

(A.) mae seems to be used where according to § 159 the 
predicate follows, e.g. am hynny y may reit y titheu uot therefore 
it is necessary for thee to be WB. 396, o achaws hynny y mae 
dygassawc yr adar yr tylluan because of that the birds are enemies 
to the owl RB. 80 ; yn y mae g"Oreu y gwyr where the men are 
best WB. 119. Mae is used also in indirect speech, e.g. menegi y 
Arthur mae mi ath vyryawd to declare to Arthur that it is I who 
have thrown thee WB. ; ereyll a deueyt e may hyn eu y naud 
others say that this is his protection BCh. 9. 

(/a) Otherwise the forms wyf, etc., are used for the copula, e.g. 
pwy wyt ivho art thou, yd ym drist ni we are sad, nyt oed ef 
nes idi he was no nearer to her, 

bydaf and bydwn. 
156. bydaf is used : — 

(a) As an iterative or consuetudinal present, e.g. mi a uydaf 
borthawr y Arthur bop duw kalan lonawr / am Arthur's gate- 



I04 THE COPULA. [§ 156. 

keeper every New Vea^s Day RB. 103, 7 ; lie ny bo dysc ny byd 
dawn where there is no learning there is no gift FB. 244. 

(b) As an historical present, e.g. ual y bydant yn eisted wynt 
a welynt gwreic as they were sitting they saw a woman RB. 8 ; 
a chyuaros Gereint a oruc yny uyd yn agos idi and she waited for 
Gereint till he was near her RB. 271, i. 

(c) As a future, the most common use, e.g. y gyt a mi y bydy 
yn dyscu marchogaeth thou shall be with me learning horsemanship \ 
mi a vydaf athro it / shall be thy teacher. 

157. bydwn is used : — 

(a) As an iterative or consuetudinal past, e.g. a phei vwyhaf uei 
y vrys ef pellaf vydei hitheu y wrthaw ef the greater his haste the 

further she was from him RB. 9, 5. 

(b) Describing a single action in past tense : ual y bydynt yn 
eisted wynt a welynt y wreic as they were sitting they saw the woman 
RB. 9, 29. 

(c) As a secondary future or conditional, e.g. wynt a welsant or 
kaffei vedic da y bydei vyw they saw that if he got a good leech he 
would live RB. 212, 12. 

Past Subjunctive. 

158. The following forms are to be noted : pel yt uewn i ( = bei 
etuOni WB. 71) yn dechreu vy ieuenctit if I had been in the 
beginning of my youth RB. 51, 24 ; beyt uei ar y ffuryf iawn if she 
had been in her proper form RB. 175, 18; ar mul ae kanlynawd megys 
pei at uei milgi and the mule followed him as if it had been a hound 
Hg. I., 336 ; hi a vynnei pet vei hi a Lawnslot yn y fforest she 
would that she and Launcelot were in the forest Hg. I., 368 j a 
phettut un wreic di or byt, ny mynnwn i ddim ohonat ti and if 
thou wert the only woman in the worlds I would desire nothing of 
thee Hg. II., 315. Like the modern pettwn these forms seem to 
express unreality. 



§ 159.] THE COPULA. 105 



Position of the Copula. 

159. In Middle Welsh prose in positive affirmative sentences 
(with the exception of ys which always precedes the predicate) the 
normal position of the predicate is before the copula, e.g. Lunet 
wyf i I am Lunet, cennadeu ym ni we are messengers, Uawen 
VU he was glad, reit vyd it will be necessary, trwy gynghor 
Branwen UU hynny oil all that was through the advice of Branwen. 
But the predicate follows the copula in the imperative, in negative 
and interrogative sentences, in subordinate clauses, and very 
generally when an adverb or an adverbial phrase precedes, e.g. a 
VO penn bit bont let him who is head be bridge, nyt da dy gyghor 
thy advice is not good, a wyt UOrwyn art thou a maiden ? o byd 
reit if it is necessary, tra vu da as long as it was good, ual y 
bydynt gadarnach so that they would be stronger, paham ydwyf 
trist i why am I sad ? yna y bu marw there he died, undyd ym 
penn y vlwydyn y bu barawt on the same day at the end of the 
year it was ready. But after adverbs and adverbial phrases there 
are instances where the predicate precedes, e .g. yna ryiied UU 
gan Arthur hynny then Arthur wondered at that Hg. I., 339 • 
am hynny reit vyd therefore it will be necessary Hg. I., 311 (by 
am hynny y byd reit 307) ; ar eil vlwydyn mab mawr oed 
and the second year he was a big boy RB. 69, 4. 

Note 1. — This order seems to have developed from sentences in which 
a copula form ys, etc., preceded, such as, e.g. canys gwr uuassei lit. since 
it is a man that he had been, os byw vyd lit, if it is alive that he shall he. 
Thus the development would he parallel to that of sentences like Peredur 
a oruc Peredur did (§ 85). 

Note 2. — In the early poetry the copula freely precedes the predicate, 
as in Irish. And in the more archaic prose there are instances of the same 
order, e.g. oed dyhed (=ys oed gryssyn RB. 116) kelu y ryw was hwnn it 
were a grievous thing to hide such a lad as that WB. 475 ; oed melynach, 
oed gwynnach WB. 476 = melynach oed, gwynnach oed RB. 117; 
oed reitWB. 487 = asoed reit RB. 126, 27; oed glyssyn WB. 151 =ys oed 
gryssyn RB. 220; oed dyhed mawr, oed iawn RB. 173; oed well RB. 
176. As to as oed, ys oed the as, ys is in origin the infixing particle a 
(§ 94) with an infixed pronoun which has become meaningless, cf. as bwyf 
may I he! MA. 142^; this usage has developed from cases like ys caffo 
dru^ared may he find mercy! MA. 224^^, where formally s may be an 
anticipation of the object. 



io6 COMPOUNDS OF BOT. [§ i6o. 

Compounds of bot. 
i6o. ar-gan-vot perceive, can-vot perceive, cjrv-ar-vot 
encounter, dar-vot to be ended, gor-VOt overcome, han-vot to be 
sprung. 

Indicative. 

Present. 
sing. plur. 

1. canhwyf; handwyf, handym, hanym, henym 

hanwyf, henwyf 

2. handwyt, hanwyt, 

henwyt 

3. cenyw; deryw, derw; derynt; henynt 

henyw 

Note 1. — sg. 3 handit RB. 71, 178, and frequently in poetry ; cf. 
Cymmrod. IX. 116, CZ. III. 389. hanvit Hg. I. 200. 

Imperfect. 
sing. plur. 

2. handoedut 

3. canoed; daroed; hannoedynt 

handoed, hanoed 

Future. 

1. gorvydaf gorvydwn 

2. gorvydy; henbydy C5rvarvydwch 

3. cyvervyd; dervyd; 

hanbyd, henbyd 
pass, gorvydit 

Iterative Imperfect and Conditional. 

3. C5rvarvydei ; gorvydei ; gorvydynt 
hanbydei 
pass, gorvydit 

Note 2.— sg. 3 handei RB. 85. 



§i6i.] COMPOUNDS OF BOX, 107 

Preterite and Perfect. 

1. arganvum; cyvarvum; darvuam ; gorvuam 

gorvum 

2. cyvarvuost ; gorvuost gorvuawch, gorvuoch 

3. arganvu ; darvu ; gorvu, arganvuant ; gorvuant 
pass, arganvuwyt ; cyvarvu- 

wyt ; gorvuwyt 

Pluperfect. 
3. cyvarvuassei ; darvuassei ; 
gorvuassei 
pass, gorvuessyt 







Imperative. 




3. 


hanvit 








Note 3.— sg. 3 derffit RB. 155. 










Subjunctive. 








Present 


\ 




I. 

2. 

3- 
pass 


henpych 
arganffo ; 

darffo ; 

gorffo ; 
gorffer 


cyvarffo ; 
gorpo, 
hanffo 

Past. 


Cjrvarffom ; 
cyvarvoent 


gorffom 


3- 


cyvarffei ; 
hanffei 


darffei ; 


cyverffynt 





Pieu. 

161. The primary use of pieu is in interrogation, direct or 
indirect, in the sense of whose is ? e.g. pieu y gaer, heb wynt. nyt 
oes yn y byt ny wypo pieu y gaer honn ^^ whose is the city?" 
said they. " There is no one in the world who does not know to 
whom this city belongs'^ RB. 126; Peredur a ovynnawd pioedynt 
gwyr wy Peredur asked whose 'me7t they were Hg. I. 314. But it is 



io8 COMPOUNDS OF BOT, [§ i6i. 

frequently used with lenation bieu, etc.^ but not preceded by 
relative a, in a non-interrogative sense fo whom belongs^ e.g. EfTrawc 
iarll bioed iarllaeth y gogled to Effrawc the earl belonged the earldom 
of the north RB. 193, i; Duw bioedynt they belonged to God 
Hg I. 426. The inflexion follows that of bot, e.g. 

Indicative. 
Pres. :— Sg. 2. piwyt ; 3. pieu ; pi. 3. piewynt. 
Imperf.:— Sg. 3. pieuoed, pioed, piewed, pieuat; pi 3. 
pioedynt. 
Fut.: — Sg. 3. pieivyd; pi. i. pieivydwn. 
Condit.: — Sg. 3. pieivydei. 
Pret. : — Sg. 3. pieivu, pieuu. 

Subjunctive. 
Pres.: — Sg. 3. pieuvo. 
Past : — Sg. 3. pieiffei, pieuvei. 

Note. — cf. Bezz Beitr. XVII. 292 sq. In:niae pieifydwn im shall 
possess thetn CM. pieu has developed into a transitive verb to possess, as 
it did in Cornish, cf. Cymmrod. IX. 100. 

THE PREPOSITION. 

162. ac, a 7vith ; with the article ar ; with possessive pronouns 
am, ath, ae etc., e.g. minneu a chwaryaf a thitheu I shall play 
with thee ; wrth ryuelu a Gwrtheyrn to fight with Vortigern ; yny 
oedynt gynefin ac ef till they were familiar with him ; taraw a 
oruc Owein a chledyf he struck Owein with a sword', llanw 
crochan a dwfyr to fill a vessel with water \ taw ath ucheneidaw 
have done with thy sighing) peidaw a bwyta a oruc he stopped 
eating ; in amvin ev terwin a guir Dulin defending their land from 
the men of Dublin. It is often used after verbs compounded with 
ym, e.g. ymadaw a oruc Arthur ar llyn Arthur left the lake ; 
ymgoUi ae gedymdeithon to lose his comrades; a doy y 
ymwelet ac Arthur wilt thou come to see Arthur "^ 

163. ach. In the phrase ach y law beside him. 



§ i65.] THE PREPOSITION. 109 

1^4. am (Ir. imm) about, on account of, e.g. corn canu am y 
vynwgl a horn about his neck ; gwisc ymdanat dress thyself \ 
am y uagwyr ar karcharawr on the other side of the wall from 
the prisoner ; iawn y medreis i am bentl y carw rightly did I 
determine about the head of the stag) hyt na dy wedit am vn vorwyn 
vwy noc amdanei so that there was not more talk about any 
maiden than about her ; am banner bwytta amofyn a oruc y gwr 
about the middle of the meal the man asked ; haelaf oed am rodyon 
he was most liberal with respect to gifts ; y oual am y wreic his 
anxiety about his wife ; or sarhaet a wnathoed am adaw y llys 
for the outrage which he had committed in leaving the court ; dothyw 
am Oweyn Owein has perished MA. 252^; a deryv am Keduyv 
has K. perished "^ BB. i* ; trist oed am angeu y uab he was 
grieved because of the death of his son. In the phrase am benn, e.g. 
yn y del y iarll . . . am penn y lie hwnn until the earl comes to 
attack this place ; pan yttoedynt pawb yn mynu mynet am penn y 
Saeson when they wei^e all eager to attack the Saxons. 

ymdan, e.g. ymdan y varch about his horse. 

y am (O.W. diam)/r^^ off, e.g. y dynnu y wise hela y amdanaw 
to pull off his hunting dress ; dogyn o arueu y am hynny plenty of 
arms besides WB. p. 225 ; o lu uii nyn e am e mam ay tat ae y 
brodir a chuarit by the oath of seven people including her mother and 
her father and her brothers and her sisters BCh. 36. 

165. ar on, etc., ar uarch 07i a horse; Lawnslot a eistedawd y 
vwyta ar y bwrd Launcelot sat down at the table to eat ; edrych 
a wnaeth Manawydan ar y dv^i Manawyddan looked upon his town ; 
y dodet ar yr avon Hafren the river was called the Severn ; ae 
geuyn ar yr heul and his back towards the sun ; cymryt cleuyt 
arnaw a oruc he pretended to be ill; rac meint karyat y brenhin arnei 
because of the greatness of the king's love for her ; rac caffael y gaer 
arnaw lest the city should be taken on him ; y wassanaethu 
arnaw to wait upon him ; taerwn arnei ehun diuetha y mab let 
us insist that she herself killed her son ; nyt gwerth arnaw ef dim 
it is not worth anything ; hitheu ... a gy tsynny wys ar anvon y 
mab y Pwyll she agreed to send the boy to Pwyll; dyuot a oruc ef ar 



no THE PREPOSITION. [§165. 

( = att RB. 287) Enyd he came to_^Enid WB. p. 221; a roti y 
uanec ar ( = att RB. 1 1 6) y kymhar and he gave the glove to his 
wife WB. 473, 

In phrases, e,g. ar y drydyd with two others-, ar y gfanuet 
with a hundred men ; sef y key yn nef ar y g"anuet thou shalt receive 
in heaven a hundredfold; ar vrys in haste; am eu carcharu ar 
g'am because they were wrongfully imprisoned; ar g"el secretly; 
ar gyhoed publicly ; y marchawc y gwnaethpwyt ar y odeu the 
knight for^ whom it has been made ; y marchogyon goreu a oed ar y 
helw the best horsemen that were in his possession ; ar hynny after 
tfiat; Sir hyt y glynn afon^ the valley ; ar hyt y dyd throughout the 
day ; ar eu hol after them ; ar uedwl mynet with the intention of 
going ; ar uessur Had y benn with the purpose of cutting off his 
head ; ar tal y pebyll before the tent ; ar tal y lin on his knee ; ar 
draws yr avon across the river ; y tharaw ar draWS y hwyneb he 
struck her across her face. 

Note 1. — For the phrase ar y ganvet see Rev. Celt. 28, p. 206. 

y ar (O.W. diar), odyar from^ e.g. y dygwydawd yn varw y ar 
y uarch he fell dead from his horse ; byrywch awch blinder 
y arnawch cast your weariness from you. 

Note 2. — But y ar is used also in the sense of on, e.g. y gwelynt wreic 
y ar uarch they saw a woman on a horse RB. 248. 

Note 3. — In O.W. guar ( = Ir. for), e.g. guar ir dreb gl. edito, guar ir 
henn rit above the old ford Lib. Land. 73. In Lib. Land, is also found ar, 
cf . Ir. ar. In Mid. W. the two prepositions are confused. 

l66. att to, e.g. dyuot a oruc att y UOrwyn he came to the 
maiden ; y chwedyl a doeth att Uatholwch the tidings cam£ to 
Matholwch ; dyret y gyt a mi hyt att Arthur come with me to 
Arthur. 

l67- can, gan (corresponding in sense to Ir. la) with, by, 4A.*\^^h 
e.g. mynet a oruc Mabon ganthaw Mabon went with him ; ef a 
edewis genthi dwy iarllaeth he left with her two earldoms ; a chatl 
gennyat y ewythyr cychwyn ymeith and with his uncle's leave he set 
out ; nawd a geffy . . g^an uynet dracheuyn y fford y deuthost 
thou shalt have mercy oficondition that thou returnest by the way by 



§172.] THE PREPOSITION. iii 

which thou hast come ; hyny yttoed eu llygeit yn colli eu lleuuer 
gan y chwys ar gwaet till their eyes were losing their light with 
the sweat and the blood ; atteb nys kauas ef genthi hi he got no 
answer from^ her ; ny phrynit dim ganthunt nothing was bought 
from them ; ny chollet oen eiryoet ganthaw not a lamb had ever 
been lost by him ; gan Ian y weilgi by the shore of the sea ; os da 
gan y uorwyn da yw gennyf ynneu if it pleases the maiden, it 
pleases me ; drwc vyd gantunt it will be displeasing to^ them. 

y %BXifrom, e.g. cymer gedernit y ganthaw take security from 
him; annerch y genhyf i ^i greet him from me, 

168. cer, ger near by, e.g. ker tir Tyssilyaw by the land of 
Tyssilyaw MA. 237^; ger glan yr avon by the bank of the river', 
ae kymerth ger y avwyneu he took him by his reins CM. 56 ; yn 
ymauael ar ebawl geir y vwng seizing the foal by its mane. In 
some phrases : — ger bronn, e.g. ae vwrw ger bronn Owein and 
threw it before Owein ; ar abat ... a doeth ac ef hyt geyr bronn 
yr allawr and the abbot took him before the altar; ger llaw, 
e.g. ae dodi ger llaw y gerwyn arid placed it beside the cauldron. 

169. cyvrwng betiveen, e.g. kyfrwg deu yskyuarn Twrch 
Trwyth between the ears of Twrch Irwyth ; cyfrwng mor a glan 
between sea and shore. 

170. cyn before, e.g. kynn y nos before night; cyn myned mab 
Cynan y dan dywawd before Cynan^s son went under the sod 
MA. I4o^ 

171. cyt union serves as a preposition in the phrases cyt ac, 
y gyt ac together with, e.g. mynet a orugant gyt ar mackwy 
they went along with the youth ; yn gorymdeith y gyt ar 
amherawdyr walking together with the Emperor. 

172. eithyr ( = Ir. echtar) outside of, except, beyond, e.g. neb ryw 
dim ny welynt eithyr gliydlwdyn they saw nothing except wild 
beasts ; a phan welas Chyarlys hynny ryuedu a oruc eithyr mod 
and when Charlemagne saw that he was astonished beyond measure. 

dieithyr, e.g. ef a edewis y hoU longeu . . . dyeithyr un Hong 
he left all his ships except one ship. 

odieithyr, e.g. gwede mynet Arthur odieithyr y Uys after Arthur 



112 THE PREPOSITION. [§172. 

went out of the palace ; ef . . . ae cassaawd odieithyr messur he 

hated him beyond measure. 

173. erbyn (prep, er + dat. of penn head = Ir. ar chiunn cf. § 25) 
against^ before^ by, e.g. mi ae paraf . . . yn gyniachet erbyn penn y 
mis ac y gallo marchogaeth / will make him so well by the end of 
the month that he will be able to ride ; ar abat yna erbyn y law ae 
kymmerth and the abbot then took him by his hand. 

174. gwedy, wedy (O.W. guetig) after, e.g. gwedy y gawat 

goleuhau a oruc yr awyr after the shower the sky cleared; uot y crydyon 
wedy duunaw ar y lad that the cobblers had conspired to slay him ; 
hyd guedy gosper till after evening. 

175. heb ( = Ir. sech) past, without, besides, e.g. nyt kynt yd 
yskynn ef ar y uarch noc yd a hitheu hebdaw ef no sooner did he 
mount his horse than she passed him ; heb dant yn y phenn 
ivithout a tooth in her head ; abreid vu eu hattal heb torri eu 
hamot they could hardly be kept from breaking their covenant ; y 
kahat o ynys Prydein ehun trugein mil o varchogyon aruawc 
heb deg mil a adawssei urenhin Llydaw there was got from the 
island of Britain itself sixty thousand artned horsemen besides ten 
thousand that the King of Brittany had promised. In the phrase heb 
law, e.g. pan yttoed honno yn kerdet heb law Breint when she 
was going past Breint RB. II., 246. 

176. herwyd according to, by, e.g. herwyd anyan according to 
nature ; herwyd vyg gallu i according to my power ; sl chymryt 
y mab herwyd y draet and he seized the boy by his feet. 

177* byt (a prepositional use of hyt length) as far as, up to^ 
e.g. o vor Ut hyd vor Iwerton from the English Channel to the 
Irish Sea MA. 202*; hyt dyd brawt until Doomsday ; educher 
( = hyt UCher) until evening. 

Note. — In O.W. there are also prepositional phrases behet, e.g. behet 
hirmain as far as the long stone Lib. Land., bet rit ir main as far as the 
ford of the stone ib., and cihit, e.g. cihit i nant to the valley, cihitan, e.g. 
cihitan clouuric Lib. Land., and cihitun, e.g. cihitunceng ir esceir Ox. gl. 

178. is ( = Ir. is) below, e.g. is nef below heaven. In the phrase 
islaw beloiv, e.g. kawc a oed islaw y drws a bowl that was below 



§ i83.] THE PREPOSITION. 113 

the door; y dodit islaw y teulu he was placed beneath the household; 
odis, e.g. neur disgynnassei Arthur . . . odis Yia.^vV2Aow. Arthur 
had descended beneath Caer Vaddon RB. 151, 22; adhis Guaissav 
Lib. Land. 241. 

179. ithr (only O.W. = Ir. etir) between, e.g. ithr ir dwy ail 
between the two eyelashes Mart. Cap. 

180. mynn (a nominal preposition = Ir. mind a holy relic, an 
oath) by (in oaths), e.g. myn dy law di . . . mi a af y gyt a thi 
by thy hand I will go with thee ; myn vyg" cret nyth gredaf by my 
faith I do not believe thee. 

181. mywn (nominal preposition) in, e.g. wynteu a dywedassant 
hot adanc mywn g'Og'Of they said that there was a monster in a cave ; 
ryuedu ... a orugant hot mywn un dyn . . . hanner hynny o 
nerth they marvelled that half as much strength should be in 
one man; neuad a welsant y mywn ( = vewn WB. p. 93a) 
y gaer they saw a palace within the city RB. 87, 17. 

182. nes (of. nes nearer) until, unless, e.g. ny cheffir Mabon 
vyth . . . nes caffel Eidoel Mabon will never be got till Eidoel 
is got ; nes dyuot Guilenhin urenhin Ffreinc ny helir Twrch 
Trwyth vyth \\^^2cn unless Gwilenhin King of France comes, Twrch 
Trwyth will never be hunted without him RB. 124, 28. 

183. Oj B. of from, by ; with the article or ; with possessive 
pronouns om, oth, oe etc. ; before pronouns beginning with a vowel 
there is also a form OC ; OC awch of your, OC eu of their, OC di of 
what, e.g., mil o bunneu aryant a thousand pounds of silver ; y 
rann vwyhaf or vlwydyn the greatest part of the year \ mawr a beth 
yw gwelet dwyawl dial ar y bobyl a great thing it is to see divine 
vengeance on the people ; peb}^ll o bali a tent of satin ; yn llawn 
or dwfyr full of the water ; kany cheffynt o ennyt wiskaw eu 
haiUQu for they got no time to put on their arms; pei karei Duw 
wynt o dim if God loved them at all ; aduet o oet ripe in years ; 
wytt ditawl o bob chwant thou art free from every desire ; o 
mynwn nineu arueru O rydit if we wish to enjoy freedom ; na 
naccaa ui ohonunt do not refuse them to me; ef a gychynnwys o 
Arberth he set forth from Ar berth ; yn dyuot or coet allan 



114 THE PREPOSITION. [§183. 

coming out of the wood; am lad ohonat titheu y gwr priawt because 
her husband has been slain by thee ; na ellir kynnal dy gyuoeth di 
namyn o vilwryaeth ac arueu that thy dominion can be maintained 
only by valour and arms. In phrases, e.g. o achaws because of; 
oe vod with his will; oe hanvod against his will; or diwed at 
last; o hynny sXXdinfrom that time forth; o barth y vam on his 
mother's side ; OC eu i^\ith from among them. 

184. parth part, in parth ac, parth ac att towards, e.g. 
bryssyaw a orugant parth ar mwc they hastened towards the smoke, 
yn dyuot ar hyt y dyfFryn parth ac attaf coming along the valley 
towards me. 

185. py ( = Ir. co) to; with possessive pronoun pwy, py, e.g. 
or mor pwy gilyd from one sea to the other; ar ffo o le py 
g"ilyd in flight from place to place; ac yna y kymerth Seint Alban 
Amphibalus yd oedit awr py awr yn y dwyn oe verthyru ac y 
kudywys yn y dy ehun = quorum Albanus confessorem suum Amphi- 
balum a persecutoribus insectatum et iam iamque comprehendendum 
primum in domo sua occuluit RB. II. 107. 

186. rac before, against, on account of, e.g. mal heu rac moch 
meryerid like scattering pearls before swine ; kymer di y pedwar 
meirch a gyrr rac dy vronn take the four horses and drive them 
before thee ; kerdet a orugant racdunt hyt att vwyalch Gilgwri they 
went on till they came to the blackbird of Kilgwri ; am notwy rac 
auar may he protect me against grief; nys kelaf ragot / will not 
hide it from thee ; ffo ditheu ymeith rac dyuot ohonaw flee forth 
lest he should come ; yn keissaw diffryt y deu wr rac eu bodi in 
seeking to save the two men from drowning ; llidiaw a oruc Arthur 
rac hwyret y gwelei y vudugolyaeth yn dyuot idaw Arthur was 
angry because he saw the victory coming to him so slowly ; y kenir 
efferenneu rac y eneit masses are sung for his soul; yn aballu rac 
newyn dying of hunger. 

y rac from, e.g. ninheu a dygwn y racdunt yr eidunt we ivill 
take their property from them RB. II. 207. 

187. rwng, y rwng between, e.g. rwg nef a dayar between 
heaven and earth ; y rwng deuglust Twrch Trwyth between the 



§190.] THE PREPOSITION. 115 

ears of Twrch Trwyth\ pany bei ammot yrof am gwlat 
amdanunt if there were not a covenant between me and my land about 
them ; rwng dicter a Hit taraw ym plith y llygot a wnaeth between 
rage and anger he struck among the mice ; dywedut y ryngthunt 
ehunein y maent they are saying among themselves; rwg deu 
onadunt between two of them RB. II. 141; y kerdwys y ryngtaw 
a Ruuein he set out to Rome RB. 85, cf. ib. 12, 24. 

odyrwng" from between, e.g. a ducpwyt yn teirnossic odyrwng" 
y vam ar paret who when three nights old was taken from between 
his mother and the wall RB. i 29, 10. 

188. tan, dan, ydan, adan (cf. O.W. guotan) under, e.g. 
ffynnawn a welwn dan y prenn / saw a fountain under the tree ; 
y clywei dygyuor . . . y dan( = dan WB. 92 = adan RB. 66) baret 
yr ystauell he heard a commotion under a wall of the chamber RB. 
67? 15; gobennyd dan penn y elin a cushion under his elbow; 
dan wynt a ^law under wind and rain ; y ellwng y gwn dan y 
COet to let loose his dogs in the wood RB. i, 10; awn adanunt 
( = ydanunt RB. 48) a lladwn let us attack and slay them WB. 
67 ; yny uyd y llygot yn gwan adan y groft until the mice were 

falling upon the field RB. 53, 27, cf. RB. 28, 29; dyuot a wnaeth 
Corineus at Locrinus dan dreig"law bwyell Corineus came to 
Locrinus brandishing an axe. 

189. trag", tra beyond, across, e.g. ton tra thon toid tu tir wave 
beyond wave covers the side of the land BB. 45* ; ac eigyl racdaw 
draw dra thonneu and angels before him yonder across the waves 
MA. 196^; maith dy dreisiau drag Huas great are thy deeds oj 
violence across Evas MA. 145''; oes trag" oes age beyond age FB. 
230; tra messur beyond measure FB. 155; rybud drae gilyd = 
quotidianos rumores RB. II. 131. 

Note. — Often in the phrase drachefyn hack, by which there are also 
forms with possessive adjectives, e.g. tra-m-kefyn WB. 232 = drachefen 
RB. 169, 16, tra-th-gefyn WB. 124 = drachefyn RB. 198, 25, dra-e-gefyn 
CM. 73, dra-e-chefyn KB. 177, 12, dra-e-kefyn CM. 45, also forms like 
drach eu kevyn Hg. I. 301. 

190. trus, tros, dros across, e.g. trus ir minid across the 



ii6 THE PREPOSITION. [§190. 

mountain Lib. Land ; ual yd oed . . . yn kerdet dros vynyd as 
he was Journeying across a mountain ; yny ehedawd y glot dros 
wyneb y deyrnas until his fame flew over his dominion ; y ymlad 
dros y wlat to fight for his country-, y rodes Hengyst atteb idaw 
dros y gedymdeithyon Hengist ansivered him on behalf of his 
companions ; pan allassant wy gyntaf talu drwc dros da as soon as 
they were able to return evil for good. 

191. trwy, drwy (Ir. tre) through, e.g. trwy y koet through 
the wood; trwy gynghor Branwen through the advice of 
Branwen ; ar tes oed vawr, ar arueu trwy y chwys ar gwaet yn 
glynu wrth y gnawt and the heat was great, and the armour by reason 
of the sweat and blood was sticking to his flesh ; ar dyd hwnnw ar 
nos honno a treulassant trwy g"erdeu a didanwch and that day 
and that night they spe?it in songs and entertainment WB. p. 204 ; 
Arthur drwy amlaf rodyon ae henrydedei Arthur honoured him 
with many gifts. 

192. tu side in tu ac, tu ac att towards, e.g. pan daw tu ar 
drws when he goes towards the door ; yn dyuot . . . tU ac attat 

coming towards thee. 

193. uch (Ir. uas) above, e.g. uch nef above heaven ; yn eisted 
uch penn y weilgi sitting above the sea ; uch law y bont . . . y gwelynt 
kastelltref above the bridge they saw a fortified town. 

diuch : diuch i Ian Lib. Land. 73. 

oduch, e.g. oduch y dwvyr above the water WB. p. 90^; 
eithyd oduch gwynt he went above the wind FB. 179 ; pei delhei 
y byt oduchti if the world should come above it WB. 481. 

194. wrth (O.W. gurth, Ir. fri) against, towards, etc., e.g. ny 
ellir dim wrth a uynho Duw nothi7ig can de done contrary to 
what God wills; pan yuei o wual yuei urth peduar when he 
drank from the horn, he would drink against four BB. 48^; wrth 
y drws llyma vab bychan lot at the door was a little boy ; yn eu 
pobi wrth y tan being cooked at_ the fire ; yn dyuot wrth y 
diaspat coming at the cry ; pob kyfryw aniueileit a ducpwyt yno 
wrth eu haberthu every kind of animals ivas led there to be 
sacrificed; reit oed ym wrth gynghor / had need of counsel; y 



§196.] THE PREPOSITION. 117 

dynu a orugant wrth raffeu y my wn they pulled him in with ropes ; 
wrth ych kynghor y bydaf / will follow your advice ; Hew wrth 
aer a llwfr wrth eirchyeid a lioit for battle and a weakling towards 
suppliants', cyt bei lityawc ef wrthi hi though he was angry with her ; 
wrthyt ti y mae vy neges my business is with thee; yn glynu 
wrth y g"nawt sticking to his flesh ; y dywawt y dat wrthaw his 
father said to him ; sef a wnaeth gwyr Rufein drychafel Geta yn 
vrenhin . . . wrth hanuot y vam o Rufein the me7t of Rome 
raised Geta to be king because his mother was sprung from Rome ; 
wrth hynny therefore; y wrth from, e.g. yr pan athoed y 
wrthunt hwy since he had gone from them ; ny ry giglef i 
eirmoet dim y wrth y UOrwyn / have never heard anything of the 
maiden. 

195. y (O.W. di, Ir. do) to. With the article yr ; with possessive 
adjectives ym, yth, yw, etc. (§ ^Zb), e.g. dyuot yw ( = y RB. 284) " 
lety came to his lodging WB. p. 219; gwyr Troea ae hymlityassant ■^_ €?«. 
y^eu llogeu the men of Troy pursued them to their ships; y deuynt 
drannoeth OC eu hamdiffyn they would come on the following day 
to_defend them ; deu uab oed im / had two sons ; keuynderw dy ^""^ - -^ 
( = y RB. 100, 13) Arthur oed he was a cousin of Arthur WB. 452 ; „ ^ "' '" 
or tu draw yr bont on the further side of the bridge; heb wybot yr 'V 
kawr without the knowledge of the giant ; mi ae talaf ywch / will ^^ *wx^C ^ 
pay it to you;, ni ae dywedwn itti we will tell it to thee ; gouyn a 
oruc Qxv^x\i^i\^\ Gwrhyr asked her ; na hawl ef ynni do not demand 
ofjus ; pan daruu udunt darllein when they had finished 



*fi^' z-h 



Note.— In Irish do = to (cf. Bret, da), di= from. Already in Old Welsh 
di has the sense of Ir. do, e.g. map di lob^Ir. mace do lob a son of Jupiter, 
anu di luno — Ir. ainm do luno a name of Juno, di erchim to ask. The 
sense olfrom is kept before other prepositions, e.g. di am later y axafrom off, j 
y wrth /row, and in some phrases, e.g. blwydyn y hediw a yearfroTn to-day, ! 
y dreis by violence, y werth WB. p. 214 = ar werth RB. 277, 21 for a price. 

196. yn (Ir. i n-) into, in. With possessive pronouns ym, yth, 
e.g. kyllell a edyw y mwyt a llynn y mual (the) knife has gone 
into {the) food and {the) drink into the horn; dyuot a orugant hyt 
yn He yd oed karw Redynure they came to where the stag of 



ii8 THE PREPOSITION. [§196. 

Redynvre was ; ny chlyweist yth wlat dy hun eiryoet kerd kystal 
ac a ganant hwy thou hast never heard in thy own country such song 
as they will sing\ ny byd vy eneit ym korff my life will not be in 
my body ; pa ryw weith yd wyti yndaw in what manner of work 
art thou engaged^ ym penn y seith mlyned at the end of the seven 
years \ gormod vyd agheu gwas kystal ac Edern yn sarhaet 
morwyn the death of so excellent a youth as Edern will be too much for 
an insult to a maiden. In many phrases : — dwy (ystondard) yssyd 
yn y vlaen a dwy yn y ol two standards are before it and two after 
it ; yn ol y twryf y daw kawat after the noise will come a shower ; 
ym bron close by ; yg kylch y tan round about the fire \ edrych a 
orugant yn eu kylch they looked around them ; yg gwyd Arthur 
in the presence of Arthur ; nat elych ym herbyn that thou shall not 
go against me ; yn herwyd gweledigaeth according to appearance ; 
y mywn cadeir in a chair ; ef a chwbwl or a gollassei hyt yn oet 
y tlws lleihaf a gafas he got all that he had lost even to the smallest 
treasure; ef a welei bebyll ym plith y pebylleu ereill he saw a 
tent among the other tents ; y vrenhines a eistedawd yn ymyl 
Galaath the queen sat beside Galahad. 

197. yr, er for^ on account of since, e.g. oes obeith gennyt ti ar 
gaffel dy ellwng ae yr aur ae yr aryant hast thou any hope of 
obtaining thy liberation either for gold orfo? silver ? py glot a geffy ti 
yr Had gwr marw what fame wilt thou get for slaying a dead man ? 
nyt yr drwc itti y deuthum / have not come to thee for evil ; pei 
tebygwn y wneuthur ohonat ti yrof i beth if I thought that thou 
wouldst do something for me; yr y byt na wnewch hynny for the 
world do not do that ; yr Duw a wdost ti dim y wrth Uabon for 
God^s sake, dost thou know anything of Mabon ? yr mwyn y gwr 
mwyhaf a gery arho \i for the sake of the man whom thou most lovest, 
wait for me \ pa hustyng bynnac yr y vychanet a uo y rwng 
dynyon whatever whisper, however low, there is between men ; yr a 
uyrit yndi ny bydei lawnach no chynt however much was thrown 
into it, it was not fuller than before ; oed llesach yr march pei 
ass archut yr meittyn it would have been better for the horse if thou 
hadst asked it a while ago ; y gwr y buost yr ys talym o amser yn 



§199.] THE CONJUNCTION. 119 

y geissaw the man whom thou hast been seeking for a long tim£ (lit. 
since it is a while of time). 

Note. — This preposition is frequent with oet time, together with a 
possessive adjective, e.g. ny ry giglef i eirmoet / Aave never heard; na welsei 
eiryoet that he had never seen. The form eiryoet becomes petrified into a 
phrase used of all persons, e.g. ny chiglef i eiryoet / have never heard; ny 
chlyweist eiryoet thou hast never seen. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 

198. a and; ac before vowels and the negative particles ny, na, 
and sometimes before other consonants ; with the article, ar ; with 
possessive adjectives: am, ath, ae etc., e.g. vyg kewilyd am Hit 
my disgrace and my anger; a phryderu a oruc yn uawr and she was 
very anxious, a — a both and., e.g. y gwassanaeth goreu a allwyf i 
mi ae gwnaf ac idaw ac y uarch the best service that I can I will 
render both to him and to his horse ; a hediw a pheunyd both to-day 
and every day. After the comparative of equality (§ 39), e.g. vn 
kyndecket a hi one so fair as she ; similarly, a honno a aei trwy 
gallonneu y dynyon ae hofnockaei yn gymeint ac y collei y gwyr 
eu lliw ac eu nerth and that went through the hearts of the people 
and terrified them so that the men lost their hue and their strength. 
Introducing an accompanying or qualifying circumstance, e.g. 
gwelem . . . mynyd mawr geir Haw y coet a hwnnw ar gerdet 
we saw a great mountain beside the wood, and it walking RB. 35, 26 ; 
goueileint a delis yndaw o gamhet idaw attal y mab gantaw ac 
ef yn gwybot y vot yn vab y wr arall he was seized with great 
sadness because of the wrong that he did in keeping the boy with him 
though he knew that he was the son of another man RB. 22, 20 ; nyt 
a mi yn uyw yd aho ef y Gernyw he shall not while I live go to 
Cornwall RB. 140, 16. Adversatively, e.g. mi a rodaf y carcharawr 
itti ac ny darparysswn y rodi y neb / will give thee the prisoner., 
although I had not intended to give him to anyone RB. 128, 26. 

199. achaws (nominal conjunction) because., e.g. galw Gwrhyr 
Gwalltawt (leg. Gwalstawt) leithoed, achaws (om. WB. 471) yr 
holl ieithoed a wydyat he summoned Gwrhyr, the interpreter of 



120 THE CONJUNCTION. [§199. 

tongues^ because he knew all languages RB. 114, 14; o achaws na 
chaffant gennyt because they do not get from theeRB. 85, 26. 

200. am na because not, e.g. tristuart uytaf am na daw / shall be 
a sorrowful bard because he will not come MA. 183^ ; am na weles 
ef yno na gwr na gwreic ryued vu ganthaw he was astonished because 
he saw there neither man nor woman Hg. I., 154. 

201. yr awr (nominal conjunction) ivhen, e.g. yr awr y 
kenych ef a a y nywl ymdeith when thou soundest it the cloud will 
vanish WB. 451 : yr awr y rodes un lief arnaw yd aeth y nywl 
ymdeith when he blew a single blast on it the cloud vanished, ib. 

202. can for, since ; neg. can ny ; with the present of the 
copula^, canys, e.g. yr hynny hyt hediw yd wyf i yn darparu gwled 
ytti, can gwydywn i y dout ti ym keissyaw ifrom that time till to- 
day I have been preparing a feast for thee^for I ktiew that thou wouldst 
come to seek me WB. 249 ; kanys goUyng^ yr hynny mi a rodaf it 
pedeir punt ar ugeint o aryant since thou wilt not let it go for that, 
I will give thee twenty four pounds of silver WB. 78 ; a chanys vy 
lies i yd oedut ti yn y uenegi im, manac pa fford vei hynny and 
since thou wert shewing me my advantage, shew how that might be 
RB. 177, 15. 

Note. — The copula form canys comes to be used simply in the sense of 
can, e.g. a chanys nys gwnn ( = a chanys gwnn WB. 76) since I do not 
know it RB. 54, 30. 

203. CWt, CW where, e.g. kwt ynt plant y gwr where are the 
children of the man? WB. 453 ; mynet a oruc y brenhin yg kyghor 
kwt g"affei wreic the king took counsel where he could get a wife ib.; 
a wdosti cwd Uyd nos yn arhos dyd knowest thou where is night 
waiting for day? FB. 146; a thrydit ryuet yv merwerit mor, cv 
threia, cud echwit, cvd a, cvd ymda, cv treigil, cv threwna 
and the third wonder is the tumult of the sea where it ebbs, where it 
swells, where it goes, where it moves about, where it rolls, where it 
settles BB. 44^ 

204. cyn before, (a) with indicative, e.g. gwr a rodei gad kyn 
dybu i dyt a man who used to give battle before his day came 
MA. 141*; ip) with subjunctive, e.g. gweinif i hagen ym Reen ri 



§207.] THE CONJUNCTION. 121 

cyn bwyf deierin I yet will serve my Lord King before I am of 
the earth MA. 142% a chin ri Uethid ve llatysseint and before they 
were slain they had slain BB. 36^ 

205. cyt, cyn, though ; negative cyn ny, cyny, cany. 

(a) With indicative, e.g. kid y lleinv keudaud nis beirv calon 
though it fills the body, it does not stir the heart BB. 51^; cyd doeth 
ef nid aeth yn warthegawc though he_ came, he did not go with 
spoil of cattle lA A. I4o^ 

(b) With subjunctive, e.g. kyn ny buyf arglwydes, heb i^, mi a 
wnn beth yw hynny ^^ though I am not a lady,''^ said she, " I know 
what that is " WB. 51; ked archwyf ym lly w y lloergant yn rot, 
efam ryt yn geugant though I ask of my sovereign the moon's orb as 
a gift, he will assuredly give it me MA. 212^; a thydi am gwely i 
kany welwyf i dydi and thou wilt see me, though I see thee not 
RB. 173 ; a chyt bei lityawc ef wrthi hi, ef a gymyrth y rybud and 
though he was angry with her, he took the warning WB. p. 215; nyt 
oed ef nes idi yna no chyn bei ar y gam he was no nearer to her 
there than though he had been at a walking pace ; neur daruydei yr 
dayar y lynku heb wybot dim y wrthaw mwy no chyn ny ry fei 
eiryoet vch y dayar the earth had swallowed it so that nothing more 
was known of it than though it had never been above the earth RB. II., 
141 j annoc y Brytanyeit megys kyt bei un onadunt he incited the 
Britons as though he had been one of them RB. II., 94. 

Note. — In the verb "to be" after cyt the 3 sg. imper. regularly takes the 
place of the 3 sg. pres. subj., e.g. ar mab a geiff enw kyt boet drwc gennyt 
ti ayid the hoy shall get a name though it displease thee RB. 69, 23. 

206. cyt union in the phrase y g'yt ac, e.g. y gfyt ac y 
doethant rac bron Kynan y hannerchassant o bleit amherawdyr 
Rufein as they came before Cynan they greeted him on behalf of the 
Emperor of Rome RB. II. 113; y g'yt ac nat oes since there is not 
BCh. 81. 

207. delw (nominal conjunction) as, e.g. delw yt wytt pen 
rieu pen reith yt wyf pen prifueirt om prifyeith as thou art head of 
princes, head of law, I am head of chief bards from my most excellent 
speech MA. 157a. 



122 THE CONJUNCTION. [§208. 

208. eissoes however^ nevertheless^ e.g. a die vu wreie y melinyd 
wrth Peredur, ae eissoes y melinyd a rodes aryant yn echwyn idaw 
and the miller^ s wife was wroth with Peredur; nevertheless the miller 
gave him a loan of money RB. 229. 

209. eithyr na except that not, e.g. ac erbyn auory y vot yn 
gystal ac y bu oreu, eithyr na byd llyueryd gantaw and by the 
morrow he will be as good as he ever was, except that he will not have 
the power of speech RB. 31. 

210. gviedy after; negative gwedy na : — (a) with indicative, 
e.g. keugant kywraghaun (MS. -um) wide kywisscarun (MS. 
-an) verily we shall meet after we part BB. 12^; a gwedy na 
allwys Kaswallawn kael y gwr . . . gogyuadaw Auarwy a oruc 
and after Kaswallawn could not get the man, he threatened Avanvy. 

(b) With subjunctive, e.g. a gwedy byryer llawer yndi, ef a 
ovyn itt and after a quantity has been thrown into it, he will ask thee 
RB. 14; mwy boen yw koffau kyuoeth g"wedy coller it is a 
greater torment to remember power after it is lost RB. II. 67 ; kanys 
ymdiret a wnaei ef caffel clot . . . gwedy y gorffei ar y dXonfor he 
trusted that he would get fame after he had conquered his enemies 
RB, II. 7 ; kanys gwedy darffei idaw ef Had Galogryuant diogel 
oed ganthaw y Uedit ynteu gwedy hynny for after he had slain 
Galogryvant he was sure that he would be slain after that Hg. I. 1 14; 
a gwedy na chaffei dagneued o neb ryw ford y gantaw, sef a 
wnaeth anuon y geissaw nerth a chanorthwy y gan Ulkesar and 
after he could not get peace from him in any way, he sent to seek 
support and help from Julius Caesar '^^. 11. 89. 

211. hagen yet, however, e.g. a phan deuthant yno tybygu rylad 
Kei. wynt a welsant hag'en, or kaflfei vedic da y bydei vyw and 
when they came there, they thought that Kei had been killed. They 
saw, however, that if he got a good leech he would live RB. 212, 11. 

212. herwyd, yn herwyd (nominal conjunction) according as, 
e.g. a herwyd y dyweit y kyuarwydyt ef a uu arglwyd wedy hynny 
ar Wyned and as the story says, he was lord over Gwynedd after that 
WB. 1 1 1 ; a gwedy eu hannoc uelly yn herwyd y g*allei, erchi a 
wnaeth dineu delw efydeit drwy danawl geluydyt and after he had 



§2i6.] THE CONJUNCTION. 123 

thus exhorted them to the best of his power, he asked that a bronze 
effigy should be cast through the art of fire RB. II. 138. 

213. hevyt further^ also, likewise, e.g. y Duv y harchaw arch 
hewid of God I will ask a request still BB. 36% ac enryuedodeu 
ereill heuyt a weleist yno and other wonders likewise thou sawest 
there RB. 233, 2. 

214. hyt (nominal conjunction). 

1. as long as, as far as. 

(a) With the indicative, e.g. ti a geffy y kyfarws a notto dy benn 
ath dauawt, hyt y sych gwynt, hyt y gwlych glaw, hyt y treigyl 
heul thou shall have the gift that thy mouth and thy tongue indicate, as 
long as wind dries, as long as rain wets, as long as the sun revolves 
RB. 105, 25 ; hyt y gwelir ymi gwlat ffrwythlawn yw hon as far as 
appears to me, this is a fruitful land RB. II. 116 ; nyt aeth neb is 
nef hyt yd aeth ef no one under heaven went as far as he FB. 197. 

(b) With the subjunctive, e.g. taw hyt y mynnych be silent as 
long as thou wilt RB. 1 3, 8. 

2. hyt na so that not. 

(a) With indicative (of consequence), e.g. drycyruerth a wnaeth 
hyt nat oed well genti y byw noe marw she made lamentation so_ 
that she did not deem her life better than her death RB. 51, 18. 

(b) With subjunctive (of purpose), e.g. carchara wynt hyt nat 
elont dracheuyn imprison them so that they may not go back RB. 
34, 14- 

215. lie (nominal conjunction) where ; negative He ny, e.g. He 
y gwelych eglwys kan dy pader wrthi wherever thou seest a church, 
recite thy pater to it RB. 195 ; am uenegi ohonaf i ytti dy les lie 
nys metrut dy hun because I shewed thee thy advantage where thou 
didst not think of it thyself K^. ijj. 

216. mal, val (O.W. amal = Ir. amail). 

I. ctS, when. 

(a) With indicative, e.g. sef mal yd eistedassant that is how 
they sat WB. p. 224 ; pei gwypwn vot yn da gennyt ti mal y mae 
da gennyf i if I knew that it pleased thee as it pleases me RB. 213 ; 
ual y daw y mywn arganuot yr adanc a wnaeth as he came in, he 
perceived the monster RB. 226, 5 ; yd adnabu yr amherawdyr y wlat 



124 THE CONJUNCTION. [§216. 

mal y gfwelas the emperor recognised the country when he saw it 
WB. 186. 

(b) With subjunctive, e.g. mi wnaf ual y dywettych di / shall 
act as thou may est direct RB. 276 ; hwynt ae torrynt ual y dyckid 
attunt they broke them as they were brought to them. 

2. as ^(with past subjunctive), e.g. mal pei teu uei as_i£it were 
thine RB. 127 ; dyuot yma auory ym kymryt i mal na wyppwn i 
dim y wrth hynny to come here to-morrow to take me as if I knew 
nothing about it WB. p. 215. 

3. so that. 

(a) With indicative (of consequence), e.g. kyscu a wneuthum i 
ual na wybuum pan aeth ef / slept so that I did not know when he 
wentRB. 247, 27. 

(b) With subjunctive (of purpose), e.g. par weithon wahard y 
llongeu . . . ual nat el neb y Gymry issue now a prohibition to 
the ships so that no one may go to Wales RB. 34, 1 2 ; ereill a gyghorei 
itt rodi dy uerch y un o dylyedogyon y deyrnas hon ual y bei 
vrenhin gwedy ti others advised thee to give thy daughter to one of 
the nobles of this kingdom so that he might be king after thee RB, II. 
114. 

217. megys ; megys na. 

1. as^ e.g. y gwledychwys Peredur gyt ar amherodres pedeir 
blyned ar dec, megfys y dyweit yr ystoria Feredur ruled with the 
empress for fourteen years, as^ the story tells RB. 232 ; meg'ys y 
g'allwys gfyntaf ef a aeth parth a Chaerwynt as soon as he could 
he went towards Caerwynt RB. II. 173 ; meg'ys y del y coelbrenn 
udunt y deholir aj the lot falls to them they are banished RB. II. 131. 

2. as if e.g. ymgaru a orugant megys na ry ymwelynt drwy 
lawer o yspeit kyn no hynny they embraced one another, <HJf ^^^y 
had not seen one another for a long time before that RB. II. 186. 

3. so that, e.g. pa achaws na ladwn ni y mynach hwnn megys 
y kaffo Gwrtheyrn gwedy hynny y deyrnas why do we not slay this 
monky that Vortigern may thereafter get the kingdom? RB. II. 129. 

218. myn ivhere, e.g. dyuot a orugant myn yd oed yr heussawr 
they came to where the herdsman was RB. 115, 13; myn yd VO truin 
yd uit trev wherever there is a nose, there will be a sneeze BB. 42 a. 



§222.] THE CONJUNCTION. 125 

219. namyn, namwyn except, hut. 

e.g. nyt edewis uynet namyn hyt yd elhut titheu / did not 
promise to go except so far as thou shouldst go WB. 472 ; paham y 
kymerwn ninneu hynny y gan y taeogeu lladron . . . namyn eu Had 
hwy oil why do we take this from these thievish churls and not rather 
slay them all? RB. 49 ; y prenn a dyfawd yn dec . . . namyn na 
thyfawd neb ryw ffrwyth arnaw the tree grew fairly, except that no 
manner of fruit grew upon it Hg. I. 1 30. 

220. I. neu =(Ir. no) or, e.g. nyt oed un Uestyr . . . namyn eur 
neu aryant neu uuelyn there was not a single vessel... except gold or 
silver or horn WB. 227. 

221. 2. neu, before vowels neut; with the present of the copula 
neut ; with ry, neur (§95 note), with infixed pronoun: neu-m, etc. 
The original meaning may have been now, but the precise force of 
the particle is not altogether clear. 

e.g. pan douthume attad oeth bichan vi anuad. neu rimartuad 
oth laur kiueithad when I came to thee, my ill was small; now I 
have been blackened through thy .. .co-operation BB. 11^; och, heb y 
Riannon, paham y rody di atteb uelly ; neus rodes uelly arglwydes 
yg gwyd gwyrda, heb y mackwy ^'■Alas!" said Riannon, ^^why dost 
thou answer so?" "/ have so answered, lady, before nobles,'' said 
the youth RB. 13; neus gwarchae mynwent y mynwes daear, 
neud gwar gwawr trydar now the graveyard imprisons him in the 
bosom of the earth, now the light of battle is gentle MA. 160*; neu 
chwitheu pan doethawch. neur doetham y erchi Olwen whence 
have ye come ? We have come to ask for Olwen RB. 118. Many 
examples will be found in MA. 2"]^. 

222. no, noc than ; with the article, nor ; with possessive 
adjectives nom, noth, noe etc., e.g. oed melynach y fenn no 
blodeu y banadyl her head ivas yellower than the blossom of the broom 
WB. 476 ; noc amws naw gayaf oed mvvy he was bigger than a 
stallion of nine years WB. 472 ; nachaf y twryf yn dyfot yn vwy . . . 
noc y dywedassei y gwr du behold the din became greater than the 
black man had said WB. 231 ; a llawenach uuwyt wrthyf y nos 



126 THE CONJUNCTION. [§222. 

bono nor nos gynt / had greater welcome that night than the night 
before WB. 233. 

With the particle et, nocet, nocyt, nogyt, e.g. dial Duw 
arnaf onyt dewissaf {leg. dewissach) genhyf uy agheu oe law ef 
nocet o law arall Gods vengeance on me if I would not rather die 
by his hand than by the hand of another WB. p. 210 ; pa beth yssyd 
iawnach weithon nocyt na chretter idaw what is more proper now 
than that he should not be believed 1 CM. 76. 

Note.— For et see Rev. Celt. VI. 57. 

223. nil, now^ e.g. nil nym car i Guendit now Gwendydd loves 

me not BB. 25^^ ; yth law di nu y rodaf i into thy hand now I will 

give it RB. 266 ; beth bynnac nu a dylyych, kymer yr un march 

ar dec whatever then thou art entitled to^ take the eleven horses 

RB. 279. 

Note. — In the usual Mid.W. orthography the word should be written 
nw ( = Ir. nu) ; it had gone out of use, and so the scribes retained the 
spelling of an earlier period. Cf. Loth Mab. II. 195. 

224. O, before vowels ot if\ also or, OS ; negative ony, before 
vowels onyt ; with the present of the copula os, negative onyt. 

(a) With present indicative, e.g. ot ey yr hon (sc. fford) issot ny 
deuy trachefyn vyth if thou goest by the lower one, thou wilt never 
return W^B. p. 223; OS byw uydaf i . . . ti a glywy chwetleu 
O diang'haf if I live, thou shall hear tidings, if I escape WB. 392 ; 
or diang'haf i . . . uyg ky wirdeb am cariat a uyd ar y uorwyn . . . 
ony diang'haf uinheu kyndiweiret uyd y uorwyn a chynt if I escape, 
the maiden shall have my loyalty and my love; if I do not escape, she 
will be as pure as before WB. 396 ; mi ath amdiffynaf OS g'allaf 
/ will defend thee if I can ; ny mwynha y gwaet onyt yn dwym y 
keffir the blood is of no use unless it is got warm. 

Note 1. — A negative clause continuing a clause introduced by o has 
ae na with the subjunctive (§ 286, note 1). 

Note 2. — onyt sinks to the sense of except, hut (Mod.W. ond), e.g. ny 
mynnaf i dim onyt mynet yr gware / desire nothing hut to go to the play 
WB. p. 224; ny mynnaf i neb onyt Duw / desire no one hut GodHg. I. 178. 

(b) With the preterite and pluperfect, e.g. or bu ( = OS RB. 104) 
ar dy gam y dyuuost y mywn, dos ar dy redec allan zf thou camest 
in at a walk, go out at a run WB. 458 ; o ry dywedyssei hitheu 



§226.] THE CONJUNCTION. 127 

dim a uei wrthwyneb ganthaw ef, hi a wnaei iawn idaw if she had 
said anything to displease him, she would give him satisfaction. 
Hg. 11. 130. 

(C) With the past subjunctive, e.g. o bei orderch itt goreu 
gorderch oedut if thou hadst a mistress, thou wouldst be a matchless 
lover WB. 237 ; or bei eisseu dim arnaw ny adei ef hun uyth ar 
legat dyn if he lacked anything, he would never allow sleep on 
any man^s eye WB. 465 ; dywedut na bydei vy eneit ym corff ony 
delei =deuheiWB. 256) efym amdiffyn i they said that my life 
would not be in my body, unless she came to defend me RB. 187. 

Note 4. — It will be observed that in the last example corresponding to 
what in direct speech would be o daw the older text has the imperfect 
indicative, the later the past subjunctive. 

Note 5. — os contains the infixed pronoun of the third person singular, 
OS gallaf if I am able [to do) it ; from such cases os developes into a special 
form of the conjunction, or comes from o + ry as neur from neu + ry (§ 95 
note), so that originally it would have been used before those tenses with 
which ry was used. But it tended to spread beyond its proper bounds, 
cf. or clywy, or gwely RB. 195 = o chlywy, o g-wely WB. 119, 120. 

225. I. pan whence? e.g. pan iv dy echen whence is thy lineage "^ 
BB. 49^; guaur llv py dv pan doit. Ban deuaw o kad ''hero 
of a host, whence comes t thou .?" "/ come from battle" BB. ib. ; pa le 
pan deuy di . . . pan deuaf o lys Arthur ''whence comest thou?" 
"I come from Arthur^ s court" RB. 200, i. Note the repetition of 
pan in the answer. 

226. 2. pan when. 

(a) With present (or future) indicative, e.g. kyntaw geir a dy wedaw 
y bore ban kyuodaw the first word that I will say in the morning 
when I arise BB. 41^; ban wanha y gnaud when his flesh becomes 

feebleBB. id"; pan agorawr ( = agerer RB. 103, 24) y porth . . . 
bydhawt ragot ti gyntaf yd agorawr y porth when the gate is opened, 
it will be opened for thee first WB. 456. 

Note. — This construction gives place to pan with the subjunctive. 

(b) With a past tense of the indicative, e.g. a phan yt oed yn 
mynet yr Hog ac na welei neb y gyt ac ef namyn ar y drydyd . . . 
y dywawt and when he was going to the ship a?id saw no one with 
him save his two companions, he said RB. II. 67 ; a ffan deuthum 



128 THE CONJUNCTION. [§226. 

yno hoffach oed genhyf and when I came there it pleased me more 
WB. 229; pan g"lywssynt hwy y uarwolyaeth ef yd ym- 
gynullyssynt ivjien they had heard of his deaths they had assembled 
RB. II. 173. 

(c) With the subjunctive, e.g. pan delych dy hun yth wlat ti a 
wely when thou thyself come st to thy land thou wilt see KB. 6, 10; 
pan agorer y creu beunyd yd a allan w hen the pen is opened every 
day, it goes forth RB. 78 ; pan elhei y teulu y yvet y gwin . . . 
nyt aey ef y gyt a neb onadunt wy rvhenever his household went to 
drink the wine he would not go with any of them RB, 85. 

3. In some phrases. 

(a) hyt pan until, e.g. ar pump meib hynny a uagassant hyt 
pan uuant weisson mawr and those four boys they reared till they 
were big lads RB. 43 ; Duw a wyr nat ymchoelwn hyt pann 
welhom y uorwyn God knows that we will not return till we see 
the maiden RB. 117. 

(b) or pan from the time that, e.g. or pan g'auas y tir ny 
allwys na chi na dyn na march y ganhymdeith from the time that 
it reached the land neither dog nor man nor horse could keep up 
with it RB. 141 ; or pann ag"oroch y drws hwnnw ny ellwch uot 
yno after ye open that door ye will not be able to be there RB. 40. 

(c) yr pan since the time that, e.g. kyvriuwch awch treul yr pan 
doethawch yma reckon up your expenditure since ye came hither 
RB. 228 ; gwedy dwyn ar gof onadunt eu collet yr pan 
g"0llyssynt arglwydiaeth ynys Brydein after they called to mind 
their losses since they had lost the lordship of Britai?i RB. II. 108. 

4. since, e.g. gwae ni pann yn trewit o delli woe to us that we 
have been struck by blindness LA. 84; pa gyfryw wr yw awch tat 
chwi pan alio lleassu pawb uelly what kind of a man is your father 
that he can kill everyone in this way? RB. 221 ; pa drwc a digoneis 
i ytti pan wnelut titheu ymi ... a wnaethost hediw what evil 
have I done to thee that thou shouldst do to me what thou hast done 
to-day? WB. 232. 

5. that, e.g. ny wydyem pan oed ti a grogem we knew not that 
it was thou whom we were crucifying FB. 122. In prose it is 



§230.] THE CONJUNCTION. 129 

common in the phrase pan yw that it is, e.g. y dywawt y gwr . . . 
pan yw Peredur ae goruuassei the man said that Feredur had 
overcome him RB. 

227. pei if, negative pei na ; followed by the past subjunctive 

or by the pluperfect indicative which takes its place (§ 109c), e.g. pei 

as gfwypwn mi ae dywedwn if I knew it, I would tell it RB. 130 ; 

nyt oed gyfyg gennyf ymlad a thidi bei na bei yr anifeil gyt a thi 

/ should not think it difficult to fight with thee if the beast were not 

with thee RB. 189 ; a phei na ry bylei y cledyf ar vodrwyeu y 

benffestin ef a vuassei agheuawl or dyrnawt honnw et nisi collisione 

cassidis mucronem hebetasset, mortiferum vulnus forsitan intulissef 

RB. II. 198 ; buassei well itti pei rodassut nawd yr mackwy it 

would have been better for thee if thou hadst given protection to the 

youth RB. 216. 

Note. — pei, bei is in origin sg. 3 past subjunctive of bot. By itself it 
has the sense of if it were, e.g. pei oet idaw ef a ladyssit if he had been oj 
age, he would have been slain RB. 193. 

228. pryt na (nominal conjunction) since not. 

(a) with the indicative, e.g. py holy di y mi pryt nam gedy yn 
y tarren honn what dost thou seek of m-e that thou dost not leave me in 
peace on this stony height ? RB. 128 ; a phryt na thygyawd idaw 
geissyaw mynet y mywn trist vu ganthaw and since he did not succeed 
in getting in he was sad Hg. I. 39. 

(b) With the subjunctive, e.g. pa uedwl yw dy teu di unben pryt 
na bwyttehych what is in thy mind, sir, that thou dost not eat? (that 
keeps thee from eating) RB. 292 ; py wyneb yssyd arnat ti pryt na 
deiut y edrych y gofut a uu arnaf i what face hast thou that thou 
didst not come to see the grief that was upon me ? RB. 1 76. 

229. pyr {py + yr for what?). 

1. Why? e.g. pyr ( = py rac RB. 126) y kyuerchy dy why 
dost thou call ? y^"^. 486. 

2. Since, that, e.g. gvae vi pir imteith genhide in kyueith woe 
to me that I walked in associates hip with thee BB. 1 1'^. 

230. tra while ; often preceded by hyt. 

(a) With the past indicative, e.g. ny omedwyt neb tra 
barhaawd no one met with refusal while it lasted RB. 1 7 ; y 



130 THE CONJUNCTION. [§230. 

tyuawd heint yndaw a nychtawt hyt tra UU uyw there developed 
in him a sickness and a wasting as long as he lived RB. 108. 

(b) With the subjunctive, e.g. tra vych ti yn kyscu mi a af y 
ymwelet ar iarll while thou art sleeping, I will go to see the earl WB. 
p. 214; hyt tra ym gatter yn vyw hanbyd gwaeth drem vy 
llygeit tvhile I am left alive my eyesight will be worse RB. 119; 
tra uei y mywn coet ar vric y coet y kerdei while he was in a 
wood he would walk on the tops of the trees RB. 108; pei nam 
goganewch ... mi a gysgwn tra iiewn yn aros vy mwyt if you 
would not laugh at me, I would sleep while I wait for my food RB. 
162 ; hyt tra uei yn gorffywys yd archei eu blygaw yn vyw rac y 
vron while he was resting he asked that they should be flayed alive 
before him RB. II. 79. 

231. wrth because ; negative wrth na, e.g. adolwyn yw genhyf 
itt y gadw yn da, wrth nas rodwn i ef iti yr y seith dinas goreu 
yth gyuoeth, ac wrth hefyt y lledir dy benn etwa ac ef / entreat 
thee to guard it well, because I would not give it thee for the seven best 
towns in thy kingdom, and because too I will yet cut off thy head with it 
CM. 3 1 ; g"uerth na buost vffil because thou hast not been submissive 
BB. 11^ 

232. yn I. where, e.g. dos ragot y lys Arthur yny(=yn He 
RB. 195) mae goreu y gwyr go to Arthur's court where the men 
are best^^. 119; yn ( = lle RB. 195) y gweiych eglwys can dy 
pater wrthi where thou seest a church, recite thy pater to it WB. 119. 

2. w>^^;2, e.g. ynybo canmoledigGruffudd . . . cerddwn weithon 
ar ddarogan Merddin when Gruffudd has been praised, let us now 
pass to the prophecy of Merlin MA. 723^; yn y bei orchyuygedic 
angheu a gyuodes y trydyd dyd who, when death had been overcome, 
arose on the third day Hg. II. 76. 

Note.— See Rev. Celt. 28, p. 198. 

233. yny until. 

(a) With a past indicative (or historic present), e.g. wynt a 
drigyassant yny daruu idaw ef hynny they stayed until he had 
finished that RB. 267 ; dyuot a orugant yr hoU niferoed hyny 



§236. NEGATIVE PARTICLES. 131 

vydant yn emyl y kae the whole multitude came till they were beside 
the enclos2ire WB. p 224. 

(b) With the subjunctive, e.g. arhowch y gyt a mi yny darffo 
ym gymryt gwrogaeth vyg goreugwyr wait with me till I have 
received the homage of my nobles RB. 267 ; y byryw[y]t y kalaned yn 
y peir yny uei yn 11a wn the corpses were cast into the cauldron till it 
should be full RB. 39. 

234. yr na since not, though not 

(a) With indicative, e.g. am ernyw yr na daw it afflicted me 
since he will not come MA. 183^ 

(b) With subjunctive, e.g. darogan yw idaw kaffel etiued ohonat 
ti yr nas kaffo o arall it is his fate that he shall have offspring of 
thee though he has had none of another RB. 10 1 ; ny chyffroes un 
aelawt ar Gopart yr y uedru mwy noc yr na metrit not one 
limb of Copart was affected, though it was hit more than though it 
had not been hit Hg. II. 149. 

NEGATIVE PARTICLES. 

235. ny, before a vowel nyt ; infixed pronouns ny-m-, ny-th-, 
ny-s-, etc. 

(a) Except before the imperative, ny is the regular negative in 
main clauses, e.g. ny chelaf / will not conceal; ny lyuassei neb 
no one dared; nyt oed da gennyf ynneu hynny that did not please 
me ; ny bo teu dy benn may not thy head be thine. 

(b) ny introduces relative clauses (where Bret, and Corn, like Ir. 
have na), e.g. yn y wlad ny ry welei eiroet in a country thai he had 
never seen. 

Note. — In such clauses na is exceptional in Welsh, e.g. yssit nas 
keftych (by yssyd ny cheffych 120) there is something that thou wilt not get 
RB. 121—123. 

236. na, before a vowel nat; with infixed pronouns na-m- etc. ^^' 
This is the regular negative in dependent clauses, e.g. ryued yw 
gennyf i nam atwaenost / wonder that thou dost not know me ; 

ef a gadarnhaei y gwennwynei y dwfyr hwnnw genedyl y Corannyeit 



132 NEGATIVE PARTICLES. [§236. 

ac na ladei ac nat eidig'auei neb oe genedyl ehun he gave 
assurance that that water would poison the race^of the Corannyeit^ 
and would not hill and would not hxirtn anyone of his own race RB. 
96 ; breid vu na syrthyawd yr llawr she almost fell to the ground 
Hg. I. 308 ; mi a wnaf itt na bo reit itt uot yn trist / will 
bring it about for thee that there will be no need for thee to be 
sad ; golychaf y wledic pendefic mawr na bwyf trist / will entreat 
the king, the great Prince, that I may not be sadY^. 182. Further 
examples will be found under the conjunctions (but can ny, cyn 
ny, ony). 

Note 1. — na is found in the second member of a conditional sentence 
introduced by o (of which the negative is ony), e.g. o gwely vwyt a diawt, 
or byd reit itt wrthaw ac na bo o A\ybot a dayoni y rodi itt, kyraer dy 
hun ef if thou se est food and drink, if thou hast need of it, and no one has 
the courtesy and kindness to give it thee, take it thyself 'KB. 195. 

Note 2. — The use of na may be noted in sentences like the follo^ving: 
kanys est^a^vn genedyl a phaganyeit jwch. ac nat atwen inheu etwa nach 
moes nach deuodeu /or ye are foreigners and pagans, and I do not yet know 
your character or your customs RB. II. 134 ; a gwedy menegi y bawp o 
tywyssogyon Freinc ar neilltu ac na chauas na phorth na nerth after he 
had set forth the case to each of the chiefs of France separately and got 
neither help nor support RB. II. 74. 

237. na, before vowel nac (cf. Ir. nach-) ; with infixed pronouns 
na-m- etc. na(c) is used : — 

(a) As the negative with the imperative, e.g. na dos do not go ; 
nac amouyn amdanaw do 7iot ask about it. na is also sometimes 
found with the subjunctive used in an imperative sense, e.g. na 
discynnych do not dismount WB. 399. 

(b) In negative answers to questions (§ 241). 

(c) Not preceded by a question, in vivid negation, e.g. dyret y 
uwytta, heb ef. nac af yrof a Duw, heb hi ^^come to eat,'' said he. 
^^ I will not go, between God a?id me," said she RB. 289; eres yw 
gennyf na uedrut gymedroli ar wneuthur esgidyeu wrth uessur. 
na uedreis, heb ynteu* mi ae metraf weithon "/ am surprised 
that thou couldst not succeed in making shoes by measurement." 
"/ could notf said he; "/ shall be able to do it now" RB. 70 ; erchi 
a oruc y iarll y Enit ymdiarchenu a chymryt gwisc arall ymdanei. 
na uynnaf yrof a Duw, heb hi the earl asked Enid to unrobe 



§239.] INTERROGATIVE PARTICLES. 133 

herself and put on another dress. "/ will not, between God and 
me, " said she. 

Note. — For a similar usage in the other British languages and in Irish 
see the "Transactions of the London Philological Society" 1898-9, page 54, 
note. 

238. na, disjunctive particle ; before vowels nac ; with the 
article nar ; with infixed possessive adjectives nam, nath, nae 
etc., e.g. tegach oed noc y gallei neb y gredu nae dywedut he was 

fairer than anyone could believe otl tell CM. i ; heb wybot dim or 
vrat nae thybyaw without knowing or suspecting anything of the 
treachery RB. II. 218 ; na — na, e.g. ny byd reit itt torri na gwaew 
na chledyf there will be no need for thee to break either spear or 
sword', y Duw y dygaf vyg kyffes nae werthu nae ellwng nas 
gwnaf i / vow to God that I will neither sell it nor let it go RB. 56 ; 
beth bynnac a uo y marchawc racco na byw na marw whatever 
becomes of yonder knight, whether he lives or dies RB. 289 ; py beth 
bynhac a gaffer drwy na thwyll na chedernit whatever is got 
through treachery or force RB. II. 206; pan dycko beich na mawr 
na bychan uo when he brings a load whether it be great or small 
RB. 109. 

INTERROGATIVE AND RESPONSIVE 
PARTICLES. 

Interrogative Particles. 

239. a ; with the present of the copula ae (§ ^SS'^- 

(a) In direct questions, e.g. a weleist di varchawc hast thou seen 
a horseman! ae amser ynni vynet yr byrdeu is it time for us to go 
to table ? 

(b) In indirect questions, e.g. govyn a oruc y gwr y Peredur a 
wydyat Had a chledyf the man asked Peredur whether he knew to 
smite with a sword; edrych a oruc a yttoed ef yn deffroi she looked to 
see if he was stirring. 

(c) ae — ae whether — or, e.g. yn amheu beth a dywedei ae 
gwir ae geu doubting whether what he said was true or false RB. II. 
47 ; e kefreyth a deueyt bod en yaun provy ae moruyn ae nyt 



134 RESPONSIVE PARTICLES. [§239. 

moruyn the law says it is right to try whether she is a maiden 
or whether she is not a maide?t BCh. p. 40 ; ny wydyat hitheu 
beth a wnaei . . . ae dywedut hynny ae tewi she did not 
know what she should do, whether she should tell that or keep silent 
R.B. 270; either — or, e.g. a uynny di ae diawt ae dim dost thou 
desire drink or anything? RB. 276 ; a thebic yw genhyf i na doeth 
y wrthunt heb lad ae rei onadunt ae cwbyl and I think that he did 
not leave them without slaying either some or all of them WB. p 221. 

240. pony ( = Ir. cani), before vowels ponyt ; with the present 
of the copula ^onyt =^nonne? e.g. pony chlywy di dost thou not 
hear? RB. 272 ; ponyt oed iawn y titheu would it not be right fof 
thee? RB. 246. 

Responsive Particles. 

241. In answers to questions the verb or the predicate noun is 
often repeated, e.g. a gaffaf i letty gennyt ti, heb y Peredur. keffy, 
heb ynteu, yn 11a wen ''^ shall I get a lodging with thee?" said Peredur. 
" YesP said he, ^'gladly'' ; a yttiw Kei yn Uys Arthur. Yttiw " is Kei 
in Arthur' s court ?''^ '^l^j"; ae amser ynni vynet yr byrdeu. amser 
"w it time for us to go to table? ''^ ^^Yes." In negative answers 
na(c) is used, e.g. a atwaenost di y marchawc racco mawr. nac 
atwen '^ knowest thou yonder great horseman .? " " No " ; dy wet, heb ef, 
a vu ef gennyt ti a gwneuthur anuod arnat. na VU, myn vyg cret, 
heb hi, na cham nys goruc ym '■''tell me," said he, ^^was he with thee 
and did he do violence to thee? " ^^No," said she, ^^and he did m£ no 
wrong" ; ae byw. na vyw "w he alive?" ''''No." In answer to ae, 
nac ef ( = Mod.W. nage) is found, e.g. dywet unbenn, heb ef, ae 
o anwybot ae o ryfyc y keissut ti colli ohonof i vy mreint ... 
nac ef, heb y Gereint, ny wydywn i kaethu fford y neb "/(?// me, sir, 
is it through ignorance or arrogance that thou didst seek to make me 
lose my privilege?" ^^No," said Gereint, ^'' I did not know that the 
road was debarred to any one" WB. p. 217. 

Note. — nac ef is also found without a preceding question, e.g. arhowch 
vi yma, heb y Peredur, mi a af y ymwelet ar pryf. nac ef, arghvyd, heb 
wynt, awn y gyt y ymlad ar pryf ^^ wait for rne here'^ said Peredur, "I will 
go to visit the worm." "Nay, lord," said they," ^'letusgo together to fight 
with the worm." 



§243.] THE INTERJECTION. 135 

242. Certain particles are used in answer. 

ie, ieu, affirmatively, e.g. ae gwr y Arthur wyt ti. le myn vyg 

kret, heb y Peredur ''''art thou one of Arthur' s menV "Yes, by my 

faith,^^ said Peredur ', gouyn a wnaeth ef yr gwr . . . ae offeiryat oed 

ef. Ieu arglwyd, heb ynteu he ashed the man if he was a priest. 

" Yes, Lord,^' said he. 

do (cf. Ir. to) affirmative, nado (Ir.na tho) negatively, in answer to 
a preterite (or pluperfect of indirect question), e.g. a unben, heb ef, 
a leweist ti dy ginnyaw. do, heb ef '■^Sir" said he, ^^hast thou 
eaten thy dinner V ''''Yes" said he-, deffroi a oruc Arthur a 
gofyn a gysgassei hayach. do arglwyd, heb yr Owein, dalym 
Arthur awoke and ashed if he had slept for some time. " Yes," said 
Owein, '■'■for a while." a vwyteeist di dim hediw. nado, heb ynteu 
''''hast thou eaten anything to-day 1 " '■'■No" said he. 

Note. — Both ie, ieu and nado are found without a preceding question, 
e.g. ar hynny Uyma hitheu yr iarlles yn datlewygu. ie, heb hi, ae kychwyn 
a uynny ti. ie, heb ef thereupon lo the countess recovered from her swoon. 
"Really''' said she ''■dost thou desire to set forth?" " Yes,'' said he WB. 119; 
ie (=ieu BB. 210), heb y Peredur, yma y bydwn lieno ''truly," said 
Peredur, we will remain here to-night" WB. 139; mi a debygaf...na 
cheueist na bwyt na diawt. nado yrof a Duw, heb ynteu "7 think that 
thou hast got neither food nor drink." "No, between God and me," said he 
RB. 275. 



THE INTERJECTION. 

243. Interjections proper are : — 

a, ha ( = Ir. a), in address, e.g. a vorwyn, heb y Peredur, a doy 
ti y dangos imi yr aniueil hwnnw ^^maide7i" said Peredur, ''''wilt 
thou come to shew me that beast?" ha ( = a WB. 169) unbenn, 
heb y uorwyn, pei gwnelut vyg kyghor . . . ti a gaeut y drws 
''''Lord," said the maiden, '■''if thou wouldst follow my advice, thou 
wouldst shut the door" RB. 235. 

oi a, e.g. oi a uorwyn dec a bery di bot vym march i am 
arueu yn vn Hetty a mi heno harhl my fair maid, wilt thou see that 
my horse and my arms are in the same lodging with me to-night 1 
RB. 217; dyhed a beth bot gwr kystal a thi heb gedymdeith ; 



136 ' THE INTERJECTION. [§243-244. 

oi a wrda y mae y mi gedymdeith "«V is a strange thing that a 
man like thee should have no companion^ ^^ But, my lord, I have a 
companion^'' RB. 127. 

oian a, e.g. oian a parchellan a parchell dedwit hoi little pig, 
happy pig BB. 26\ 

och, e.g. och lessu na dyffv wy nihenit kyn dyffod ar wi Have 
lleith mab Guendit O Jesus that my end had come before the death of 
Gwendydd^s son came upon my hand BB. 25^; OCh, heb y Riannon, 
paham y rody di atteb iielly '•''alasT'' said Riannon, ^^why dost thou 
answer thus ? " RB. 13 ; erchi y vendyth a wnaeth ; och a truan, 
heb ef, ny dylyy gaffel bendyth he asked him for his blessing. 
^^ Unhappy wretch^^ said he, ^^thou dost not deserve a blessing" 
RB. 236. 

ub, e.g. neu chwitheu pwy ywch. kenhadeu Arthur yssyd yma 
yn erchi Olwenn ; vb wyr nawd dy w ragoch, yr y byt na wnewch 
hynny '■'■and who are you T ^''Messengers of Arthur that are here 
seeking Ohven." ^'' Alack I men, God preserve you. For the world 
do not do that" WB. 473. 

244. Of an interjectional character are the following ; — llyma 
lo here / (like Fr. voici), e.g. llyma weithon ual yd hellawd Arthur 
y carw Lo now! this is how Arthur hunted the ^/a^WB. 402; llyma 
y uorwyn y kefeist ti dy warthrud oe achaws See here is the maiden 
on whose account thou didst get thy shame WB. 407. Also Uyman 
RB. 87, WB. 185, p. 92^; llyna lo there ! (like Fr. voila), e.g. Uyna 
yssyd iawnaf am hynny Lo! that is the fairest course with reference to 
that WB. 406; ie vorwyn;, heb y Kei, llyna vedru yn drwc 
^Lndeed, woman," said Kei, '^ that is ill behaviour" WB. 123 ; nachaf 
lo ! behold! e.g. nachaf uarchawc yn dyuot yr porth behold U 
horseman coming to the gate RB. 233; wely dy (lit. dost thou see?) 
lo ! behold ! e.g. wely dy racco ( = weluch chwi racw WB. p. 94*) 
y gaer Lo ! yonder is the city WB. 185. 



A Middle-Welsh 
Reader 



I. LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS.^ 

From the Red Book of Hergest. ^ 

1. AcynagCedy marC Bleidduty drychafwyt^Lyry yab » 
y nteu yn vrenhin . A thrugein^ mly ned y bu y n Hy wyaC y 
vrenhinyaeth^ yn wraOl, ac a adeilOys dinas ar auon Soram, 

ac ae gel6is Kaer Lyr; ac yn Saesnec y gelOir Leissestyr. " ' 
A6 ny bu idaO un mab namyn teir merchet. Sef oed^^ 5 
enCeu y verchet:^ Goronilla, Raga6,^ CordeiHa. A 
dirtiatif y karei eu t2X 6ynt, a mCyaf eissoes y karei y 
verch jeuaf idaC Cordeilla. 

2. A phan yttoed yn IlithraO parth ae henein/ medylyaO 

a wnaeth pa 6ed y gadawei^ y gyuoeth gCedy ef y^ verchet. 10 
Sef a Cnaeth profi p6y vCyaf oe verchet ae karei, Crth 
rodi idi y ran oreu or kyuoeth gan wr. A gal6 a 6n[a]eth* 
atta6 y verch hynaf idaO Goronilla, a gofyn idi pa veint 
y karei hi efo.^ A thygu a Cnaeth hitheu y^ nef aJ daear^ 
bot yn v6y y karei hi euo noe heneit ehun. A chredu a 15 
Cnaeth ynteu idi^ hynny, a dyCedut,^^ kan oed kymeint^^ y 
karei hi euo a hynny, y rodei ynteu draean^^ y gyuoeth 
genti hi y Cr^^ a deCissei yn ynys Prydein. 

3. Ac yn ol honno galO attaC Ragua^ y verch eil hynaf 
idaC, a gofyn idi pa veint y karei hi euo. A thygu a 20 
Cnaeth hitheu y gyuoetheu y nef ar daear^ na allei hi^ 
dyOedut ar y thauaOtleueryd pa veint y karei hi euo.* 

A chredu a 6naeth ynteu hynny, ac ada6 idi hitheu y 
rodi^ yr gCr a deCussei, a thraean^ y gyuoeth^ genti. 

" Letters enclosed in square brackets [ ] are wanting in the MS. 

Variants from British Museum, Additional 19,707. , 

Ch. 1. — 1 drycheuit 2 thrugeint 3 yn y IlywaO hi 4 eu henweu 

5 ra^au 

Ch. 2. — 1 a heneint 2 yd adaOei 3 yO 4 wnaeth 5 ef 6 yr 7 ar 

8 dayaer 9 idi hi 10 dywedut Orthi 11 gymeint 12 drayan 13 yr gOr 

Ch. 3. — 1 ragau 2 dayar 3 om. 4 y karhei 5 y rodei hi (hi over lirie) 

6 thrayan 7 kyfoeth 



140 LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS 

4. Ac yna y gel6is^ y verch jeuaf ida6 attaC, a gouyn 
idi pa veint y karei hi euo.^ A dyCedut a Onaeth hitheu 
y rygaru^ ef eiryoet* megys y dylyei uerch garu y that, 
ac nat ytoed etCa^ yn peida6 ar karyant h6nn6« ac erchi 

5 idaO g6aranda6 yn graff pa veint oed hynny. A sef^ oed 
hynny, y^ veint y bei y gyuoeth ae jechyi; ae deGred. A 
blyghau a IlidiaC^ a oruc ynteu, a dyCedut Crthi, kan oed 
kymeint y tremygassei euo^ a hynny, val na charei^^ hi euo 
megys y karei y chwioryd erein,^^ y diuarnei ynteu hi hyt 

10 na^ chaffei neb ry6 ran or ynys y gyt ac Cynteu. Ny 
dyC^t^^ ynteu nas rodei hi^^ y wr ny hanffeic or ynys, o 
dam6einei yr kyfry6 Or hCnnC y herchi heb argyfreu 
genti. Hyn heuyt a gadarnhaei hyt na lauuryei y 
geissaC g6r idi megys yr rei ereill.^* Kanys m6y y 

15 karyssei ef hi nor rei ereill eiryoet,^^ a hitheu yn y 
dremygu ynteu^^ yn v6y nor rei ereill.^^ 

5. A heb ohir o gytgyghor y wyrda y rodes y dGy 
verchet hynaf idaC y dywyssogyon^ yr Alban a ChernyO, 
a banner y -gyuoeth^ gantunt hyt tra [vei]^ vyO ef, a 

20 gOedy bei var6, y kyoueth gantunt* yn deu haner. Ac 
yna g6edy clybot o Aganipus vrenhin Freinc clot a 
phryt a thegOch CordeilTa, antion kenadeu a Onaeth oe 
herchi yn wreic idaC, a dyCedut 6rth y that y genad6ri.« 
Ac ynteu a dyCaCt^ y rodei y verch ida6 ef heb argyfreu 

25 genti, ^ kan daroed ida6 rodi y gyuoeth ae eur ae aryant 
y7 d6y verchet ereill.^ A phan gigleu Aganipus tecket y 
vorOyn,^ kyflaOn vu oe charyait. A dy[6]edutio a wnaeth bot 
ida6 ef diga6n o eur ag aryant, ac nat oed reit idaO ef 
6rth dim namyn gOreic delediC^^ dylyedaOc y kaffei Blant 

Ch. 4.— 1 y gelwis ynteu 2 y karei ef 3 ac y dywavt hitheu y karei 
4 eiroet 5 om. "karyat hOnO 6acysef 7 yny 8 a IlidiaO om. 9 hi euo 
10 ual y karei 11 megys j^ chOioryd y Ileill ^dyuarnei ynteu hi na 
12 dywaOt 13 na rodei ef hi "hanfei 14 megys y Ileill 15 hilii nor 
Ilein 16 tremygu ef 17 nor Ileill 

Ch. 5.— 1 tywyssogyon 2 y kyfoeth idaO 3 tra uei 4 yn g^yl udunt 
Oynteu «genatOri 5 ac y dywaOt ynteu 6 om. 7 gan y 8 y Ileill 9 ae 
thelediwet ac?(^. 10 dywedut 11 telediO 



LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS 141 

ohanei'^ yn etiued ar y kyuoeth. Ac yn diannot^^ y 
kadarnhaOyt y briodas y rygtunt.^* ^ 

6. Ac ym pen yspeit yg kylch di6ed oes Lyr y 
goresgynnOys y dofyon y ran or kyuoeth^ a ganhalassei^ 

ef yn 6ra61 drCy hir o^ amser ; ac y rannassant y rygtunt 5 
yn deu banner. Ac o gymodloned y kymerth MaglaCn 
ty6yssa6c yr Alban Lyr attaO a deugein marchaOc y gyt 
ac ef, rae bot yn geCjJlid gantaG bot heb varchogyon yn*y 
osgord. A gCedy bot Lyr yn y wed honno gyt a 
MaglaCn, blyghau a oruc CofSeilla^ rac meint oed^ o 10 
varchogyon gyt ae that,^ ac rac eu gGasanaethCyr Oynteu 
yn teruysgu y Tlys. A dy6edut a Cnaeth 6rth y g6r bot 
yn^ digaCn deg marchaCc ar hugeint gyt ae that, a 
gellCg y rei ereiH ymdeith. A gCedy dy6edut hynny 
6rth Lyr, HidiaC a oruc, ac ymada6 a MaglaCn, a mynet 15 
hyt attarll KernyC y da6 y Ilall; ae erbynyeit o hCnnO 
yn anrydedus. 

7. Ac ny bu benn y vlCydyn yny daruu teruysc y rwg 
eu gCasanaethwyr. Ac 6rth hynny y sorres Ragua y 
verch 6rtha6, ac erchi idaC ellCg y varchogyon y CrthaC 20 
eithyr pump marchaCc ae gOasanaethei. A thristaG a 
Cnaeth Lyr yna yn va6r, a chych6yn odyna elchCyl hyt 

at y verch yr hynaf idaO, o dybygii trugarhau ohonaei 

OrthaC oe gynnal ae varchogyon y gyt ac ef. Sef a 

6naeth hitheu drOy y Hit tygu y gyuoetheu nef a dayar 25 

na chaff ei ohir, ony ellygei y holl varchogyon y 6rtha6 

eithyr vn y gyt ac ef ae gCasanaethei ; a dy[6]edut nat 

oecf reft y wr kyuoet ac euo vn HuossogrCyd y gyt ac ef, 

na theulil namyn vn gCr ae goassanaethei. A gOedy na 

chaffei dim or a geissei gan y verch^?, ellCg y varchogyon 30 >^- « ^'- 

a Onaeth eithir vn y gyt ac ef. '^* 

Ch. 5. — 12 ohonei 12 dianot 13 y rydunt 

Ch. 6. — 1 y dofyon arnaO y gyfoeth 2 gynhalaHsei 3 om. 4 Orth 
5 Goronilla recte 6 a oed 7 gyt ac ef 8 from here to odyno (ch. 10, 
1. 7) om. 



142 LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS 

8 . A g6edy bot velly ry naCd, d6y n ar gof a oruc y gyiioeth 
ae deilygdaCt ae anrydet ae vedyant, a thristau yn va6r, 
a medylyaC gofOy yl^erch a athoed y Freinc ida6. Ac 
ovynhau hynny heuyt a Cnaeth rac mor digaryat y 
5 gellygassei ef hi y CrthaO ; ac eissoes ny allCys diodef y 
dianrydedu mal y daroed. A chychGyn tu a Ffreinc a 
Cnaeth. 

g. A phan ytoed yn mynet yr Hog ac na 6elei neb y gyt 
ac ef namyn ar y drydyd, gan 6yla6 y dyCaCt yr 

lo ymadraCd h6nn : " Ae ch6ich6i tyghetVenneu ! pa le y 
kerdCch ch6i (Jros aCqh gnotaedic hynt ? Pa achaCs y 
kyffroassaCch chCi vivi eiryoet y ar vyggCastat detwydyt? f 1 ^ 
Kanys mCy boen yC koffau kyuoeth gCedy coller, no 
chytdiodef achenoctit heb ordyfneit kyuoeth kyn no 

15 hynny. M6y boen y6 genyf i yr aOr hon goffav uyg 

kyuoeth am anryded yn yr amser hCnnC, yn yr h6n yd 

oed y sa61 gan mil o varchogyon ym damgylchynu yn 

kerdet y gyt a mi, pan vydOn yn ymlad ar kestyll ac ar 

. dinassoed ac yn anreitha6 kyvoeth vyg gelynyon, no 

^o diodef y poen ar achenoctit a 6naeth y gOyr hynn y mi. 
y rei a uydynt yna dan vyn traen.* Och vi, a dCyweu 
nef a dayar ! pa bryt y daC yr amser y gallCyf y talu 
elchOyl yn y gCrthCyneb yr g6yr hynn ? Och Pordeilla 
vyg karedic^ verch ! mor wir y6 dy ymadraGd teu di, 

25 pan dy6edeist panyC val y bei vyg gallu am medyant am 
kyuoeth am jeuegtit, pany6 velly y karut ti vyui ! Ac 
6rth hynny, tra vu vyg kyuoeth i yn gallu rodi rodyon, 
pa6b am karei ; ac nyt mi a gerynt namyn vy rodyon am 
deuodeu am donyeu. Ac C^rth hynny, pan gilyOys y 

30 rodyon, y foes y karyat. Ac 6rth hynny pa ffuruf y 
gallaf rac keCilyd adolCyn nerth na chanhorth6y y genyt 
ti, 6rth rysorri yg kam ohonaf i 6rthyt ti am dy doethineb 

^ leg. traet. 



LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS 143 

di, ath rodi yn dremygedic gan debygu bot yn 
waeth dy diCed noth whioryd ereill, a thitheu yn well ac 
yn doethach noc CyntCy ? Kanys gCedy a rodeis i o da 
a chyuoeth tidint h6y. y gCnaethant h6y vytii yn alltut ac 
'M yn echenaCc om gClat am kyuoeth." 5 

10. Ac y dan gCynaC y aghyfnerth ofut yn y wed honno 
ef a doeth hyf ym Paris, y dinas yd oed y verch yndaC . 
Ac aniion amylder o annercheu at y verch a Cnaeth y 
dyCedut y ryO agkyfreith a gyuaruu ac ef. A gCedy 
dyOedutor gennat nat oed namy[n] ef ae [yjswein, sef a 10 
wnaeth hit[h]eu anuon amylder o eur ac aryant, ac erchi 
mynet ae thaf odyno hyt y myCn^ dinas arall, a chymryt 
arna6 y vot yn glaf, a gCneuthur enneint idaw, ac ardym- 
heru y gorff a symudaC^ dillat^ a diymryt attaC deugeiift 
marchaCc ac eu kCeiraC^ y n hard ac y n syberC* o veirch^ a i S 
dillaf ac arueu ; a gCedy darffei hynny, anuon oe ulaen at^ 
Aganipus vrenhin ac at^ y uerch y dyCedut y vot yn dyuot. 

A gCedy daruolgOneuthurkymeintac aarchyssei/anuon 
a 6naeth llythyreu^ at y brenhin" ac at y Verch ynteu y 
dy6edut^ y uot^^ yn dyuot^^ ar y deugeintiet b varchogyon^^ 20 
g6edy y^^ rydehol oe dofyon o ynys Prydein, yn dyuot y 
geissa6 porth gantunt 6ynteu^^ y oresgyn y gyfoeth 
dracheuen.^* A phan ^igleu y brenhin hynny, kychCyn a 
Cnaeth ef ae wreic ae <3eulu^^ yn y erbyn^^ yn anrydedus, 
malydoeddeil6g^^ erbynyeit^^ g6r aueiyngyhyt aceuo^^ 25 
yn vrenhin ar ynys Prydein. A hyt tra uu yn Freinc, y 
rodes y brenhin tywodraeth^o ygyuoeth^i idaO, maP^ ybei 
ha6s idaO caffel porth a nerth y oresgyn y gyuoeth 
drachefyn.23 

11. Acynayd anuonet gCys dros Cyneb teyrnas Freinc 

Ch. 10. — 1 hyt yn 2 y add. 3 kyweiraO 4 yn hard syberO 5 veirych 
6 ar 7 kymeint a hynny 8 Ilyr "brenhin 9 ynteu y dywedut om. 
10 ei add. 11 yn dyuot om. 12 deugeinuet marchaOc 13 om. 14 kyuoeth 
drachefyn 15 teulu 16 yn erbyn Ilyr 17 teilOg 18 erbyneit 19 ef 
20 Ilywodraeth 21 kyuoeth 22 val 23 idaO ef add. 



144 LEAR AND HIS DAUGHTERS 

y gyniillaC^ holl deCred y uynet^ gyt a Lyr y oresgyn y 
gyuoeth^ drachefyn idaC. A gCedy bot pob peth yn 
baraCt, kychCyn a oruc Lyr a Chordeilla y verch ar IIu 
hCnnC gantunt, a cherdet yny doethant y yny§ Prydein, 
5 ac yn diannot ymlad ae dofyon a chael^ y fudugolyaeth. 
A gCedy gCedu pob peth or ynys idaC eF i^ bu Var6 Lyr 
yn y dryded vlCydyn ; ac y bu [var6]^ Aganipus vrenhin 
Freinc. Ac yna y kymerth Cordeilla IlyOodraeth y 
deyrnas^ yn y HaC ehun. Ac y cladCyt Lyr y myOn 

lo dayardy« a Onaeth ehun y dan auon Sorram. Ar demyl* 
honno ry Cnathoed^ yn anryded yr du6 a el6it yna^^ 
Bifrontisiani. A phan delei wylua y demyP^ honno, y 
deuei hoH grefydOyr y dinas ar wlat oe anrydedu. Ac y 
dechreuitc pob gCeith or a dechreuit hyt ym pen y 

15 vlCydyn. A g6edy gCledychu pump^^ j^jy ^ed o Gordeilla 
yn dagnouedus/^ y kyuodes y deu nyeint yn y herbyn, 
Morgan^* vab MaglaOn ty6yssa6c yr Alban, a Chuneda^^ 
vab Henwyn tyCyssaCc Kernyw, a Hu aruaCc gantunt. 
A daly Cordeilla a 6naethant ae charcharu.^^ Ac yn y 

20 carchar hCnnC^^ o dolur kolli y kyuoeth^^ y gCnaeth ehun 
y Ileith. 

Ch. 11.— 1 y add. 2 Orth eu hellOg y 3 kyfoeth 4 chafiel 5 om. 6 y 
7 varO 8 teyrnas "dayarty *temyl 9 a wnathoed ehun 10 ena 
11 demhyl ''dechrewit 12 pvm {hut a stroke has been added below as if 
to change v to y) 13 dagneuedus 14 Margan 15 Chueda 16 A — 
charcharu : ae daly ae charcharu 17 hvnv 18 chyfoeth 



145 



II. THE STORY OF ARTHUR. 

From the Red Book of Hergest. 

I . A g6edy mar6 Uthur Pendragon yd ymgynullassant 
holl wyrda ynys Prydein, jeirll a barOneit^ a marchogyon 
vrdaOl ac escyb ac abadeu ac athraCon hyt yg Kaer 
Vudei. Ac o gytsynyedigaeth pa6b yd archyssant y 
Dyf ric archescob Kaer Lion ar Wysc vrdaC Arthur y vab 5 
ynteu^ yn vrenhin. Ac eu hagen ae kymhellei y hynny. 
Kanys pan gigleu y Saeson marColyaeth^ Vthur Pen- 
dragon,^ yd ellyg-yssynt 6ynteu genadeu hyt yn Germania 
y geissaC porth. Ac neur dathoed^ Iiyghes va6r attunt, 
a Cholgrim yn ty6yssa6c® arnadunt. Ac neur daroed 10 
udunt goreskyn^ o Humyr hyt y mor a Chatyneis^ yn y 
gogled. Sef oed hynny y dryded rann y ynys Prydein. 
A gCedy gCelet o Dyfric archescob drueni y bobyl ae 
hymdiuedi, ef a gymerth escyb y gyt ac ef, ac a dodes 
coron y teyrnas am ben Arthur. A phymthegmlCyd oed 1 5 
Arthur yna, ac ny chlyCsit ar neb arall eiryoet^ y deuodeu 
0':9de6red a haelder a oed arna6 ef. Ida6 ef hefyt yd 
enillyssei y dayoni anyanaCl a oed arnaC y veint rat 
honno, hyt pan oed garedic ef gan baCb or a glyCei^^ 
dyCetut amdanaC .^^ Ac 6rth hynny gOedy y arderchockau 20 
ef or vrenhinaOl enryded hCnnC, gan gadO ohonaC y 
gnotaedic^2 defaCt a^^ ymrodes y haelder. Ac odyna 
kymeint o amylder marchogyon a lithrei attaC, a megys 
y dyffygyei idaC da y rodi^* udunt yn vynych. Aceissoes 

Variants from British Museum, Additional 19,707. 

(Ch. 1). 1 barvnyeit, 2 arthi^r ap vthyr, 3 marwolaeth, 4 bendraf?on, 
5 dothoed, 6 dywyasavc, 7 gverescyn, 8 mor kateneia, 9 eiroet, 10 glyOhei, 
11 ymdanav anwaethach or ae gOelei, 12 nottaedic, 13 ef a, 14 rodei, 



146 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

py diO bynhac y bo haelder anyanaCl y gyt a phrofedic^^ 
volyant, kyt bo eisseu arnaC ar dalym,^^ yr hynny ny-at 

Du6 wastait aghenoctit y argyOedii idaO. 

J. 

2. Ac 6rth hynny Arthur, kanys molyant a getym- 
5 deithockaei^ haelder a dayoni, Ilunyaethu ryfel a oruc ary 

Saeson, hyt pan vei oc eu golut hCy^ y kyfoethogei ynteu 
yteulu ae varchogyon. Kanys iaCnder a dyskei hynny 
idaC ; kanys ef a dylyei o dreftataCl dylyet hoH lywodraeth 
ynys Prydein. A chynnuHaC a oruc ef yr hoTl ieuenctit '^ r*"'^ 

lo a oed ^ darystygedic idaC ef, a chyrchu parth a Chaer 
EffraCc.^ A gCedy gCybot o Golgrim hynny, kynuUaC a 
oruc ynteu y Saeson ar Yscotteit ar Ffichteit, ac y gyt 
ac^ aneiryf luossogrOyd nifer ganta6 dyuot yn erbyn 
Arthur hyt yg glan Dulas. A gOedy ymgyfaruot yna 

15 o bop^ parth, y dygOydassant IlaCer or deu lu. Ac or 
diwed Arthur a gafas y vudugolyaeth. A ffo a oruc 
Colgrim® y dinas Kaer Efra6c. Arthur ae lu a gych- 
wynCys^ ac a werchetwi^s^ arna6. 

3. A gCedy clybot o BaldCf^ y vra6t ynteu^ hynny, ^ ef 
20 a gyrchaCd tu ar lie yd oed^^'y vraOt ^g gOarchae,^ a ch6e ^T 

mil o wyr gantaO y geissaC y rydhau odyno. Kanys yr 
amser yd ymladyssei^ Arthur ae vra6t ef, yd oedKBaldCf^ 
yna ar Ian y mor yn aros^ dyuot Chledric^ o Germania, a 
oed^yn dyuot a phorth garitaG udunt. Ac 6rth hynny 
25 gOedy yddyuot ar^ dec milltir y Crth y gaer, darparu a 
. oruc dOyn kyrch nos am ben Arthur ae \&, Ac eissoes 
nyt ymgelaCdW hynny ra(S Arthur. Yna^^ yd erchis 
ynteu y GadCr^^ tyCyssaCc^^ Kerny6 kymrytcwhe chant /.- '^ 
marchaCc a their mil o bedyt^^ y gyt ac ef a myne't yn 

(Ch.) 1. 15 phrouygedic, 16 talym 

(Ch. 2). 1 gytymdeithoccaei, 2 Oy, 3 efraOc, 4 om., 5 pop, 6 golgrim, 
7 gylchynOys y dinas, 8 ae gOarchetwis 

(Ch. 3). ' 1 baldvlf , 2 om. , 3 y warchae, 4 yg gvarchae om, , 5 ymladyssei, 
6 valdvlf, 7 arhos, 8 cheldric, 9 hyt ar, 10 ymgelvys, 11 om., 12 kadvr, 
13 iarH, 14 pedyd 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 147 

eu herbyn, ac eu ragot y nos honno y fford y doynt. A 
gCedy kaffel o GadCr gCybot y fford y^ doynt y gelynyon, 
eu kyrchu a oruc KadCr yn deissyiyil A gCedy briCaC 
^,,: eu bydinoed ac eu hyssigaC a Had IlaCer onadunt, kymell ^H^- 
y Saeson a oruc ar ffo. ^ C e 

4. Ac 6rth hynny dirua6r dristyt a gofal a gymerth 

BaldCF ynda6,2 Crth na allOys ellOg^ y vraCt or gCarchae 

yd oed ynda6 . A medylyaC a oruc py wed y gallei gaff el* 

tf^M^.^--kyffur^ y^ ymdicfan ae vraCt; kanys ef a dybygei y kaffei 

bop^ un onadunt^ ell deu rydit a gCaret yn hoIIaCl, pei^ 10 
tot^'^ keffynt ymdidan y gyt. A g6edy na chaffei fford arall 
^^ yn y byt, eiJIaO y wallt^^ ae varyf a oruc, a chymryt telyn 
yn y laC, ac yn rith erestyn a gCaryyd dyudt ym plith y 
Hu ar Iluesteu. Ar clymeu^^ a ganei ef a dangossynt y 
vot yn telynya6r.^2 ^c or diwed gCedy na thybygei neb 15 
y udt ef yn tywyssaGc falst mal yd oed, nessau a oruc 
parth a muroed y gaer dan ganu y telyn. A gCedy y 
adnabot or g6yr o vy6n, y dyifiu^^ a orugant 6rth raffeu ,^./,-. 
y myCn. A gCedy gCelet ohonaO y vraCt, ymgaru a 
orugant megys na ry ymwelynt^* dr6y laOer o yspeit kyn 20 
no hynny. Ac val yd oedynt uelly yn medylyaC ac yn 
r^^-^ keissaC ystry6 py wed y gellynt vmrydhau odyno, ac yn 
anno^eitha6 oe rydit, nachaf eu kenadeu yn dytiot o 
Germania, a«?whe chan Hog yn IlaGn o varchogyon ariiaOc 
gantunt, a Cheldric yn HywyssaCc arnaddnt, ac yn 25 
disgynu yn yr Alban. 

5 . A gCedy clybot hy nny o Arthur, ymadaO a oruc y nteu 
ar dinas rac petruster ymlad ar veint nifer honno, ^ a ' • - 
my net odyno hyt yn Lundein. Ac yno gal6 attaO a oruc 
holl wyrda y deyrnas yscolheigon a Heygyon, ac 3<^ 

(Ch. 4). 1 baldvlf, 2 ac ynda, 3 gellOg, 4 kaffel, 5 kyfrOch 6 om., 
7 kanys ef a ty bygei pop, 8 ohonunt, 9 bei, 10 ben ? 1 1 ar crychyadeu add. , 
12 telynaOr 13 tynnu, 14 nar ymwelynt 

(Ch. 5). 1 hvnnv 



148 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ymgyghor ac Cynt beth a wnelynt^ am hynny. Sef a 

gaCssant o. gyghor y kCnsli hGnnO ; anuon kenadeu a 

orugant hyj: ar Ho6eP vab Emyr Lyda6, brenhin Brytaen 

^^^s^r^ '^ '■'^ Vechan, y iuexiegi idaO yr qrmes a dathoed gan y Paganyeit 



^- 



5 ar* ynys Prydein. Kanys nei uab y^ ch6aer oed'Howel^ >j' 
y Arthur. A gCedy clybot o Howel-^ y ryfel ar aflonydCch 
a oedf'ar y ewythyr, erchi parattoi Hy^es a oruc,^ a 
e-'^*''^ chynuna6 pymtheg mil o uarchogyon aruaCc. Ac ar y 
gOynt kyntaf a gafas yn y ol, y deuth y borth HamCnt 
lo^r tir y^ ynys Prydein. Ac Arthur ae hdruoTtes ynteu M^^"^' 
' 'I'W or enryded y gCedei aruoll gOr kyf urd ^a hOnnC ; ac yn 

^ vynych ymgaru^ bop eilwers. ^ 

6. Ac odyna gCedy TlithraO ychydic o dieuoed/ 6ynt a 

gyrchassant parth a Chaer LCytcoet, yr hon [a elwir]^ 

15 Lincol yr aCr honn, ac yssyd ossodedidfyn yawlat a elwir 

Lindysei ar benn mynyd rCg d6y auon. Ac 6rth y gaer 

^ honno yd oedly Paganyeit yn eisted. A gCedy eu dyuot 

^,v;c.«— yj^^ y g^yj. ^^ ^^ hoW^ niferoed,^' ymlad a orugant ar 

«Jl«fw*«8-^'' Saeson. Ac agjywedid aerua a Cnaethant o honunt.^ 

^. ' - 20 Kanys chwe mil onadunt a dygCydassant yn yr un dyd^ 

,j^- . h6nn6.' Rei oc eu Had, ereill oc eu bodi* a goUassant eu 

»-^-^' heneideu. Ac 6rth hynny rei^ ereill yn gyflaCn o ofyn 

ada6 y dinas a orugant, a chymryteu fifo® yn He diogel6ch ^ ,V'>f 7 
udunt. Ac ny orffo6ys6ys Arthur oc eu hymlif hyt^ yn 
25 nOyn Kelydon.- Ac yno ymgynuH o bop He a orugant 
oc euffo,^ a medylyaC^ g6rth6ynebu y Arthur. Ac odyna 
, gCedy dechreu ymlad, aerua a Cnaethant or Brytanyeit 
^p>-tgan eu hamdiffyn ehunein yn wra61; kanys o wasca6t y 
gCyd, yn eu kanhorthCy yd oedynt yn ariJer o daflu 
30 ergytyeu,^^ ac y gochelynt Cynteu^^ ergytyeu y Brytanyeit. 

(Ch. 5). 2wnelhynt, 3 hvel, 4 y, 5 om., 6 a oruc 07n., 7 om., 8 yd 
amblygu y ymgaru 

(Ch. 6). 1 dydyeu, 2 a elwir, 3 ohonu, 4 yn yr afonoed add., 5 y rei, 
6 fo yn y lie, 7 hyt pan deuthant hyt, 8 oe en fo a orugant, 9 odyno add,, 
10 kanys o wasgavt y gvyd yn eu kanhorthvy yd aruerynt, 11 om. 






Hi. T ^~'- 

THE STORY OF ARTHUR 149 

A phan welas Arthur hynny, yd erchis ynteu trychu y 
coet or parth ,h6nn6 yr IlCyn, a chymryt y kyffyon 
hynny ar traCsprenneu^^ ^c eu gossot jy^n eu kylch, ac eu 
gCarchae yno megys na cheffynt vynet" odyno, yny 
ymrodynt iaa6, neu yny vydynt veir6 o newyn. A 5 
gCedy dariiot gCneuthur y kae, y dodes Arthur y 
varchogyon yn vydinoediyg kylch y HCyn. Ac yno 
y buant uelly tri dieu a ^ their nos. A phan welas y 
,. ^ Saeson nat oed dim b6yt gantunt, ra^ eu marO oil o 
■^ ^ riewyn 6ynt a odologyssant^^ y Arthur y^* geTI6g yn ryd 10 
y eu Hogeu y uynet y eu g^fat; ac ada6 ida6 ynt^eu eu 
heur ac eu haryant ac eu holl s6ltt, a theyrnget ida6 
bop^^ blGydyn o Germania ; a ch,adarnhau hynny gan, 
~ rodi gCystlon. Ac Arthur a gauas yn y gyghor kymryt '^' 
hynny y gantunt, ac eu gellCg^^ y eu Hogeu. 15 

7. Ac uaU yd oedynt^ yn rCygajSi moroed yn my net tu 
ae g61a£, y bu ediuar gantunt gCneuthur^ yr amdt hCnnO 
ac Arthur ; a throssi eu hOyleu drachefyn parth ac ynys 
Prydein, a dyuot y draeth Totneis* yr tir, a dechreu 
^~^*^ anrjithaC y gCladoed hyt yn Hafren, a Had y tir- 20 
diwollodron a orugant. Ac odyna y kymerassant eu 
hynt hyifg Kaer Vadon, ac eisted'^rth y gaer, ac ymlada 
hi. A gCedy menegi hynny^ y Arthur, ryfedu a oruc 
meint eu tCyll ac eu hysKymundaCt,^ ac yn diannot crogi 
eu gCystlon. Ac ymadaC a. oruc ar Yscoteit ac ar 25 
Ffichteit yd oed yn y^ kywars^u. A bryssyaO a oruc 
y distryC y Saeson. Goualus oed* am adaO Howel ap^ 
Emyr LydaO yn glaf yg Kaer Alclut o CrthrCm heint. 
Ac or diCed gOedy dyuot hyt y Tie y gOelei y Saeson, 
y dywa6t ef iial hyn : " Kany^ bo teilCg gan yr 30 
ysgymunedigyon Saeson^o cad6 ffyd Crthyf i,^^ miui 

(Ch. 6). 12 travs, ISadologyssant, 14 eu, 15heuyt pop, 16 gollvg 

(Ch. 7). 1 mal, 2 oedyn, 3 wneuthur, 4 traeth tutneis, 5 hyn, 6 hyscum- 

yndaOt, 7 yny eu, 8 hvel mab, 9 kyny, 10 tvyllwyr anudonavl add., 

1 1 vrthym ni ? 



150 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

a gadCaf ffyd 6rth Du6 ; ac y gyt a hynny oe nerth ^^ 
ynteu a 'dialaf hediO waef vyg kiCtaCtwyr arnadunt.^^'V-^/ 
GCisgCch aCch ariieu, wyr, g6isg6ch, ac yn OraCl kyrchOn 
y bratwyr hynn. Heb petruster^* gan ganhorthCy Crist 
5 ni a prfydCn.' 

8. A gCedy dywedut o Arthur hynny, Dyfric archescob 
Kaer Lion ar Wysc a safaCd ar ben bryn goruchel, a 
dywedut ual hynn a oruc : "Ha^wyrda," heb ef, *'y rei 
yssyd arderchaGc o gristonoga61 fifyd ohonaCch, 

lO kyuodCch; koffeCch waet aCch ki6tawt6yr, yr hCnn yssyd 
ellygedia drCy firat y Paganyeit racco ; kanys tragyCydaCl 
waratwyd yC yCch, onyt ymrodCch y! amdiffyn a6ch 
g61at ach rydit. Ac 6rth hynny ymledCch dros aCch 
g61at, ac or byd reit ywch, diodefOch ageu drosti. 

15 Kanys yr agheu honno a vyd budugolyaeth a bilched^^ 
yr eneit. P6y bynhac hediO a el f agheu, ef ehunan 
a ymryd yn wiraberth y Du6, y gCr a vu teilCg gantaO 
rodi y eneit dros y vrodyr. Ac 6rth hynny p6y bynhac 
ohanaCc^ a lader yn yr ymlad h6nn, bif yr agheu honno 

20 yn benyt idaC ac yn vadeueint oe bechodeu, y dan amot 
nas gochelo, or damOeina y dyuot." 

9. A g6edy kymryt bendyth y g6r hCnnC, bryssyaG ,,' 
a oruc pa6b y wisgaG eu hariieu ymdanunt, ac ufudhau 

y gymenediweu yr archescob. Ac yna Arthur a wisca6d 
25 ymdanaO IluruJa oed teilO'g y vrenhin. Penffestin eureit 
yskythredifiac arOyd dreit a adassCyt oe benn. Taryan a 
gymerth ar y ysgCyd, yr honn a elCit GCenn, yn yr hon 
yd oed del 6 yr arglOydes Veir yn yskythrediC; kanys yn\ ]^ 
pop yg a reit y gal6ei ef arnei ac y coffei. Ac a rOymOyl:^ 
30 a Chaletu61ch y gledyf goreu, yr hCnn a wnathoedit yn , 
^ ynys Avallach. Gleif a deck[a]a6d y deheu ef, yr h6nn 
a elCit Ron ; vchel oed hCnnO a llydan ac adas y aerua. 

(Ch. 7). 12 ae y gyt ac nerth, 13 arnadunt vy, 14 a heb petnis 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 151 

Ac odyna gCed^. Hunyaethu y bydinoed o bop parth, 
y Saeson yn her^yd eu deua6t kyrchu yn leC a 6naethant, 
ac ar hyt y dyd yn 6ra61 gOrthCynebu yr Brytanyeit. Ac 
or diwed gCedy trossi yr heul ar y dyg6ydedigaeth,^"'^'^' 
achub mynyd maCr, a oed^ yn agos udunt, '5 
a Cnaeth y Saeson, a chynal h6nn6 yn He castell udunt; 
a chan ymdiret yn amylder eu nifer tybygu bot yn digaCn 
vdunt o gederni't y mynyd. A gCedy dCyn or heul y 
dyd arall rac 6yneb, Arthur ae Iff a eskynriaCd pen y *''^-^'^- 
mynyd. Ac eissoes IlaCer o wyr a goUes ef ; kanys haCs 10 
oedivyr Saeson o penn y mynyd argywedu yr Brytanyeit 
[noc yr Brytanyeit] yg gCrthOyneb y mynyd argywedu ^-'^'"^ 
yr Saeson. Ac or diwed gan vCyhau grym a Ilafur, 
gOedy caff el or Brytanyeit penn y mynyd, yn y lie 6ynt 
a dangossassant eu deheuoed yr Saeson. Ac yn erbyn 15 
hynny y Saeson yn 6ra61 a ossodassant eu bronoed yn 
eu gOrthCyneb Cynteu, ac oc eu holl angerd ymgynhal 
yn eu herbyn. A gCedy treulaC IlaCer or dydl^iielly, 
IIidia6 a oruc Arthur raf hCyrety gOelei y vudugolyaeth 
yn dyuot idaC. Ac ar hynny noethi CaletuClch a oruc, 20 
a gal6 en6 yr arglCydes Ueir ; ac o vuan ruthur kyrchu y 
lie teOaf y gCelei vydinoed "y Saeson. A phCy bynhab 
a gyfarffei ac ef, gan al6 enO Du6« o vn dyrnaCt y lladei. 
Ac hy orffo6yssa6d ar vn ruthur honno, hyt pan ladaOd 
a ChaletfClch ehun trugeim wyr a phetCar can 6r. A 25 
g6edy gOelet or Brytanyeit hynny, teChau eu torcioed a 
wnaethant Oynteu ae ymlit ynteu, ac o bop parth udunt 
gCneuthur aerua. Ac yn y He y dygOydassant Golgrim 
a BaldClf y vra6t a IlaCer o vilyoed y gyt ac Cynt. A 
phan welas Cheldric perigyl y gedymdeithon, yn y He 30 
heb an not ymchoejut a oruc y gyt' ar rei ereill ar ffo. 
10. A gCedy caffel o Arthur y uudugolyaeth honno, 

« enO duO : MS. duO duO. 



152 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ef a erchis y GadCr iarll KernyC erlit y Saeson, hyt tra ^^V^. 
vryssyei ynteu yr Alban. Kanys menegi ar _daroed ^ ■ 
ida6 ry dyuot yr Yscotteit ar Ffichteit y ymlad a Chaer 
Alclut, y He yjd adaCssei ef Howel y nei yn glaf. Ac 
5 6rth hynny y bryssyei ynteu yno rac caff el y gaer arnaG. 
Ac odyna KadCr tyCyssaCc Kerny6 a deg mil y gyt ac 
ef a ymlynaCd ^ Saeson. Ac nyt yn eu hoi yd aeth, 
namyn achubeif eu Ildgeu yn gyntaf a oruc, rac caff el 
onadiint diogelCch nac amdiffyn or Hogeu. A ^gCedy 

10 caff el eu Ilo'geu ohonaC, dodi a oruc y marchogyon 
aruaOc goreu a oed^ar y hel6 yndunt, rac caffel or Saeson 
ford udunt, os yno y kyrphynt. A g6edy dartiot 
cadarnhau y Hdgeu arnunt uelly, ar vrys ymchoelut a ^f^ 

^ oruc ar y elynyon ac eu Had heb drugared, gan eilenOi '"^ 

c<^^^^'^5 gorchymynneu Arthur amdahiint. Rei o deudyblic 

^^^.^.v^>^^ boen a gyCarsegit, a rei onadunt o oergrynedic callonneu 

a ffoynt yr coedyd ac yr IlCyneu, ereill yr mynyded ar 

^..-./^ gogofeu y geissa6 yspeit y achCanegU eu hoeciel. Ac 

ordiwed gOedy nat oed udunt neb ryC diogelCch, yr hyn 

— 20 a dihegis onadunt yn vriCedic, 6ynt a ymgynuHassanta 

hyt yn ynys Danet. A hyt yno tyCyssaOc Kerny6 ae 

hymlynaCd gan eu Had. Ac ny orffoOyssaCd hyV pan 

las Cheldric; ac eu kymell 6ynteu oil y laO gan rodi 

gCystlon. 

25 II. Ac yna gOedy kadarnhau tagnefed ar Saeson, yn 
y lie mynet a oruc yn ol Arthur hyt yg Kaer Alclut, yr 
hon ry daroed y Arthur y rydhau y gan yr Yscotteit ar 
Fichteit. Ac odyna y kyrchaCd Arthur ae lu hyt y Mureif , 
y wlat a elCir a_en6 arall Reget. Ac yno y gCarchaeaCd 

30 ef yr Yscotteit ar Fichteit, y rei kyn no hynny a 
ymladyssynt yn erbyn Arthur. A gOedy eu dyuot ar 
ffo hyi y wlat honno, 6ynt a aethant hyt yn Lyn 

« MS. ymgymullassaiit. 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR i53 

' LumonCy, a chymryt yr ynysed a oedynt yn y Ilyn yn 
^M^^<-gedermt udunt. Kanys tri-ugein ynys a oedynt yn y 
Ilyn, a thri&igein karrrfc, a nyth eryr ym pop karrec. A 
rei hynny pop Kalan Mei a doynt y gyt. Ac ar y TIeis a 
genynt yna dynyon y wlat honno a adnebydei y damOeineu 5 
a delei yn y vlCydyn rac Cyneb. Ac y gyt a hynny tri 
I ugein auon a redei yr Ilyn. Ac ny redei or Ilyn namyn^^--' 
vn avon yr mor. Ac jr ynyssed hynny y foyssynt y 
gelynyon y geissaC amdiffyn o gedernit y Hyn. Ac ny 
^^^S^-^ dygry^noes udunt namyn ychydic. Kanys kynuHaG lo f--^^^ 
ndgeu a wnaeth Arthur, a chylchynu yr avonoed'ar Hyn, 
hyt na chaff ei neb vynet odyno. A phymtheg ni[w]arna,6t "^ 
y bu yn eu gCarchae uelly, hyt pan vuant veir6 hyt ar 
vilyoed^^ 

12. Ac mal yd oed Arthur yn eu gCarchae uelly, 15 
nachaf vrenhin ICerdon yn dyQot a Ilyghes gantaO ac 
amylder o bobloed' actiyfyeithydyon yn berth yr 
Yscotteit ar Freinc. Ac Crth hynny ymada6 a oruc 
Arthur ar Ilyn, ac ymchoelut y arueu yn y GCydyl, ar 
rei hynny gan eu Had heb drugared a gymhellCys ar ffo 20 
y eu gClat. A g6edy y uudugolyaeth honno ymchoylut 
draegefyn elchCyl y vynnu dileu kenedyl yr Yscotteit ar 
Fichteit hyf ar dim. A gOedy nal arbedei neb megys y 
keffit, ymgynnuIIaG y gyt a Onaethant escyb y druan wlat 
honno y gyt ae hyscolheigon or a oed darystygedic 25 
udunt, y gyt ac escyrn y seint ac eu creireu. Ac yn 
troet noethon y deuthant hyt rac bron Arthur, ac erchi 
y drugared dros atUbin y bobyl honno, ac ar eu gHnyeu 
y wediaO hyt pan drugarhaei Crthunt. Kanys digaCn 
o berigyl a drOc ry Cnadoed Udunt; kanyt oed reit ida6 30 
dilif hyt' ar dim yr hyn a dihagyssei onadunt. A 
gOedy^erchi trugared onadunt ar y wed honno, wylaO 
o wander a oruc Arthur, a rodi yr gOyrda seint hynny 
eu harch. 



(V'-?'' 



154 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

13. A gCedy daruot« hynny, syllu a oruc HoCel uab 
Emyr LydaC ac enryfedu aiisiaCdy Ilyn, y saSl avonoedar 
sa61 ynyssed ar saCl gerricar saClnythoteryrot a oed yny 
Ilyn. Ac iial yd oed'yn ryfecm hynny, Arthur a dyCaOt 

5 6rtha6 hot Ilyn aral! yny 61at honno oed' ryfedach no 
honno. Ac nyf oed* bell odyno, ac ugeint troetued yn 
y hyt, a vgeint yn y Ilet, a hynny yn bedrogyl ; a.^ 
phedeir kenedyl o byscaOt amryC yndi ; ac ny cheffit ^ 
byth un or rei hynny yn ran y gilyd. " Ac y mae Hyn '^^'^ 

lOaralT," heb ef, " yg Kymry ar Ian Hafren, a dynyon y 7^5l> 
wlat honno ae geilC Lyn LiaCn. Ar Ilyn honno, pan .vo 
y mor yn IlaOn, y kymer y d6f6r yndaO ac y IlCnc megys 
morgerOyn, hyt na chudyo y glanneu. Ac y gyt ac yd , ^' 
ymchoelo y mor draegefyn y dreiaC, y gOrthyr y Ilyn y H'^^ 

15 dCfCr a gymerei yndi, ac y b6r6 ohonei megys mynyd, 

hyt pan el dros y glanneu. Ac o damweinei yna vot 

neb yn sefyll ae wyneb att y Ilyn, o chyimrffei dim o 

t asgellwrych h6nn6 ae dillat,^ anaCd vydei idaC ymdianc,^^'' 

hyl nas sucknei y Ilyn ef yndaC. Ac o bydei ynteu ae 

20 gefyn attaG, yr nesset vei idi yn sefyll, nyi argyCedei 
ida6 dim." 

14. A gCedy hedychu ar Yscotteit y brenhin a aeth 
hyt yg Kaer Efra6€, y anrydedu gOylua y Nadolic a oed 
yn agos. A phan welas ef yr eglOysseu gOedy eu distryC 

25 hyt y IlaCr, doluryaC yn uaCr a oruc. Kanys gCedy 
dehol Sans6n° archescob ar gCyrdamaCr enrydedusereiH 
y gyt ac ef, Ilosci yr eglOysseu ar temleu a Cnathoed y 
Saeson, a distryO gOassanaeth Du6 ym pop He. Kanys 
pan deuthant yr anreithwyr hynny, y foes SamsGn 
archescob a seith escyb y gyt ac ef hyt yn LydaO. Ac 

30 yno yn enrydedus yd erbynyCyt hyt y dyd^'diOethaf oe 



«MS. damaOt. *MS. diHan. «%. SamsOn. 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 155 

vuched. Ac yno g6edy gal6 paCb y gyt or yscolheigon 
ac or bobyl o gyf-gyghor paOb yg kyt,ef a ossodes Priaf 
y gaplan ehunan yn archescob fg Kaer EfraCc. Ar 
eglCysseu diOreic^die hyt y TlaCr ef ae hatnewydCys, ac 
ae hadurnaCd'^ o grevycnisson genveinoed^o wyr a 5 
^ gO raged. Ar gCyrda bonhedigyon dylyedaCc? a ry 
\y^'^"' deholassei y Saeson ac a ducsynt tref eu tai, ef a rodes 
y baCp eu dylyei ac eu hanryded. 

15. Ac ym plith y rei hynny yd oedynt tri broder, a 
hanhoedynt vrenhinaCl dylyet, nyt amgen, Leu uab 10 
Kynuarch ac Vryen uab Kynuarch ac AraCn uab 
Kyniiarch. A chyn dyuot gormes y Saeson, y rei hynny 

a dylyynt tyCyssogaeth y gOledi hynny. Ac yr gCyr 
hynny, megys y baCp or dylyedogyon ereill, ef a 
vynnaCd talu eu dylyet. Ac Crth hynny ef a rodes y 15 
AraCn vab Kynuarch Yscotlont. Ac y Vryen y rodes 
Reget dan y tervyneu. Ac y Leu uab Kynuarch (y g6r 
yd oed^y chwaer gantaO yr yn oes Emrys Wledic*, ac yd 
oed^sUcfaO deu vab ohonei, Gwalchmei a MedraCf), y 
hCnnC y rodes tyw[y]ssogaeth Lodoneis a gOledi ereill a 20 
berthynei attei. Ac or diOed g6edy dOyn yr ynys ar y 
theruyneu yn hoIIaCl ar y^ hen teilygdaOCae hedychu, 
ef a gymerth gCreic. Sef oed y hen6 G6enh6yfar, yr 
honn a oed o uonhedickaf genedyl g6yr Rufein, ac a 
uagyssit yn Ilys KadGr iarll KernyC. Pryt honno ae 25 
thegOch a orchyfygei ynys Prydein. 

16. A phan deuth y gCanCyn araf rac Cyneb, ef a 
barattoes n3^es ac a [a]eth hyl; yn ICerdon. Kanys 
honno a vynei y goreskyn icfaC ehun. Ac ual y deuth yr 
tir, nachaf GillamCri vrenhin lOerdon ac amylder [o] 30 
bobyl gantaO yn dyuot' yn erbyn Arthur wrth ymladac ef. 

* MS. hardumaOd. * ar y : ae MS. 



156 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

A g6edy dechreu ymlad, yn y He y bobyl noeth diarueu 
a ymchoelyssant drachefyn ar ffp yr He y keffynt wascaCt" 
ac amdiffyn. Ac ny bti vn gohif yn Salk GillamCri ae 
gymell 6rth ewyllys Arthur. Ac 6rth hynny holl 
5 tywyssogyon lOerdon rac oiyn a doethant, ac o agreifft 
a ymrodassant oc eu bod^yn wyr y Arthur. 

17. Ag6edy daruot ida6 oresgyn hoUICerdon ae hedychu, 
Arthur a aeth hyi yn Islont yn y lyges. A gCedy ymlad ar 
bobyl honno, ef ae goresgynnOys. Ac odyna dros yr 

10 ynyssed ereill yd aeth y glo't ef, ac na allei vn teyrnas 
g6rth6ynebu idaC. Doldan brenhin Godlont a GCinwas 
vrenhin Orch oc eu bod a deuthant y 6rhau ida6 gan 
dalu teyrnget ida6 bop bl6ydyn. Ac odyna gOedy 
IIithra6 y gayaf hCnnC heibaO, Arthur a ymchoelaCd 

15 drachefyn hyt" yn ynys Prydein, y atneCydu ansaCd y ^^' 
deyrnas ac y gadarnhau tagnefed yndi. Ac yno y bu 
deudeg mlyned ar vntu. ^' 

18. Ac yna [y] gCahaCd attaC marchogyon deOr 
clolua6r o aral! wladoed a phell teyrnassoed ac amylhau 

20 y deulu, megys yd oed kyghoViTynt gan teyrnassoed pell 
y wrthaG meint clot y lys, a ryodres'* y teulu ae molyant. 
A cheissaC a wnaei ba6p kyffelybu a discyblu y wrth lys 
Arthur, ac y 6rth y varchogyon ae deulu. Kanyt oed 
dim gan vn dylyedaCc yn y teyrnassoed pell y Crthunt, 

25 ony ellynt ymgeffelybu a marchogyon Arthur oc eu 
gOiscoed ac oc eu harieu ac oc eu marchogaeth. A 
gCedy ehedec y glot ae volyant ae haelder dros eithafoed <>ȣ': ' 
y byt^, ofyn a gymerassant brenhined tramor teyrnassoed 
racdaC, rac y dyiiot y oresgyn eu kyfoetheu ac eu ^ 

30 gCladoed. Ac 6rth hynny rac gofeilon a phrydereu, sef a ^'' 
Onaei paCb ohonunt atnewydu y keyryd ar dinassoed ar 
tyreu ar kestyll, ac adeilat ereill o neOyd yn Ileoed cryno. '"^ 

« MS. rootdres. 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 157 

Sef achaCs oed hynny, o delei Arthur am eu penn, megys 

y keffynt y Heoed kadarn hynny yn amdiffyn, or bei reit. 

19. A gCedy gCybot o Arthur bot y ofyn velly ar baCp, 

^"^^ ymardyrchauel a oruc ynteu a medylyaC goresgyn yr 

holl Europpa. Sef oed hynny, trayan y byt. Ac odyna 5 
parattoi Ilyges a oruc. Ac yn gyntaf kyrchu Lychlyn o-^'''^'^' 
a oruc, hyt pan vei Leu i5ab Kynuarch y da6 gan y chwaer "~ ? 
a Cnelei yn vrenhin yno. Kanys nei [v]ab whaer oed ^ 
Leu uab Kynuarch y vrenhin Lychlyn a uuassei uar6 i 
yna. Ac ef a gymynassei y urenhinyaeth y Leu y nei ; 10 

^y^(^.tQac ny buassei teilC'g gan y Lychlynwyr hynny, namyn 
gOneuthur RicClf yn vrenhin arnadunt a chadarnhau eu 
kestyll ac eu dinassoed, gan dybygu gallu gOrthCynebu y 
Arthur. Ac yn yr amser h6nn6 yd oed Walchmei uab 
Leu yn deudegmlOyd, gCedy y rodi oe ewythyr ef yg 15 
gwassanaeth SupHus bab Rufein. Ac y^^n SupHus y 
kymerth ef arueu yn gyntaf. A g6edy dyfot Arthur, 
megys y dyOespCyt uchof, y traeth Lychlyn, RicClff a 
holl iiarchogyon y wlat y gyt ac ef a deuth yn erbyn 
Arthur, a dechreu ymlad ac ef . A g6edy gell^g IlaCer 20 
o greu a gwaet o bop part[h], or diwed y Brytanyeit a 
q^oTuuant gan lad Ric61f a HaOer oe wyr y gyt ac ef. A 
gCedy caffel or Brytanyeit y uudugolyaeth, kyrchu y 
-> dinassoed a orugant ac eu Ilosci, a gCasferu eu pobloed. 
Ac ny orfoyssassant hyt pan daruu udunt goreskyn hoTI 25 
Lychlyn a Denmarc. A gOedy daruot hynny, ef a 
urdaCd Leu uab Kynuarch yn vrenhin yn Lychlyn. 
^^ 20. Ac odyna yd hOylaCd ynteu ae lyges hyt yn 
Freinc. A gCedy kyweiraO y torijoed, dechreu anreithaO 
y wlat o bop parth a orugant. Ac yn yr amser hCnnC 30 
yd oed Frollo yn tywyssaCc yn Freinc y dan Les 
amheraCdOr Rufein yn [y] IlywyaO. A gOedy clybot o 
Frollo dyuotedigaeth Arthur, ef a gynuna6d hoTI 
uarchogyon Freinc, ac a deuth y ymlad ac Arthur; ac 



158 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ny allCys g6rth6ynebu idaC. Kanys gyt ac Arthur 
yd oed hoTl ieuenctit yr ynyssed a oresgynassei. Ac 
6rth hynny kymeint o lu a dywedit y uot ganta6 ac yd 
oed anaCd y vn tywyssaCc neu y neb y erbynyaO na 
5 goriiot arnaO. Ac y gyt ac ef hefyt yd oed y ran oreu 
o Freinc, yr honn a ry Cnathoed y haelder yn rCymedic 
oe garyat ynteu. A g6edy gCelet o Frollo y dyg6yda6 / 
ef yn y ran waethaf or ymlad, yn y He adaC y maes 
a oruc y gyt ac ychydic o nifer, a ffo hyt ym Paris ; ac 

lo yno kynuHaO y wasgaredic bobyl attaG a chadarnhau y 
gaer, a mynu elchCyl ymlad yn erbyn Arthur o 
ganhorth6[y] y gymodogyon. Yn dirybud y deuth 
Arthur ae lu y warchae ynteu yn y dinas. A gCedy 
HithraC mis heibaC, dolurya6 a oruc Frollo o welet y 

15 bobyl yn abaflu rac newyn. A gofyn a oruc y Arthur 
a vynnei eu dyuot ell teu y ymlad; ar h6n a orfei 
onadunt, kyrnerei gyfoeth y IlalT heb lad neb or deu lu. 
Sef achaCs y kyirihigyei ef hynny. GCr maCr hydCf oed 
Frollo, ac anueitra61 y lei^der ae gedernyt. Ac o achaCs 

20 ymdiret yn y nerthoed yd archei ef y Arthur dyuot yn 
neilltuedic' y ynilad ac ef, o tybygu kaff el ford y iechyt 
o hynny. A HaCen uu Arthur wrth y genadCri honno^. 
Ac yn y lie anuon at Frollo y dywedut y vot yn, dyuot, 
ac yn baraut y wneuthur yr amot hOnnC ac ef ae gad6. 

25 21. A gOedy kadarnhau yr amot h6nn6 o bop parth, 
6ynt a deuthant ell teu hyt y my6n ynys odieithyr y 
dinas; ar pobloed o bop parth yn aros y syllu py 
damwein a darffei ^'rydunt. Ac yno y deuthant yn hard 
wedus gyweir ar deu uarch enryfed y meint ae buanet, 

30 hyt nat oed paraCt y neb adnabot y bOy y delei y 
uudugolyaeth onadunt. A gCedy sefyll onadunt a 
drychafel y harCydon o bop parth, ?- dangosa yr 

» MS. A dangos. 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR i59 

yspirduneu yi: meirych a orugant, a gossot o bop vn ar 

y gilyd y ayrno3eu mCyhaf a ellynt. Ac eissoes 

kywreinach yd arwedCys Arthur y leif gan ochel dyrnaCt 

Y^^ri^ : . Frollo. Arthur ae g6ant' ym pen y vron, ac yn herCyd 

^h'-^'^y nerth ef ae byryaCd hyt y daear. Ac yn y He noethi y 5 
Y^]P gledyf a oruc, a mynu Had y ben. A Frollo a gyfodes 
<i^> yn_gyflym, ac a gleif gossot ar varch Arthur yn y 
'^iul ^^,^C^^^ dyrnaOt agheuaCl, hyt pan dygCydassant 
Arthur ae varch yr IlaCr. A phan welsant y brenhin 
yn syrthaw^ ^abreid vu eu hattal heb torri eu .Jiamot, lo 
/^y ac o . un "vryl T^yrchu y Freinc. Ac mal yd oedynt yn 

torri eu kygreir,' nachaf Arthur yn kyuodi yn gyflym ' 

wychyr, ac yn drychafel y taryan ac yn kyrchu Frollo. 

/^Jr^ ' A sefyll yn gyfagos a wnaethant, a neCidyaC dyrnodeu, 

-^iS a HafuryaC pob un ageu« y gilyd. Ac or diCed Frollo 15 

a gauas kyfle; a tharaC Arthur yn y tal a Cnaeth. A 

. „ ^. phiei na ry bylei y cledyf ar vo3r6yeu y benffestin, ef a 

K , ir- vuassei agheuaCl or dyrnaCf hCnn6.^ A g6edy gCelet o 

ii/^'' Arthur y waet yn cochi y taryan ae arueu, ennynu o 

flamychedic lit ac o Cychyr irlloned a oruc. A 20 
drycha[fel] CaletfClch ac oe hoTl nerthoed gossot a oruc, 
ar helym ar penffestin a phen Frollo a hoUtes yn 
deu banner hyt y dOy yscCyd. Ac or dyrnaCt hCnnO 
dyg6yda6 a wnaeth Frollo, ac ae sodleu maedu y daear,'' 
a gellGg y eneit gan yr 6ybyr. A gCedy honni hynny 25 
\^-'^' dros y Huoed, bryssyaC a oruc y kiOtaCtwyr, ac agori 
porth y dinas ae rodi y Arthur. 

22. A gCedy caff el y iuudugolyaeth honno o Arthur, 
ranu y lu a oruc yn deu banner. Y neill ran oe lu a 
rodes y HoCel uab Emyr Lyda6, 6rth vynet y darestCg 30 
GOitart tyCyssaCc PeitaC. Ac ynteu ehun a[r] ran arall 
ganta6 y.oresgyn y gClatoed ereill yn eu kylch. Ac yn y 

"MS. ogeu *MS. honnO. " MS. daeayar. 



IL - el. 

i6o THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

He y deuth Howel vab Emyr LydaC yr wlat. Ef a 
gyrchCys y keyryd ar dinassoed ; a GCittart gCedy HaCer 
o ymladeu yn bfalus a gymheII6ys y 6rhau y Arthur; ac .r .^i' 
odyna G6asg6in o flam a hayarn a anreithCys ; ae .\r;^^1| 
5 tyCyssogyon a darestygCys y Arthur. ^ K 

23. A gCedy IlithraO naC mlyned heibaO,, a daruot y 
Arthur oresgyn holl wladoed Freinc Crttf y vedyantv^' 
ehun, ef a deuth elchCyl y Baris. Ac yno y delHs'l^'S' >^^^ 
Ac yno gCedy gal6 pa6b or yscolheigon ar lleygyon, *>*^- 

10 kadarnhau a Cnaeth ansaCd y teyrnas, a gossojt 
kyfreitheu, a chadarnhau hedCch dros yr hoII teyrnas. 
Ac yna y rodes ef y Vedwyr y bentruflyat Normandi a '^_ej^ 
Fflandrys. Ac y Gei y bens6yd6r y rodes ef yr An^iS a .:. 
PheittaC, a IlaCer o wladoed ereill yr dylyedogyon ereill 

15 a oedynt yn y W'ssanaethu. Ac odyna gGedy hedychu 
a thagnefedu pob He or dinassoed ar pobloed uelly, pan 
yttoed y g6an6yn yn dyuot, Arthur a ymhoeles y ynys 
Prydein. 

24. Ac ual yd oed gCylua y SulgCyn yn dyuot, gOedy 
20 y vefnt uudugolyaetheu hynny o bop He, y gyt a diruaCr 
rj, leCenyd ef a vedylyOys dala Ilys yn ynys Prydein, a 

gCisgaC y goron am y ben, a gCahaOd atta6 y brenhined 
ar ty 6yssogyon a oedynt wyr idaC o bop He a orescynnyssei, 
6rth enrydedu gCylua y SulgOyn yn vrenhinaCl -'^"" ■ 

2c enrydedus, ac y atneCydu kadarnaf tagnefed y rydunt. 
A gCedy menegi ohonaO y-ved^l y gyghorwyr ae anCylyt, 
ef a gauas yn y gyghor dala y lys yg Kaer Lion ar 
Wysc. . Kanys or dinassoed kyvoethockaf oed ac 
adassaf yr ueint wylua honno. Sef achaCs oed. Or neill 

30 parth yr dinas y redei yr auon uohhedic hpnno Wysc. 
Ac ar hyt honno y doynty brenhined, a Selhynt dros y 
moroed, yn y Ilogeu hyt y dinas. Ac or parth arall 
gCeirglodyeu a foresti yn y theckau. Ac y gyt a hynny 
adeiladeu a Hyssoed brenhinaCl a oedynt yndi oe my6n, 



f ^^ THE STORY OF ARTHUR i6i -.^^.. 



a thei eureit, megys nat oed yn y teyrnassoed tref a 

r" gynhebyckyt y Rufein o ryodres namyn hi.. Ac y gyt 

', 5jL^ a hynny arderchaO^ oed o d6y eglCys arbenhic; vn o '^ ^i 

hpnunt yn ardyrchafedic yn enryded y Vyl verthyr, a 

'-^'^chCfeint o wefydon yn talu molyant y DuO yndi yn 5 

wastat dyd a nos yn enrydedus urdasseid; arall a oed 

yn enryded y Aaron kedyrndeith y merthyr hCnnC, a 

chCfent yn honno a ganonwyr reolaCdyr. Ac y gyt a 

. , hynny y dryded archescobaCt a phenaf yn ynys Prydein ^„^^,, .j 

^-^^^ oed. Ac y gyt a. hynny ardefcha^c oed o deu cant yscol io 

o athraOon a doethon, a ed[nejDydynt kerdetyat y syr ac -^^^ ' 
amryfaelon gelfydodeu ereill. Kanys yn yr amser h6nn6 
'-'^'^"y keffit yndi y seith gelfydyt; a[r] rei hynny drCy 
i^-^^'-'-'^erdefyat y syr a venegynt y Arthur HaCer or damweineu 
^vT; a delhynt rag;„IIa6. Or achuysson [hynny] oil y mynnCys 15 I 
fA. Arthur yno dala llys. Ac odyna gellCg kenadeu drGy' 
>^A>'^^ amryfaelon teyrnassoed a gCahaCd paOb a orucpCyt o 

deyrnassoed Ffreinc ac o amryfaelon ynyssed yr eigaOn," < ^ 
f-'Y'^" o[r] a dyjyynt dyuot yr Hys. 

25. Ac Crth y wys honno y deuthant yno : AraCn uab 20 
Kynuarch brenhin Yscotlont, Vryen y vraCt brenhin 
Reget, KatCallaCn IIa6[h]ir brenhin GGynecf, KadCr 
wwv4.*"-'r Hemenic tywyssaCc Kerny6. Tri archescob ynys 
^ ► Prydein : archescob Lundein, ac archescob Kaer EfraCc, 
j^^, a Dyfric archescop Kaer Lion ar Wysc; a phenaf 25 
]^f onadunt oed dan bab Rufein, ac y gyt a hynny eglur 

oed oe wassanaeth ae uuched; kanys pob kyfryO glefyt ^"j;^;., 
or a uei ar dyn, ef ae gCaretei drCy y wedi. Ac y %yt '»-' 
a hynny 6ynt a deuthant y tyCyssogyon or dinassoed 
bonhedic, nyt amgen, Morud iarll Kaer Loy6, Meuruc 30 
o Gaer Wyragon, AnaraCt o Amfiythic, Kynuarch iarll 
Kaer Geint, Arthal o Warwic, Owein o Gaer Leon, 
lonathal o Gaer Idor, Cursalern o Gaer Lyr, GOallaCc 
ap LeenaOc o Salsbri, Boso o Ryt Ychen. Ac odieithyr 



i62 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

hynny HaCer o wyrda, nyt oed lei eu boned nac eu 
- teilygdaCt nor rei fiynny, nyt amgen, DunaCt V6r uab 
Pabo post Prydein, Keneu uab Coel, Peredur uab 
Elidyr, Grufud uab Vogoet, Rein uab Ela6t, Edelin 
5 vab KeledaCc, Kyngar uab BangaC, Kynnar Gorbanyon, 
Miscoet CloffaCc, Run uab NCython, Kynuelyn [uab] 
TrunyaC, Kadell uab Vryen, Kyndelic uab NCytJhon. ^,j 
Ac y gyt a hynny HaCer o wyrda a oed ryhir eu hen6iJpr*<^ 
Ac y gyt a hynny or ynyssed yn eu kylch : GillamCri'^'^'^ 

lo brenhin Iwerdon, Melwas brenhin Islont, Doldan brenhin 
Gotlont GCynw brenhin Ore, Leu uab Kynuarch 
brenhin Lychlyn, Echel brenhin Denmarc. Ac o 
Ffreinc y deuthant : Hodlyi) . tygyssaCc Ruthyn, 
Leodgar iarll B616yn, Bed6yr pentrufiyat due Normandi, 

15 Borel o CenomaCs, Kei pens6yd6r due yr AngiC, GGittart 
o BeittaC, ar deudec go^yfarch o Freinc, a Gerein 
GarannCys oc eu blaen yn" dywyssaCc arnadunt, Howel 
uab^Emyr Lyda6 brenhin Brytaen Vechan, a HaCer p 
Cyrda a oed darestygedic idaC y gyt ar u'eint darmerth a 

20 chyniret mulyoed a meirych, megys yd oed dyrys eu 

^M- daKanu a ryhir eu hyscriuenu. Ac odieithyr hynny /. 
nv thne^vwvs un tvwvssaOc v tu hOn yr Yspaen ny delei ^^*^^. 



6rth y wys honno. Py ryfed oed hynny ? Haeldier '^^ 
Arthur ae glot ae volyant ynf^_Sfieaec dros y byt a 

25 dynassei baCp yn r6[y]me(lic oe garyat. 

y;^ 26. Ac or di6ed gCedy ymgynurfaO paCb yr gaer ar 
Cylua yn dyuot, yr archescyb a elwit yr Ilys 6rth wisca6 
y goron am ben y brenhin. Ac odyna Dyfric archescob 
a gMrit yr offeren. Kanys yn y archescob ty yd oedit 

30 yn_dala llys. Ac or diwed gOedy gOisgaC y vrenhinaOl 
wise am y brenhin a theckau y ben o goron y teyrnas a.e 
deheu or deyrnwialen, ef a ducpGyt yr eglCys benaf, ac 
or tu deheu ac or tu asseu idaC y deu archescob yny 
gynhal. Ac y gyt a hynny petOar brenhin, nyt'limgen, 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 163 

brenhin yr Alban, a brenhin Dyuet, a brenhin GCyned, 
a brenhin Kerny6, yn nerCyd eu brefnt ac eu dylyet, yn 
arCein petCar cledyf eureit noethon yn y vlaen. Ac y 
gyt a hynny IlaGer o gCfenoed amryfaelon vrdassoed 
yn eu processio o pop parth yn ol ac ym blaen yn kanu 5 
amryfaelon gy Oydolaetheu ac organ. Ac or parth arall 
yd oed y vrenhines yn y brenhinwisc, ac escyb o bop 
parth^ yn y d6yn hitheu y eglCys y mynachesseu,^ a 
phedeir gCraged y petwar brenhin, a dywedassam ni 
uchot, yn arOein pedeir clomen^ purwen* yn y blaen yn 10 
herCyd eu breint Cynteu, ar gCraged yn enrydedus gan 
diruaCr leCenyd yn kerdet yn y hol.^ Ac or diCed 
gCedy daruot y processio^ ym pob vn or d6y eglCys, 
kyndecket a chyndigrifet y kenit y kywydolaetheu'' ar 
organ ac na 6ydynt y marchogyon py le gyntaf J ic 
kyrchynt;^ namyn yn torfoed pob eilwers y kerdynt y 
honn yr a6r hon ac yr Hall gCedy hynny. A phei 
treulit y dyd yn gCbCl yn dCywaCl wassanaeth, ny magei 
dim blinder y neb. Ac or diOed gCedy daruot yr 
offereneu ym pob vn or dCy egl6ys, y brenhin ar 20 
vrenhines a diqdassant eu brenhinwisgoed y amdanunt.^ 

27. Ac odyna y brenhin a aeth yr neuad ar gOyr oil y 
gyt ac ef. Ar vrenhines ar gCraged oil y gyt a hi^ y 
neuad y vrenhines, gan gad6 hen gynefaCt Tro, pan 
enrydedynt y gCyluaeu maCr, y g6yr y gyt ar gCyr yn 25 
bOyta, ar gCraged y gyt ar gCraged yn wahanedic. A 
gOedy kyflehau^ paOb y^ eisted yn herCyd y deissyfei y 
deilygtaCt, Kei benns6yd6r yn wiskedic o ermynwisc, a 
mil* y gyt ac ef o vn ry6 adurn a hynny^ o veibon 
dylyedogyon, a gychwynassant y wassanaethu or gegin 30 
anregyon. Ac or parth arall Bedwyr a mil o veibon 

(Ch. 26). 1 idi add., 2 machesseu, 3 colomen, 4 gvvnyon, 5 yn ol, 
6 prosessivn, 7 kywydolyaetheu, 8 a gerdynt, 9 y amdanadunt 
'Ch, 27). 1 hitheu, 2 kyfyavnheu (?) 3 yn, 4 mil o wyr, 5 ac ynteu 



i64 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

gOyrda y gyt ac ynteu yn wisgedic o amryuaelon wiscoed 
yn gCassanaethu gCirodeu or vedgell. Ac or parth arall 
yn Ilys y vrenhines aneiryf o amylder gCassanaethwyr 
yn wisgedic o amryfaelon wisgoed yn herCyd eu defaCt 
c yn talu eu gCassanaeth yn diwall. Ar petheu hynny ae 
ryotres pei ascrifenCn, gormod o hyt a blinder a 6na6n 
yr ystorya. Kanys ar y veint teilygdaCt honno yd oed^ 
ynys Prydein megys y racvlaenei yr holl ynyssed o 
amylder eur ac aryant ac alafoed dayraCl.'^ A phy 

lO varchaCc bynhac a vynnei^ vot yn glotuaCr yn Ilys 
Arthur, o vn ry6 wise ydaruerynt,^ acovnryC arueu, aco 
un ry6 dyCygyat^^ marchogaeth. Y gorderchwraged o 
vn IliO wisgoed ac o un dy6ygyat^° yd aruerynt. Ac ny 
bydei teil6g gan un wreic garu^^ vn gCr, ony bei y uot 

15 yn brofedic teirgCeith y milCryaeth. Ac uelly diCeirach 
y g6neynt^2 y gOraged a gOell, ar g6yr yn glotuorussach 
oc eu karyat. 

28. Ac or di6ed gCedy daruot bCyta a chy[ch]wynnu 
y ar y byrdeu, allan odieithyr y dinas yd aethant y 

20 chCare^ amryfaylon chwaryeu.^ Ac yn y He marchogyon 
yn dangos arCydon, megys kyt bydynt^ yn ymlad yn 
iaOn ar y maes. Ar gCraged y ar y muroed ar bylcheu 
yn edrych ar chware.* Ereill yn b6r6 mein, ereill yn 
saethu, ereill yn rydec,^ ereill yn gCare g6ydb6[y]n, ereill 

25 yn g6are taplas. Ac uelly^ dr6y bop^ kyfryO amryuaelon 
dychymygeu^ gCaryeu^ treulaO yr hyn a oed yn ol or dyd 
gan diruaCr leOenyd, heb lit a heb gyff ro^° a heb gynhen. 
A ph6y bynhac a vei vudugaCl yn y gCare, Arthur drCy 
amlaf rodyon ae henry dedei.^^ A g6edy treulaC y tri 

30 dieu kyntaf uelly/^ y petwyryd dyd gal6 pa6p a wnaeth- 

(Ch. 27.) 6 yr dothoed, 7 aualoed daeravl, 8 vynhei, 9 aruerhynt, 10 
diwygyat, 11 karu, 12 ymwneynt 

(Ch. 28). 1 wareu, 2 waryeu, 3 beynt, 4 ar y gvareu, 5 redec, 6 y vell^, 
7 pop, 8 dychymygyon, 9 a gvaryeu, 10 a heb gyffro om., 11 henrydedhei, 
12 y velly 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 165 

pCyt or a oedynt yg gCassanaeth, a thalu^^ y baCp y 
wassanaeth ae lafur herCyd uaP* y dylyynt. Ac yna y 
rodent^^ y dinassoed, ar kestyll, ar tir, ar dayar, ar 
escobaetheu,^^ ar archescobaetheu,^^ ar manachlogoed, 
ar amryuaelon urdasseu, megys y gOedei y baCp or ae 5 
dylyei.^^ 

29. Ac yna y gOrthodes Dyf ric archescob y archescoba6t 
ae teilygdaCt. Kanys gCell oed ganta6 bot yn didrifCr 
a buchedu yn y didryf no bot yn archescob. Ac yn y le 
ynteu y gossodet Dewi^ eOythyr y[r]2 brenhin yn 10 
archescob yg Kaer Lion ar Wysc.^ Buched h6nn6 oed 
agreifft* dayoni^ y baOp or a gymerassei y dysc ynteu. 
Ac yn^ He SamsCn'' archescob Lyda6 drCy anoc Howel^ 
uab Emyr LydaC y gossodet TeilaC escob^ Lan Daf, yr 
h6n a glotuorei y uuched, ae deuodeu da a dangossynt 15 
y uot yn Crda. Ac odyna escobaCt Gaer^^ Vudei y 
Veugant, ac escobaOt Gaer^° Wynt y Dywan/^ ac 
escobaOt Lincol y Aldelmi. 

30. Ac val yd oedynt velly yn Hunyaethu pob peth, 
nachaf deudegwyr aeduet eu hoet, enrydedus y gOed, 20 
a cheig [o] olyfwyd^ yn HaC bop vn onadunt yn ar6yd eu 
bot yn genadeu, ac yn kerdet yn araf, ac yn kyfarch 
gCell y Arthur, ac yn y annerch y gan Les amheraCdyr 
Rufein, ac yn rodi Ilythyr yn y laG, ar ymadraOd hOnn^ 
yndaC. 25 

31. "Les amheraCdyr Rufein yn anuon y Arthur yr 
hynn a haed6ys. Gan enryfedu^ yn uaOr enryfed y6 
genyf i dy greulonder di athrudannaeth.^ Enryfedu^ 

(Ch, 28). 13 thallu, 14 oni., 15 rodet recte, 16 escobyaetheu, 17 ar 
archescobaetheu om., 18 y paOb ac y dylyei 

(Ch. 29). 1 in marg., 2 yr, 3 arvysc om., 4 agrifF, 5 a dayoni, 
6 yny, 7 sampsOn, 8 hywel, 9 yn escob yn, 10 kaer, 11, dOywan? 

(Ch. 30). 1 o oliwyd, 2 ymadrodyon hynny 

(Ch. 31). 1 anryfedu, 2 athrudanyaeth, 3 hefyt add. 



i66 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ydCyf gan goffau y sarhaedeu* a wnaethost di^ y Rufein. 
Ac anheilCg y6 genyf nat atwaenost* dy vynet oth 
dieithyr^ dy hun, ac na wydut ac nat ytt6yt^ yn medylyaC 
py veint trymder y6 gCneuthur kodyant y sened Rufein, 
5 yr honn a 6dost di^ bot yr holl vyt yn talu gCassanaeth 
idi. Kanys y deyrnget a orchymynCyt y dalu idi, yr 
hCn^^ a gafas Ulkassar a IIa6er o amherodron ereill 
g6edy ef a chyn no minheu^^ dr6y laCer o amseroed — a 
h6nn6 gan dremygu^^ gorchymyneu kymeint ac vn 

lO sened Rufein — a gamryvygeist di^^ y attal. Ac y gyt a 
liynny ti a dugost BCrgOyn ac ynyssed yr eigaCn yn 
hoTIaOl, brenhined y rei hynny, hyt tra yttoed Rufeina61 
uedyant yn eu medu, a dallasant teyrnget yr amherodron 
a vuant kyn no minheu. A chanys or veint sarhaedeu^* 

15 hynny y barnCys sened Rufein y minheu iaCn y genhyt 
ti, 6rth hynny minheu a ossodaf teruyn ytti yr A6st 
kyntaf yssyd yn dyuot, dyuot ohonat titheu hyt yn 
Rufein y wneuthur ia6n or saCl sarhaedeu^* hynny, ac 
y diodef y vraCt a uarnho sened Rufein arnat. Ac ony 

20 deuy uelly,^^ miui a gyrchaf dy teruyneu.^^ A megys y 
ranho y clefydeu,^^ mi ae ranaf^^ ac a lafuryaf y dOyn 
drachefyn 6rth sened Rufein." 

32. A g6edy datkanu y llythyr hCnnC rac bron Arthur 
ar brenhined ar tywyssogion a oedynt y gyt ac ef, ef 

25 ac 6ynt a aethant y gyt hyt yn tCr y keOri y gymryt 
kyghor py beth a 6nelhynt yn erbyn y kymynedi6eu^ 
hynny. Ac ual yd oedynt yn esgynnu^ gradeu y tCr, 
kadCr iarll KernyO megys gCr IlaOen y uedCP a dywa6t 
yr ymadraOd hCnn : " Kyn no hynn ofyn a ry fu arnaf i 

30 rac goruot o lesged y Brytanyeit o hir hed6ch, a cholli 

(Ch. 31). 4 sarahedeu, 5 wnaethosti, 6 atwaenosti, 7 odieithyr, 
8 ydOyt, 9 Odosti, 10 hon, 11 thitheu, 12 tremygu, 13 gamryfygeisti, 
14 sarahedeu, 15 dohy y velly, 16 terfynheu, 17 cledyfeu, 18 kymhellaf 

(Ch. 32). 1 kymenediveu, 2 yskynnu, 3 y vedOl om. 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 167 

clot eu milCryaeth, or honn y buant hOy eglurach no neb 
o genedloed y byt yn hoHaOl. Sef achaCs y6. Yn y He 
y peitter ac* arueru o arueu, ac aruer or CydbCyll ar 
daplas a serch gCraged, nyt oes petrus yna llygru o 
lesged py beth bynhac a ry fei^ o nerth yno a chedernit 5 
ac enryded a chlot. Kynys*^ pump mlyned hayach ar^ 
ethynt yr pan yttym ni yn arueru or ry6 seguryt h6nn6 
ar digrifGch, a heb arueru o diCyll ymlad. Ac 6rth 
hynny Du6 yr mynu^ an rydhau ni or Ilesged honno 
a gyffroes g6yr Rufein yn an herbyn, hyt pan alwem 10 
ni an clot ac an milCryaeth ar y hen gynefaCt.** 

S3. A gCedy dyCedut o GadGr yr ymadrodyon hynny 
a IlaCer o rei ereill, or diwed Oynt a deuthant yr 
eisteduaeu. A g6edy eisted o baCp yn y le, Arthur a 
dy6a6t ual hynn 6rthunt : " Vyg kedymdeithon ar rCyd 15 
ac ar dyrys, molyant yr rei hyt hynny^ ac yn rodi eu^ 
kyghoreu ac eu^ milOryaeth, ac yr* aOr honn o vn vryt 
rodCch a6ch kyghor, ac yn doeth racvedylyOch py beth 
a uo iaOn y atteb yn erbyn yr attebyon hynn Kanys 
py beth bynhac^ a racvedylyer^ yn da yn y blaen y gan 20 
doethon, pan del ar 6eithret, ha6s vyd y diodef. Ac 
6rth hynny haCs y gallOn ninheu diodef ryfel g6yr 
Rufein, os o gyffredin gyfundeb a chytgyghor yn 
doeth y racuedylyCn py wed y gallom ni gOahanu ac eu 
ryfel Cynt. Ar ryfel hOnnO, herOyd y tebygaf i, nyt 25 
maCr reit yn y ofynhau. Kanys andylyedus y maent 
hCy^ yn erchi teyrnget o ynys Prydein. Kanys ef a 
dy6eit dylyu y talu ida6 ef 6rth y talu^ y Ulkassar^ 
ac y erein gCedy h6nn6, a hynny o achaCs teruysc ac 
anuundeb^° y r6g an hendateu^^ ninheu, a dugassant^^ ^q 

(Ch. 32). 4 o, 5 ryffei, 6 kanys, 7 a, 8 mynnu 

(Ch. 33). 1 yr rei a profeis hvt hyn, 2 om., 3 y, 4 ar, 5 bynac, 
6 racweler, 7 Oy, 8 dalu, 9 ulkessar, 10 annundab, 11 hendadeu, 
12 ducsant 



i68 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

wyr Rufein yr ynys honn, ac o dreis^^ y gOnaethant yn 
trethaCl.^^ Ac Crth hynny py beth bynhac a gaffer drCy 
na thCyll na chedernit,^* nyt o dylyet y kynhellir h6nn0. 
P6y bynhac a dycko treis, peth andylyedus a geis y 
5 gynhal. A chanys andylyedus y maent 6y yn keissaO 
teyrnget y genhym ni, yn gynhebic y hynny 
ninheu a deissyfCn teyrnget y gantunt h6y^^ o Rufein, 
ar kadarnaf ohonom ni kymeret y gan y ITa!!.^^ Kanys 
or goresgynCys^^ Ulkassar^^ ac amherodron ereill g6edy 

10 ef ynys Prydein, ac o achaCs hynny yr aCr honn holi 
teyrnget ohanei,^^ yn gynhebic y hynny minheu a 
varnaf dylyu o^^ Rufein talu teyrnget y minheu. Kanys 
vy rieni ynheu gynt a oresgynnassant^^ Rufein ac ae 
kynhalassant, nyt amgen, BeU uab Dyfynwal gan 

15 ganhorthOy Bran y vraOt due B6rg6yn, gCedy crogi 
petwar g6ystyl ar hugeint^^ o dylyedogyon^^ Ruuein rac 
bron y gaer, ac ae dalyassant drCy laCer o amseroed. 
A gOedy hynny Custenin mab Elen a Maxen mab 
Lywelyn — pob vn or rei hynny yn gar agos y mi o 

20 gerenhyd,^* ac yn vrenhined arderchaCc o goron ynys 
Prydein — yr vn g6edy y gilyd a gaOssant amherodraeth 
Rufein. Ac Crth hynny pony bernOch ch6i bot yn iaCn 
y minheu deissyfeit teyrnget o Rufein ? O Ffreinc ac 
or ynyssed ereill ny GrthebGn ni udunt 6y, kany doethant 

25 y hamdiffyn, pan y goresgynassam,^^ nac oe gOarafun. 

Ac Crth hynny ny CrthebCn ni udunt hCy^^ or rei hynny." 

34. A gCedy teruynu o Arthur yr ymadraCd, HoweP 

uab Emyr LydaC a OrthebaOd ym blaen^ paCb y ymadraOd 

Arthur ual hyn : " Pei^ traethei bop un^ ohonom ni^ a 

30 medylyaC pob peth yn y uedCl, ny thebygaf i^ gallu 

(Ch. 33). 12 treis, 13 treulaO, 14 gaffer a thvyll a chedernit, 15 vy, 
16 teyrnget add., 17 o gverysgynnvys, 18 vlkessar, 19 oheni, 20 wyr add.y 
21 weryskynassant, 22 hugein, 23 dylyodogyon, 24 gerenyd, 25 gverys- 
cynassam 26 om^ 

(Ch. 34). 1 hywel, 2 ymlaen, 3 bei, 4 bavb, 5 oil add., 6 thybygaf 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 169 

o neb ohonam ni rodi kyghor gCerthuaCrogach'' nac atteb 
grynoach na doethach nor h6n a rodes doethineb^ yr 
arglOyd Arthur ehun. Ac 6rth hynny yr hyn a 
racuedylyaCd^ medCl doeth anyanaCl g6astat,^° ninheu 
yn hoIIaCl moli hOnnO a dylyCn ae ganmaCl yn wastat. 5 
Kanys yn herCyd y dylyet a dyCedy di, or^^ mynny di 
kyrchu Rufein, ny phetrussaf^^ j y^j aruerCn ni or 
uudugolyaeth, hyt tra vom ni yn amdiffyn an rydit, 
hyt tra geissom ni an iaCn y gan an gelynyon, y peth 
y maent hCy^^ yn gam yn y geissaC y gennym ninheu. 10 
Kanys p6y bynhac a geisso d6yn y ureint ae dylyet gan 
gam y gan arall, teilGg y6 ida6 ynteu kolli y vreint ae 
dylyet. Ac 6rth hynny kanys gOyr Rufein yssyd yn 
keissaO d6yn yr einym ni, heb amheu ninheu a dygOn 
y racdunt^* yr eidunt, o ryd Du6 gyB.e y ymgyuaruot ac ^5 
6ynt. A Ilyna ymgyfaruotdamunedic yr hollvrytanyeit. 
Lyma daroganneu^^ Sibli yn wir,^® a^^ dyCaOt dyuot o 
genedyl y Brytanyeit tri brenhin a oresgynynt^^ 
Rufeina61 amherodraeth. Ar deu a ryfu, ac yr^^ aOr 
hon yd ym yth gaffael titheu yn drydyd,^^ yr hCn y 20 
tyfCys^^ blaenCed RufeinaCl enryded.^^ Or deu neur 
deryO eilenCi yn amlCc, megys y dy6edeist ti,^^ yr eglur 
tyOyssogyon^* Beli a Chustenin ;^^ pob un onadunt a 
uuant amherodron yn Rufein. Ac 6rth hynny bryssya 
titheu^^ y gymryt y pe[t]h2^ y j^^^g Du(> yn y rodi itt. 25 
Bryssya y oreskyn^^ y peth oe uod yssyd^^ yn mynu^^ 
y oresgyn.^s Bryssya y an hardrychafeP^ ni oil, hyt 
pan yth ardrychauer titheu. Ac^^ ny ochel6n ninheu 
kymryt gCelieu ac agheu, or byd reit.^^ A hyt pan 

(Ch. 34). 7 gverthuorogach, 8 nor hOn a racuedvlyaOd racweledic 
doethineb, 9 racwelas, 10 gvastadavr, 11 o, 12 phedrussaf, 13 vy, 
14 dygvn racdunt vy, 15 darogan, 16 yn dyfot yn wir, 17 hi a, 18 weres- 
cynynt, 19 ar, 20 ydym yn kafel y trydyd, 21 yr hvn yd yttys yn adav, 
22 anryded, 23 dywedeiHti, 24 yn eglur y tywyssogyon, 25 chustenhin, 
26 ditheu, 27 peth, 28 werescyn, 29 om., 30 oe vod add., 31 ardrychafel, 
32 07/1., 33 in cidd. 



I70 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

geffych ti hynny, minheu ath gedymdeithockaf ti^* a 
deg mil o varchogyon aruaCc y gyt a mi y achCanegu 
dy lu." 

35. A g6edy teruynu o HoweP y barabyl, AraCn uab 
5 Kynuarch brenhin Prydein a dywaOt ual hynn : *' Yr 

pan dechreuaCd vy arglCyd i dywedut y ymadraOd, ny 
allaf P traethu am tauaOt y veint lewenyd yssyd ym 
med61i. Kanysnytdimgennyf iarywnaetham^oymladeu 
ar yr hoT! urenhined a oresgynnassam^ ni hyt hynn, os 

10 g^yr Rufein a g6yr Germania dihagant^ yn diarueu^ y 
genhym ni, a heb dial arnadunt yr aeruaeu a Cnaethant 
Cynteu oc an rieni ni gynt. A chanys^ yr a6r honn y 
mae darpar ymgyfaruot ac 6ynt, HaOen y6 genyf; a 
damuna6 yd 6yf y dyd yd ymgyfarfifom ni ac 6ynt. 

15 Kanys sychet eu gCaet 6ynt yssyd arnaf i yn gymeint 
a phei gCelCn fynhaCn oer^ ger vy mron y yfet diaCt 
ohonaei, pan vei arnaf diruaCr sychet.^ Oia Du6 ! 
g6yn y uyt a arhoei y dyd hCnnO ! Melys a welieu 
genyf i^° y rei a gymerCn i neu y rei a rodCn inheu, tra 

20 neCityCn an deheuoed y gyt an gelynyon. Ar agheu 
honno yssyd uelys, yr honn a diodefCn yn dial^^ uy 
rieni am kenedyl, ac yn amdiffyn vy rydit, ac yn 
ardyrchaueP^ ^n brenhin. Ac Crth hynny kyrchCn yr 
hanher gOyr^^ hynny; na safCn yn eu kyrchu, hyt pan 

25 orfom ni arnadunt 6y gan dOyn eu henryded,^* yd 
aruerom^^ ni^^ o laOen uudugolyaeth. Ac y achOaneckau 
dy lu ditheu minheu a rodaf d6y vil o varchogyon aruaCc 
heb eu pedyt,"^^ 

36. A g6edy daruot y ba6p dywedut y peth a vynhynt 
30 yg kylch hynny, adaO a oruc pa6b nerth, megys y bei y 

(Ch. 34). 34 gytymdeithockavn ditheu 

(Ch. 35). 1 hvel, 2 aHaffi, 3 genhym ar wnaetham, 4 werysgynassam, 
5 diaghant, 6 diaerua, 7 achavs, 8 loyv eglur, 9 ohonaei — sychet om., 
10 genhyfi, 11 gvaet add., 12 ardrychafel, 13 yr avr hon yr haner gvyr, 
14 hanryded, 15 aruerhom, 16 ni orf, 17 pedyd 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 171 

allu ae defnyd yn y wassanaeth. Ac yna y kahat o 
ynys Prydein ehun^ trugein mil o varchogyon aruaCc, 
heb deg2 mil a adaCssei urenhin LydaC. Ac odyna 
brenhined yr ynyssed ereill (kany buassei aruer o 
varchogyon^) paCb onadunt a edeGis pedydgant y sa61 5 
a ellynt eu kaffel. Sef a gahat or chwech ynys, nyt 
amgen, Iwerdon ac Islont a Gotlont ac o* Ore a Lychlyn 
a Denmarc, ch6e^ ugein mil o pedyt;^ ac y gan 
tyCyssogyon Freinc, nyt amgen, Ruthyn a Phortu a 
Normandi a Cenoman ar AngiC a PheitaC, petwar ugein 10 
mil o uarchogyon. Ac y gan y deudec gogyfarch'' y 
deuthant^ y gyt a Gereint deucant^ marchaCc a mil o 
varchogyon aruaCc. A sef oed eiryf hynny oil y gyt, 
deu cant marchaCc a their mil a phetOar vgein mil a 
chanmil, heb eu pedyt,^ yr hyn nyt oed haOd eu gossot 15 
yn rif. 

37. A g6edy gCelet o Arthur pa6b yn baraCt yn y reit 
ae wassanaeth, erchi a oruc y ba6p bryssyaC y wlat 
ac ymbaratoi, ac yn erbyn Kalan A6st bot eu kynadyl 
oil y gyt ym porth Barberfloi ar tir LydaO, 6rth gyrchu 20 
B6rg6yn odyno yn erbyn g6yr Freinc. Ac y gyt a 
hynny menegi a oruc Arthur 6rth genadeu gCyr Rufein 
na thalei ef tyrnget udunt h6y^ o ynys Prydein. Ac nyt 
yr gOneuthur ia6n vdunt or a holynt yd oed ef yn 
kyrchu Rufein, namyn yr kymel! teyrnget idaO ef o 25 
Rufein, megys y barnassei ehun y dylyu. Ac ar hynny 
yd aethant y brenhined ar gCyrda pa6b y ymbaratoi heb 
vn annot, erbyn yr amser teruynedic a ossodyssit udunt. 

38. A gCedy adnabot o Les amheraCdyr yr atteb a 
gaOssei y gan Arthur, dr6y gyghor sened Rufein ef a ^q 

(Ch. 36). 1 om., 2 y deg, 3 varchogaeth, 4 om. recte, 5 whe, 6 pedyd 
7 gogyfurd, 8 doethant, 9 deudeckant 

(Ch. 37). Ivy 



172 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ellygOys kenadeu y wyssyaO brenhined y dCfrein,^ ac 
erchi^ dyuot ac eu ITuoed gantunt y gyt ac ef 6rth 
oresgyn^ ynys Prydein. Ac yn gyflym yd ymgynuH- 
assant yno Epistrophus* vrenhin Groec,^ Mustensar 
5 brenhin^ yr Affric, Aliphantina urenhin yr Yspaen, 
Hirtacus vrenhin Parth, Boctus brenhin ludiff, Sertor'' 
brenhin^ Libia, Serx vrenhin Nuri, Pandrasius brenhin^ 
yr Eifft, Missipia^ brenhin^ Babilon, Teucer due Frigia, 
Euander duc^ Siria, Echion o Boeti, Ypolit o Creta,^ y 

10 gyt ar tywyssogyon a oedynt darestygedigyon udunt ar 
gCyrda. Ac y gyt a hynny o vrdas y senedwyr Les, 
Kadell, Meuruc, Lepidus, Gains, Metellus,^^ Octa, 
Quintus, Miluius, Taculus, Metellus, Quintinus, 
Gerucius.^^ A sef^^ oed eiryf hynny oil y gyt, 

15 canOr a thrugein mil a phetCar can mil. 

39. A g6edy ymgyweiraC onadunt o bop peth or a vei 
reit udunt, Kalan A6st hCynt^ a gymerassant eu hynt 
parth ac ynys Prydein. A phan Cybu Arthur hynny, 
ynteu a orchymynCys Hywodraeth ynys Prydein y 

20 VedraCt y nei uab y chCaer, ac y WenhCyvar vrenhines. 
Ac ynteu ae lu a gych6yn6ys parth a phorthua^ HamtOn. 
A phan gafas y gCynt gyntaP yn y ol, ef a aeth yn y 
logeu ar y mor."* Ac val yd oed uelly o aneiryf amylder 
llogeu yn y gylch, ar g6ynt yn r6yd yn y ol, gan 

25 leCenyd yn r6yga6 y^ mor, mal am a6r haner nos, 
gCrthrCm hun a disgynOys® ar Arthur. Sef y gCelei 
drCy y hun, arth yn ehedec yn yr a6yr; murmur hGnnO 
ae odCrd a lanwei y traetheu o ofyn ac aruthred. Ac y 
6rth y gorlleOin y gOelei aruthyr^ dreic yn ehedec, ac o 

(Ch. 38). 1 dvyrein recte, 2 ac y erchi vdunt, 3 wereskyn, 4 epitrophus 

5 goroec, 6 vrenhin, 7 setter, 8 mesipia, 9 greta, 10 metelus, 11 For 
Quintus Jerucius A has Quintws milnius katulus metelus Quintw5 
cerutius (?), 12 Ac ysef 

(Ch. 39). 1 vynt, 2 phorth, 3 kyntaf, 4 ar y mor om,, 5 om., 

6 dygvydvys, 7 arthttr 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 173 

eglurder y Ilygeit yn goleuhau yr holl wlat. A phob 
vn or rei hynny a welei yn ymgyrchu, ac yn ymlad yn 
irat ac yn greulaCn. Ac or diwed y gCelei y racdyCededic 
dreic yn kyrchu yr arth, ac ae thanaCl anadyl yn y 
losgi, ac yn y v6r6 yn Ilosgedic yn y dayar. A 5 
gCedy duhunaC o Arthur, ef a datkanaCd y weledigaeth^ 
yr gCyrda a o[e]dynt9 yn y gylch. Ac 6ynt gan y 
dehogyl a dyCedassant mae^^ Arthur a arOydockaei y 
dreic, ar arth a arOydockaei y kaOr a ymladei ac ef, ar 
ymlad a welei y rydunt a arCydockaei yr ymlad a vydei^^ 10 
y rydaC ef ar kaCr, ar uudugolyaeth a damweinhei^^ y 
Arthur or kaCr. Ac amgen no hynny y tebygei^^ 
Arthur ehun uot y dehogyl. Kanys ef a dybygei y mae 
oe achaCs ef ar amheraCtyr^* y gCelei ef y vreid6yt. A 
gCedy rydec y nos, or di6ed pan yttoed gCaCr dyd yn 15 
cochi tranoeth,^^ Cynt a disgynnassant ym porthua^^ 
BarberflCy yn LydaC. Ac yn y He tynu^^ pebylleu a 
wnaethant, ac yno aros brenhined yr ynyssed^^ ar 
gCladoed ac eu Hu atunt. 

40. A gCedy ymgynuIIaC paCb y gyt or yd oedynt yn 20 
aros, Arthur a gychCynCys odyno hyt yn A6gustud6m, 
y He y tybygei bot yr amheraCdyr ae lu yn dyuot. A 
gCedy y dyuot hyt ar lann yr Avon Wenn ym BCrgCyn, 
ef a venegit idaC bot yr amheraCdyr gOedy pebyllaG nyt 
oed bell odyno, a chymeint o luoed gantaO ac y dywedit 25 
nat oed neb a allei g6rth6ynebu idaC. Ac yr hynny 
eissoes ny chynhyruaCd Arthur dim, namyn gossot y 
bebylleu ae luesteu ar lann yr auon, megys y gaTlei yn 
rCyd ac yn ehang Ilunyaethu y lu, or bei reit idaO, yn y 
He hCnnO. Ac odyna yd anuones Arthur Boso o Ryt 3^ 
Ychen a G6al[ch]mei uab G6yar a Gereint GaranOys hyt 

(Ch. 39). 8 vreidvyt, 9 oed, 10 y mae, 11 vei, 12 damweinei, 
13 tybygei, 14 amheravdyr, 15 dranoeth, 16 ymhorthua, 17 tannu 
18 ynyssoed 



174 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ar amhera6dyr Rufein, y erchi idaC mynet o teruyneu 
Freinc, neu tranoeth rodi kat ar uaes y Arthur, y wybot 
p6y oreu onadunt a dylyei Ffreinc. Ac annoc a Cnaeth 
jeuenctit Hys Arthur y Walchmei gOneuthur gCrthgassed 
5 yn Ilys yr amheraCdyr, megysy gellyntgaffel gosgymonn 
y ymgyuaruot a g6yr Rufein. 

41. Ac odyna y trywyr hynny a gerdassant at yr 
amheraCdyr, ac a archassant idaG my net ymeith o Ffreinc, 
neu ynteu trannoeth rodi kat ar uaes y Arthur. Ac ual 

10 yd oed yr amheraOdyr yn dyCedut nat mynet ohonei a 
dylyei, namyn dyuot oe hamdiffyn ac y IlyCyaC, nachaf 
Quintinus nei yr amheraOdyr yn dywedut bot yn hCy 
gorhoffed a bocsach y Brytanyeit noc eu gallu ac eu 
gleCder, a bot yn h6y eu tauodeu noc eu clefydeu. 

15 Ac 6rth hynny IlityaO a oruc GCalchmei, a thynnu cledyf 
a Had y benn ger bronn y ewythyr. Ac yn y lie ar hynt 
kaffel eu meirych ac ymtynnu or Hys ef ae 
gedym[d]eithon, ar Rufeinwyr ar veirych ac ar tract yn 
eu hymlit y geissaC dial y gCr arnadunt oc eu holl ynni. 

20 Ac ual yd oed vn or Rufeinwyr yn ymordiwes a Gereint 
GaranCys, ef a troes arna6, ac a gleif ae gCant trCy y holl 
arueu a thrCydaC ehun, yny vyd yr IlaCr y ar y varch yn 
var6 . Ac yna blyghau a oruc Boso o Ryt Ychen, a throi y 
varch a oruc, ar kyntaf a gyvaruu ac ef, ef a ossodes 

25 arna6 yn y vogel, ac a rodes dyrnaCt agheuaCl idaC, a 
chymell arnaO ymadaO ae varch ac ymadassu ar dayar. 
Ac ar hynny nachaf Marett Mut sened6r oe holl ynni yn 
keissaC dial Q6intilian ac yn ymordiwes a G6alchmei 
yn y ol ac yn mynnu y dala, pan ymchoelaCd GCalchmei 

30 arnaC yn gyflym, ac a chledyf Had y benn yn gyfuch ae 
d6y yscOyd; ac y gyt a hynny gorchymun idaC, pan 
elhei y uffern, menegi y GOintinal, yr hCnn a ladassei ef 
yn y pebyll, bot yn amyl gan y Brytanyeit y ry6 or 
hoffter hCnnC. Ac odyna ymCascu ae gedymdeithon 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 175 

a oruc GOalchmei ac eu hannoc, a Ilad o bop un Or; ar 
Rufeinwyr ar gCeCyr ac ar clefydeu yn eu fustaO, ac ny 
ellynt nac eu dala nac eu bOrC. Ac ual yd oedynt geir 
na6 coet a oed yn agos udunt, ar Rufeinwyr yn eu herlit 
yn lut, nachaf chwe mil or Brytanyeit yn dyuot or coet 5 
yn borth yr tywyssogyon a oedynt ar ffo, ac ar hynt yn 
dangos yr ysparduneu yr meirych, ac yn llanC yr aCyr 
o lefein a dodi eu taryaneu ar eubronnoedac yn deissyfyt 
kyrchu y Rufeinwyr ac yn y He eu Icymell ar ffo, ac o 
vn vryt eu herlit, a b6r6 rei onadunt yr IlaCr, a dala ereill, 10 
a Had ereill. 

42. A gCedy menegi hynny y Petrius senedCr, ef a 
gymerth degmil y gyt ac ef, a bryssyaC yn ganhorthCy 
y gedymdeithon,^ ac yn y He kymell y Brytanyeit ar fo 
yr coet y dathoedynt ohonaC. Ac eissoes nyt heb 15 
wneuthur diruaCr gollet yr Rufeinwyr. Kanys y 
Brytanyeit, kyt foynt, pan geffynt adCyeu kyfig a Ileoed 
dyrys, aerua uaCr a 6neynt or Rufeinwyr. Ac ual yd 
yttoedynt h6y yn ymladar y wed honno, nachaf Hydeir uab 
Mut a phump mil y gyt ac ef yn dyuot yn ganhorthCy 20 
yr Brytanyeit. Ac yn y He ymchoelut a wnaethant; ar 
rei a oedynt yn dangos eu kefneu ar ffo yr aCr honno, 
yn y He yd oedynt yn dangos eu bronnoed ac yn rodi 
gCrolyon dyrnodeu bop eilwers yr Rufeinwyr, ar 
Brytanyeit oc eu holl dihewyt yn damunaC milCryaeth. 25 
Ac ny didorynt py damOein y dygOydynt yndaC, hyt tra 
gynhelynt eu clot ym milCryaeth, megys y dechreuyssynt. 
Ar RufeinCyr kymhennach y gOneynt 6y; kanys Petrius 
megys tyCyssaCc da ae dysgei 6ynt yn doeth g6ers y 
gyrchu g6ers arall y ffo, megys y gOelei yn dygrynoi 30 
udunt. Ac uelly y g6neynt goTIedeu maOr yr Brytanyeit. 

43. A phan welas Boso o Ryt Ychen hynny, gal6 a 
oruc attaC laOer or Brytanyeit gleCaf a Oydat ar neilltu, 

1. MS. gedyndeithon 



176 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

a dyOedut Crthunt ual hyn : *' Dioer," heb ef, '* kanys 
heb wybot y an brenhin y dechreuassam ni yr ymlad 
hCnn, reit oed yn ninheu ymoglyt rac an dyg6yda6 yn 
y^ ran waethaf or ymlad. Ac os uelly y dygCydCn, 
5 kollet ma6r oc an marchogyon a goIICn, ac y gyt a hynny 
an brenhin a dyg6n ar gyffro ac irlloned Crthym. Ac 
6rth hynny gel6ch aCch gleOder attaCch, a chanlyn6ch 
vinheu drCy vydinoed y Rufeinwyr. Ac o kanhorthCya 
an tyghetuenneu ni, ae Had Petrius ae dala ni a orvydCn." 

lo 44. Ac ar hynny dangos yr ysparduneu yr meirych a 
orugant, a thrCy vydinoed y marchogyon o ebr6yd 
ruthur mynet drostunt hyt y He yd oed Petrius yn dysgu 
y gedymdeithon. Ac yn gyflym Boso a gyrchaOd 
Petrius a meglyt yndaO herCyd y vynCgyl a, megys y 

15 racdyCedassei, dygOydaC y gyt ac ef yr lla6r. Ac 6rth 
hynny ymgynuUaC a Cneynt y Rufeinwyr y geissaC y 
ellCg y gan y elynyon . Ac or parth araTI yd ympenty rrynt 
y Brytanyeit yn borth y Voso o Ryt Ychen. Ac yna y 
clyOit y Ileuein ar gorderi ; yna yd oed yr aerua diruaCr 

20 ^ bop parth, hyt tra ytoedynt y Rufeinwyr yn keissaC 
rydhau eu tyCyssaCc, ar Brytanyeit yn y attal. Ac yna 
y gellit gCybot p6y oreu a digonei a gCayC, p6y oreu a 
saetheu, p6y oreu a chledyf. Ac or diwed y Brytanyeit 
gan teOhau eu bydinoed a dugant eu ruthur ar 

25 karcharoryon gantunt dr6y vydinoed y RufeinCyr, hyt 
pan vydynt ym perued kedernit eu hymlad ehunein a 
Phetrius gantunt. Ac yn y lie ymchoelut ar yr Rufeinwyr 
ymdiueit oc eu tywyssaOc ac or ran vCyaf yn Oanach ac 
yn Casgaredigach dangos eu kefneu a orugant Crth ffo. 

30 Ac 6rth hynny estCg gantunt a Cnaeth y Brytanyeit, ac 
eu Had ac eu hyspeilaC, ac erUt y rei a ffoynt, a dala 
llaGer or rei a damunynt y eu dangos yr brenhin. Ac or 

1. MS. yr 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 177 

diwed gCedy gCneuthur HaCer o berigleu a drCc onadunt, 
y Brytanyeit 6ynt[eu] a ymchoelassant y eu pebylleu ar 
karcharoryon ac ar yspeileu gantunt. A chan leCenyd 
6ynt a dangossant Petrius ar karcharoryon ereil! y gyt ac 
ef y Arthur. Ac ynteu a diolches udunt gan diruaCr 5 
leCenyd eu Hafur ac eu gCassanaeth yn y aCssen ef, gan 
adaO achCaneckau eu henryded ac eu kyuoeth am eu 
mil6ryaeth ac eu molyant. Ac yna yd erchis Arthur 
my net ar carcharoryon hyt ym Paris y eu kad6, tra 
gymerit kyghor amdanunt. Ac yd erchis Arthur y 10 
Gad6r iarll KernyC a Bedwyr a Rickart a Bosel ac eu 
teuluoed y gyt ac Cynteu eu hebrCg, hyt pan elhynt yn 
diogel, rac ofyn tGyll y Rufeinwyr. 

45. Ar Rufeinwyr y nos hono, gCedy caff el onadunt 
gCybot y darpar h6nn6, a etholassant pymtheg mil o wyr 15 
aruaCc ac ae gellygassant hyt nos y ragot y fford y 
tebygynt eu mynet trannoeth, y geissaO rydhau eu 
karcharoryon. Ac yn tyCyssogyon ar yr rei hynny y 
gossodet Ultei a Chadell a Chwintus senedCr ac Evander 
vrenhin Siria a Sertor vrenhin Libia. Ar rei hynny 20 
oil a gymerasant eu hynt, hyt pan gaCssant y He a vei 
adas gantunt y lechu, ac yno aros y dyd arnadunt. 

46. Ar bore drannoeth kymryt eu iford a wnaeth y 
Brytanyeit ac eu karcharoryon parth a Pharis. Ac val 
yd oedynt yn dyuot yn agos yr He yd oed y pyt y gan 25 
eu gelynyon arnadunt, ac Gynteu heb wybot dim or vrat 
nae thybya6, yn dirybud eu kyrchu a oruc y Rufeinwyr, 

a dechreu eu gCaskaru a mynet drostunt. Ac eissoes, 
kyt kyrchit y Brytanyeit yn dirybud, ny chahat yn 
diaruot, namyn yn GraCl g6rth6ynebu y eu gelynyon. 30 
A rei a dodassant y gad6 y karcharoryon, ac ereill yn 
vydinoed y ymlad. Ar vydin a ossodassant y gadO y 
carcharoryon a orchmynnassant y Rickert a Bedwyr. 
A thywyssogaeth y rei ereill a orchymynnOyt y GadOr 

M 



178 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

iarll KernyO, a Borel yn gyttywyssaCc idaO. Ar 
Rufeinwyr kyrchu a wneynt heb geissaC na HunyeithaC 
eu gOyr nae bydinaC, namyn oc eu holl lafur keissaO 
gCneuthur aerua or Brytanyeit, hyt tra yttoedynt Cynteu 
5 yn bydinaC eu gCyr ac yn eu hamdiffyn ehunein. Ac 
6rth hynny gan eu gCanhau yn ormod 6ynt yn dybryt a 
gollassynt eu karcharoryon, pei nadanuonei eutyghetuen 
vdunt damunedic ganhorthOy ar vrys. Kanys GCittart 
iarll PeittaO, gCedy g6ybot y tCyll hCnnC, a deuth a their 

lo mil gantaC. Ac or diwed gan nerth Du6 ar kanhorth6y 
h6nn6 y Brytanyeit a oruuant, ac a talyssant eu haerua 
yr tCyllwyr. Ac eissoes yn y gyfranc kyntaf y coHassant 
lawer. Kanys yna y coHassant yr arderchaCc tywyssaOc 
Borel o Cenoman ; yn kyuaruot ac Euander vrenhin Siria 

15 yn vrathedic gan y waeO y dygOydCys. Yna y kollassant 
hefyt petCar gCyr bonhedigyon, nyt amgen, Hirlas o 
PirCn a Meuruc o Gaer Geint ac AlidCc o DindagCl a 
Hir uab Hydeir. Nyt oed ha6d kaffel gOyr leCach nor 
rei hynny. Ac yr hynny ny chollassant y Brytanyeit 

20 eu glewder,^ namyn oc eu llauur kad6 eu karcharoryon. 
Ac or diwed ny allyssant y Rufeinwyr diodef eu ruthur, 
namyn yn gyflym adaC y maes a ffo parth ac eu pebylleu, 
ar Brytanyeit yn eu herlit ac yn gCneuthur aerua 
onadunt. Ac ny pheidassant yn eu dala ac yn eu Had, 

25 hyt pan ladassant Vltei a Chadell senedCr ac Evander 
vrenhin Siria. A gCedy caffel or Brytanyeit y vudu- 
golyaeth honno, 6ynt a anuonassant y karcharoryon hyt 
ym Paris. Ar rei a dalyassant o newyd, 6ynt ae 
hym[ch]oelassant ar Arthur eu brenhin oe dangos, gan 

3oadaC gobeith hoII uudugolyaeth idaO ; kanys nifer mor 
vychan a h6nn6 a geOssynt uudugolyaeth ar y sa61 
elynyon hynny. 

1. MS. gleiider 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 179 

47. A gOedy gCelet o Les amheraCtyr Rufein meint y 
gollet ar dechreu y ryfel, trCm a thrist uu gantaC. A 
medylyaC a oruc peida6 ae darpar am ymlad ac Arthur 
a mynet y dinas ACuarn y aros porth o newyd attaC y 
gan Leo amheraCdyr. A gwedy caffel o hona6 hynny 5 
yn y gyghor, y nos honno ef a aeth hyt yn Legris. A 
gGedy menegi hynny y Arthur, ynteu a raculaenCys y 
fford ef. Ar nos honno, gan ada6 y dinas ar y IlaC 
asseu ida6, ef a aeth hyt y my6n dyffryn y fford y kerdei 
Les amheraCdyr ae lu. Ac yno y mynCys ef bydinaC y 10 
wyr. Ac ef a erchis y Vorud iarll Kaer Loy6 kymryt 
attaC Heg o wyr a mynet ar neilitu yg gCersyll, a phan 
welei uot yn reit Grthunt, dyfot yn ganhorthCy. Ac 
odyna y nifer oil y am hynny a ranCys yn naC bydin, 
ac ym pob bydin or na6 chwe g6yr a chwe ugeint a chwe 1 5 
chant a chwe mil, ar rei hynny yn gyweir o bop arueu, 
ar rann o bop bydin yn uarchogyon ar rann arall yn 
bedyt, a thywyssogyon y dyscu pob bydin yn y blaen. 
Acyrvydingyntaf yrodetAra6n uab KynuarchaChadCr 
iartt KernyC, vn yn yr anher deheu ar Han yn yr anher 20 
asseu. Ac yr vydin arall y rodet Gereint GaranCys a 
Boso o Ryt Ychen. Ac yr dryded y rodet Echel vrenhin 
Denmarc a Leu uab Kynuarch brenhin Lychlyn. Ac yr 
bedwared y rodet Howel uab Emyr Lyda6 a GGalchmei 
uab G6yar, deu nei y Arthur. Ac yn ol y pedeir hynny 25 
J gossodet pedeir bydin ereill drae kefyn Oynteu. Ac yr 
^yntaf or rei hynny y rodet Kei bensOydwr a Bedwyr 
bentrullyat. Ac yr nessaf idi y rodet Hodlyn iarIT 
Ruthyn a GCittart iarlt PeittaO ; ac yr tryded Owein o 
Gaer Leon a lonathal o Gaer Weir ; ac yr petwared 30 
Vryen Vadon a Chursalem o Gaer Geint. Ac Arthur 
£hun a etholes ^ Ileg ida6 o varchogyon aruaOc o 

1. MS. ae otholes 



i8o THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

chwe gOyr a chwe ugeint a chwe chant a ch6e mil. A rac 
bron Arthur sef yll y dreic eureit, yrhonnaoedyn He arCyd 
idaO, megys y gellynt y gOyr blin ar rei brathedic, pan 
gymhellei eu hagen ^ udiint, ffo dan yr arCyd honno 
5 megys y gastell diogel. 

48. A g6edy Ilunyaethu paCb yn y ansaCd, Arthur a 
dywaCt val hynn 6rth y varchogyon : '* Vyg kytuar- 
chogyon kytdiodeuedic ymi,^ ch6i a CnaethaCch ynys 
Prydein yn arglCydes ar dec teyrnas ar hugeint ; y aCch 

10 deCred ch6i ac y a6ch molyant y kytdiolchaf ynheu 
hynny, y molyant nyt ytty6 yn pallu nac yn dyffygyaO, 
namyn yn kynydu. Kyt ry foch chCi ys pump mlyned 
yn arueru o seguryt heb arueru o arueu a milOryaeth, yr 
hynny eissoes ny choIIyssaCch a6ch anyanaOl dayoni, 

15 namyn yn wastat parhau yn ach bonhedic dayoni. 
Kanys y Rufeinwyr a gymellassaCch ar ffo, y rei a oed 
oc eu syberCyt yn keissaC d6yn a6ch rydit y gennCch, 
ac yn v6y eu nifer nor einym ni. Ac ny allassant sefyll 
yn aCch erbyn, namyn yn dybryt ffo gan achub y dinas 

20 hOnn. Ac yr a6r honn y doant o h6nn6 dr6y y dyffryn 
h6nn y gyrchu ACuarn. Ac y am h3mn yma y gellCch 
ch6itheu eu kaffel 6ynt yn dirybud ac eu Had megys 
deueit. Kanys gCyr y d6yrein a debygant ^ bot Ilesked 
ynaCch ch6i, pan geissynt gOneuthur aCch gOlat yn 

25 tretha61 udunt a chwitheu yn geith udunt. Pony 
wybuant 6y py ry6 ymladeu a dyborthassaOch ch6i y wyr 
Lychlyn a Denmarc ac y tywyssogyon Freinc, y rei 
a oreskynassa6ch ch6i, ac a rydhayssaCch y 6rth eu 
harglGydiaeth warat6ydus 6y ? Ac Crth hynny, kan 

30 gorfuam ni yn yr ymladeu kadarnaf hynny, heb amheu 
ni a orfyd6n yn yr ymladeu yscaOn hynn, os o vn 
dihewyt ac o vn vryt y HafuryCn y gyCarsagu yr banner 

1. MS. hageu 2 MS. yni 3 leg. debygynt 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR i8i 

gOyr hynn. Py veint o enryded a medyant a chyfoeth 
a geiff paCb ohonaOch ch6i, os megys kytvarchogyon 
ffydlaOn yd ufudheCch ch6i ym gorchymynn ynheu ? 
Kanys g6edy gorffom ni arnadunt, ni a gyrchOn Rufein, 
a ni a gaffCn y medu hi. Ac velly keffCch yr eur araryant 5 
ar Tlyssoed ar tired ar kestyll ar dinassoed; ac eu hoH 
gyuoeth a geffCch." Ac val yd oed yn dyCedut hynny 
6rthunt, paCb o vn eir a gadarnassant bot yn gynt y 
diodefynt ageu noc yd ymedeGynt ac ef, tra vei ef vyO 
or blaen. lO 

49. A gCedy gCybot or amheraGdyr y vrat yd oedit 
yn y darparu idaO, nyt ffo a oruc ef megys y darparyssei, 
namyn galC y leCder atta6 a chyrchu y dyffryn hCnnG 
ar eu tor. A gal6 y tyOyssogyon attaO a dywedut Crthunt 
val hyn : '' Tadeu enrydedus o arglCydiaeth, or rei y 15 
dylyir kynal teyrnassoed y dCyrein ^ ar gorlleCin yn 
darestygedic vdunt, koffeGch ych hendadeu, y rei yr 
gorescyn eu gelynyon ny ochelynt ellCg eu priaCt waet 
ehunein, namyn adaC agreiff molyant yr rei a delei 
gOedy 6ynt. Ac velly yn vynych y goruydynt. A chan 20 
oruot y gochelynt agheu, kanys ny daC y neb namyn 
yr neb y gCelho Du6, ar ansaCd y mynho Du6, ar am'ser 
y mynho. Ac 6rth hynny yd ach6aneckeynt hCy gyfoeth 
Rufein ac eu molyant hCy ac eu clot ac eu hadfCynder ac 
eu haelder. Ac o hynny y dyrchefynt 6ynt ac eu 25 
harglCydiaeth ac eu hetiuedyon ar yr holl vyt. Ac 6rth 
hynny gan damuna6 kyffroi ynaCch chwitheu y kyfry6 
hGnnO yd anogaf i hyt pan al6och chCi attaOch aCch 
anyanaCl dayoni, a hyt pan safoch yndi gan gyrchu 
aCch gelynyon yssyd yn a6ch aros yn y dyffryn h6nn 30 
gan deissyfyt y gennCch aOch dylyet. Ac na thebygOch 
y mae rac eu hofyn 6y y kyrcheis i y dinas hCnn, namyn 

1. MS. dOyfrein 



i82 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

o tebygu an herlit ni ohonunt h6y, ac yn deissyfyt kaffel 
ohonam aeriia diruaCr eu meint ohonunt. A chanys yn 
amgen y gCnaethant hCy noc y tebygass6n i, gCnaCn 
ninheu yn amgen noc y tebygant Gynteu. DeisyfOn 
5 6ynt, ac yn le6 kyrchGn Cynt. A chyt gorffont, diodefCn 
ni yn da y rythur gyntaf y gantunt ; a velly heb amheu 
ni a oruydOn. Kanys y neb a safo yn da yn y rythur 
gyntaf, mynych y6 y vynet gan uudugolyaeth yn IlaGer o 
ymladeu." 

lo 50. A gCedy daruot ida6 teruynu yr ymadraCd h6nn6 
a IlaOer o rei ereill, pa6b o vn dihewyt a rodassant eu 
dOylaC gan tygu nat ymedewynt ac ef; ac ar vrys 
gwisgaC amdanunt eu harueu ac ada6 Legrys a chyrchu 
y dyffryn, y He yd oed Arthur gCedy Ilunyaethu y 

15 vydinoed. iVc yna gossot a Cnaethant hCynteu dr6y 
deudec bydin o varchogyon a phedyt yn herCyd 
RufeinaCl deuaCt o chwe g6yr a thrugeint a chwe chant 
a ch6e mil ym pop bydin ; ac ym pop vn ohonunt 
HyCodyr, hyt pan vei o dysc h6nn6 y kyrchynt ac y 

20 kilynt, pan vei dylyedus udunt, ac y gCrthCynebynt y eu 
gelynyon. Ac y vn or bydinoed y rodes^ Les. 
Kadell senedCr o Rufein ac Aliphantina brenhin yr 
Yspaen, ac yr eil Hirtacus brenhin Parth a Meuruc 
senedCr, ac yr tryded Bocus brenhin Nidif a Ganis 

25 sened6r, yr bedwared Q6intus a Myrr senedCr. Ar 
pedeir hynny a rodet yn y blaen. Ac yn ol y pedeir 
hynny y dodet pedeir ereill. Ac y vn or rei hynny y 
rodet Serx brenhin Ituri, ac yr eil Polites due Ffrigia, 
yr tryded Pandrasius brenhin yr Eift, yr pedCared due 

30 Bitinia. Ac yn ol y rei hynny pedeir bydin ereill. Ac 
y vn ohonunt y rodet QOintus Carucius, ac yr eil iarll 
Lelli Hosti, yr tryded Sulpius, yr pedCared Marius 

1. MS. yr adodes 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 183 

senedCr. Ac ynteu yr amheraCtyr hCnt ac yma, yn 
annoc y wyr ac yn eu dysgu py wed yd ymledynt. Ac 
ym perued y TIu yd erchis ef sefyll yn gadarn eryr 
eureit, yr hCnn a oed yn lie arCyd idaC, ac erchi y baCp 
or a Cehenit y 6rth y vydin, gyrchu yno. 5 

51. Ac or diCed gCedy sefyll paCb yn erbyn y gilyd 
onadunt y Brytanyeit or ne[i]n parth ar Rufeinwyr or 
parth arall, pan glyCssant sein yr arCydon, y vydin, yd 
oed brenhin yrYspaen aegedymdeithyny HywyaO, ymgy- 
uarfot a orugant a bydin AraCn uab Kynuarch a ChadCr 10 
iarll KernyC, a hynny yn wychyr ac yn le6. Ac eissoes 
ny allyssant nae thorri nae g6asgaru. Ac ual yd oedynt 
uelly yn ymlad yn dywal ac yn wychyr, nachaf Gereint 
Garan6ys a Boso o Ryt Ychen ac eu bydin yn eu kyrchu 
yn deissyfyt o rydec eu meirych, ac yn tyllu eu gelynyon 1$ 
ac yn mynet drostunt, hyt pan gyfarfuant a bydin 
brenhin Parth, yr honn a yttoed yn kyrchu yn erbyn 
bydin Echel brenhin Denmarc a Leu vab Kynuarch 
brenhin Lychlyn. Ac yna heb vn gohir o bop parth 
ymgymysgu a Cnaethant y bydinoed, a mynet paCb dros 20 
y gilyd onadunt ; ac aerua dirua6r y meint o bop parth, 
ar Ileuein ar gorderi yn IlanC yr aOyr o son ; ar rei 
brathedic yn maedu y dayar ac ae penneu ac eu sodleu, 
a thrCy eu gCaet yn terfynu eu buched. Ac eissoes y 
kollet kyntaf a deuth yr Brytanyeit. Kanys Bedwyr a 25 
las, a Chei a vrathCyt yn agheuaCl. Kanys pan 
ymgyfarvu Vedwyr a brenhin Nidif, y brathCyt a gleif 
yny dygCydOys. A hyt tra yttoed Gei yn keissaC dial 
Bedwyr, ym perued kat brenhin Nidif y brathOyt ynteu. 
Ac eissoes o defawt ^ marchaOc da, ar ystondard a oed 30 
yn y laO gan lad a gCasgaru y elynyon, agori fiford idaC 
a oruc; ac ae vydin gantaC yn gyfan ef a doeth hyt ym 

1. MS. dyfot 



i84 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

plith y wyr ehunan, pei nar gyfarffei ac ef vydin brenhin 
Libia. Honno a CasgarCys y vydin ef yn hoIlaCl, ac ynteu 
a ffoes a chorff BedCyr ganta6 hyt y dan y dragon eureit. 
Ac yna py veint o gCynuan a oed gan wyr Normandi, 
5 pan welsant gorff eu ty6yssa6c yn vriCedic or sa61 
welioed hynny ? Py veint g6ynuan a Cneynt wyr yr 
AngiC 6rth welet gCelieu Kei eu ty6yssa6c, pei kaffei neb 
enkyt y gOynaC y gilyd gan y amdiffyn ehunan yg 
kyfr6g y bydinoed gCaetlyt? 

lo 52. Ac Crth hynny Hirlas nei Bedwyr yn gyffroedic o 
agheu Bedwyr a gymerth a gyt ac ef trychant marchaOc, 
a megys baed koet trCy blith HaCer o gCn kyrchu drCy 
blith y elynaCl vydinoed yr He y gCelei arCyd brenhin 
Nidif, heb didarbot py beth a damCeinei idaO gan gaffel 

1^5 dial y eCythyr ohonaC. Ac or diCed ef a gafas dyuot hyt 
y He yd oed vrenhin Nidif, ac ae kymerth o blith y 
vydin, ac ae due gantaC hyt y lie yd oed gorff Bedwyr, 
ac yno y dryllyaO yn dry lieu man. Ac odyna goralC 
ar y gedymdeithon, a chan eu hannoc kyrchu eu 

20 ge ynyon yn vynych, megys gan atnewydu eu nerth, hyt 
pan yttoedynt eu gelynyon yn ofnaCc ac eu callonoed 
yn crynu. Ac y gyt a hynny kyCreinach y kyrchynt y 
Brytanyeit oe dysc ynteu, a chreulonach y gCneynt 
aerua. Ac 6rth hynny grym ac angerd oe annoc ef a 

25 gymerassant y Brytanyeit, a dOyn ruthur y eu gelynyon ; 
ac o bop parth udunt diruaCr aerua a orucp6yt. Y 
Rufeinwyr yna y gyt ac aneiryf o vilyoed y syrthassant. 
Yna y Has Aliphant vrenhi[n] yr Yspaen, a Misipia 
vrenhin Babilon, a ChOintus Miluius, a Marius Lepidus 

30 sened6r. Ac o parth y Brytanyeit y syrthCys Hodlyn 
iarll Ruthun, a Leodogar iarll Bol6yn, a thri thyCyssaCc 
erein o ynys Prydein, nyt amgen, Cursalem o Gaer 
Geint, a GOallaCc vab LywynaCc o Salsbri, a Vryen o Gaer 
Vadon. Ac 6rth hynny gOahanu a Onaethant y bydinoed 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 185 

yd oedynt yn y IlywyaC, ac enkil drachefyn hyt ar y 
vydin yd oed Howel uab Emyr Lyda6 a GCalchmei uab 
GCyar yn y llywyaC. A phan welas y gCyr hynny eu 
kedymdeithon yn ffo, enynu o lit megys fflam yn enynu 
godeith, gan al6 y rei a oedynt ar ffo a chyrchu eu 5 
gelynyon. A chymell ar ffo y rei a oedynt yn eu herlit 
Cynteu kyn no hynny gan eu bCrO ac eu Had, a gOneuthur 
aerua heb orfo6ys onadunt, hyt pan deuthant hyt ar 
vydin yr amheraCdyr. 

53. A phan welas yr amheraOdyr yr aerua oe wyr, 10 
bryssya6 a oruc yn borth udunt. Ac yna y gOnaethpGyt 

y Brytanyeit yn veirC ; kanys Kynuarch tyOyssaCc 
Trigeri a dOy vil y gyt ac ef a las yna. Ac yna y lias or 
parth aral! trywyr, nyt amgen, Rigyfarch a Bolconi a 
LaCin o Votlan . A phei bydynt ty wyssogyon teyrnassoed, 1 5 
yr oessoed a delhynt gof hyt vraCt ac a enrydedynt 
eu molyant ac eu clot. Ac eissoes p6y bynhac 
a gyfarffei a HoCel neu a GCalchmei oc eu gelynyon, 
ny diagei ae eneit gantaC. A gCedy eu dyuot, megys 
y dywespCyt uchot, hyt ym plith bydin yr amheraCdyr, 20 
yn damgylchedic oc eu gelynyon y syrthassant y tryCyr 
hynny. Ac 6rth hynny Howel a GOalchmei, y rei ny 
magyssit yn yr oessoed kyn noc 6ynt neb well noc 6ynt, 
pan welsant yr aerua oc eu kedymdeithon, yn Cychyr y 
kyrchassant hOnt ac yman, vn o bop parth yn gyffredin 25 
yn dyCalhau ac yn blina6 bydin yr amheraCdyr, ac 
megys Ilucheit yn Had a gyfarffei ac 6ynt, ac yn annoc 
eu kedymdeithon ; a G6al[ch]mei yn damunaO oe holl 
dihewyt ymgaffel a Les amheraCdyr y gymell arnaO 
peth a digonei ym milCryaeth. Ac nyt oed haOd barnu 30 
p6y oreu, ae Ho6el ae GCalchmei. 

54. Ac odyna GCalchmei a gafas y damunedic hynt. 
Ac yn Cychyr kyrchu yr amheraCdyr a oruc, a gossot 
arnaC. Ac eissoes Les, megys yd oed yn dechreu 



i86 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

blodeuaC dewred y ieuenctit ac yn vaCr y ynni, nyt oed 
well dim gantaO ynteu noc ymgaffel ar ry6 uarchaCc 
clotuaOr hCnnC, yr h6nn a gymellei y wybot beth vei y 
angerd ae deCred. Ac 6rth hynny diruaCr leCenyd a 
5 gymerth ynda6 6rth ymgaffel ohonaC a g6r kynglotuo- 
russet a GCalchmei. Ac ymerbynyeit yn galet a Cnaeth 
pob vn ae gilid, megys na Oelat rCg deu vilCr ymlad a 
gyffelypit y h6nn6. A phan yttoedynt 6y yn neGidya6 
kaledyon dyrnodeu, a phob vn yn HafuryaC agheu y 

10 gilyd, nachaf y RufeinwyrynnympentyryaCyn eukylch, 
hyt pan vu reit y Walchmei a Howel ac eu bydinoed 
enkilyaO hyt ar vydin Arthur, gan eu Had or Rufeinwyr 
yn drut. 

55. A phan welas Arthur yr aerua yd oedit yn y 

15 wneuthur oe wyr ef, tynu Caletv61ch y gledyf goreu 
a Cnaeth, ac yn vchel dyCedut val hynn : " Py achaCs 
y gedCch ch6i y gCreicolyon wyr hynn y genCch ? Nac 
aet vn yn vy6 onadunt, nac aet. KoffeCch aCch 
deheuoed, y rei yn gyfrCys yn y sa61 ymladeu kyn no 

20 hynn a darestygassant dec teyrnas ar hugeint Crth vym 
medyant. KoffeCch a6ch hendadeu, y rei, pan oedynt 
gadarnach gCyr Rufein no hediO, ae gGnaethant yn 
drethaCl udunt. KoffeCch aCch rydit, yr honn y mae yr 
hanher gCyr hynn yn keissaC y dCyn y genCch. Ac Crth 

25 hynny nac aet vn yn vyC onadunt, nac aet." A chan 
dywedut yr ymadrodyon hynny, kyrchu y elynyon ac eu 
bCrC dan y draet ac eu Had. A phCy bynnac a gyfarffei 
ac ef, o vn dyrnaCt y Hadei ac ef ae varch. Ac Crth 
hynny paCb a foynt racdaC, megys y foynt aniueileit rac 

30 IleC creulaCn, pan vei neCyn maCr arnaC ac ynteu yn 
keissaC bCyt. A phCy bynhac o damCein a gyfarffei acef, 
nys differei y arueu ef rac CaletuClch, hyt pan vei reit 
idaC talu y eneit y gyt ae Oaet. Deu urenhin oc eu 
drycdamCein a gyfaruuant ac ef, Sertor brenhin Libia 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 187 

a Pholites brenhin Bitinia. Ar deu hyiiny gCedy Had eu 
penneu a anuones Arthur y Rufein. 

56. A gCedy gCelet or Brytanyeit eu brenhin yn ymlad 
uelly,^ gleCder ac ehofyndera gymerassant, a chan teChau 
eu bydinoed o vn vryt kyrchu y Rufeinwyr gan darparu 5 
mynet drostunt. Ac eissoes gCrthOynebu yn wychyr a oruc 

y Rufeinwyr udunt, ac o dysc LesamheraCdyr IlafuryaC y 
talu aerua yr Brytanyeit. Achymeint uu yr ymlad ynao 
bop parth a chyt pei^ yr a6r honno y dechreuynt yr 
ymlad. Or neill parth yd oed yr arderchaCc vrenhin 10 
Arthur yn Ilad y elynyon, ac yn annoc y wyr y sefyll yn 
6ra61. Ac or parth arall yd oed Les amheraCdyr yn 
annoc y Rufeinwyr ac yn eu dysgu ac yn eu moli. Ac 
ny orfoOyssei ynteu yn Had ac yn b6r6 y elynyon ac yn 
kylchynu y vydinoed ehun. A phy elyn bynac a 15 
gyfarffei ac ef, a g6ay6 neu a chledyf y Iladei. Ac uelly 
o bop parth y bydei Arthur yn gCneuthur aerua. 
Kanys gOeitheu y bydynt trechaf^ y Brytanyeit, gCeitheu 
ereill y bydynt^ trechaf^ y Rufeinwyr. A phan yttoedynt 
h6y^ yn yr ymfust hCnnC, heb wybot py diC y damCeinei 20 
y vudugolyaeth, nachaf Morud iarll Caer LoyC yn dyuot 
ar Ileg a dyCedassam ni y hadaO uchot yg gCersyll, ac yn 
deissyfyt^ yn kyrchu eu gelynyon yn dirybud or tu yn 
eu^ hoi ac yn mynet drostunt, gan eu gCasgaru a 
g6neuthur aerua diruaCr y meint. Ac yna y syrthassant^ 25 
IlaCer o vilyoed or Rufeinwyr. Ac yna y dygCydCys 
Les amheraCdyr yn vrathedic gan leif neb vn, ac y bu 
var6. Ac yna, kyt bei drCy dirua6r lafur, y Brytanyeit 
a gaCssant y maes.^ 

57. Acynay gCasgarassant^yRufeinwyr^yrdiffeithOch 30 
ac yr coedyd, ac ofyn yn eu kymell. EreiTI yr dinassoed 

(Ch. 56). 1 y velTy? the initial letters are illegible, 2 chyn bei, 
3 drechaf, 4 bydei, 5 Oy, 6 deissyfedic, 7 y, 8 syrthysant, 9 ar goruot add, 
(Ch. 57). 1 gvasgaryssant, 2 rei add. 



i88 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

ar kestyll ac yr Ileoed kadarn y ffoynt ; ar Brytanyeit oc 
eu hoi yn^ eu hymlit, ac o druanaf aerua^ yn eu Had ac yn 
eu dala ac yn eu hyspeilaO. Ac uelly megys y rodynt 
y ran vOyaF onadunt eu dOylaO yn wreigaCl y eu 
5 rOymaC ac y eu karcharu, y geissaC ystynu ychydic y^ 
eu hoedel. A hynny^ o ja6n vraOt^ Du6. Kanys eu 
hendadeu Oynteu kyn no hynny yn andylyedus a 
Cnathoedynt^ y Brytanyeit yn drethaCl udunt; ar 
Brytanyeit yna yn nackau udunt y dreth yd oedynt yn 

lo andylyedus yn y cheissa6 gantunt.^^ 

58. A gOedy caffel o Arthur y vudugolyaeth, ef a 
erchis gCahanu ar neilltu^ kalaned y wyrda ef y 6rth y 
elynaCl galaned ac eu kyOeiryaC o vrenhinaCl defaCt, ac 
eu d6yn yr^ manachlogoed a vei yn eu gClat yn ansodedic, 

15 ac yno eu cladu yn enrydedus. Ac yna y ducpCyt corff 
Bedwyr hyt y dinas ehun yn Normandi gan diruaCr 
gOynuan y^ gan y Normanyeit. Ac yno y myCn mynCent 
ar deheu y dinas y clad6yt yn enrydedus gyr^ IlaO y mur. 
Kei a ducpCyt yn urathedic hyt yg Kam, y kastett^ a 

20 6nathoed® ehun. Ac yno ny bu bell gOedy hynny yny 
vu^ uarC Kei^ or brath h6nn6. Ac yn y fforest a oed yn 
agos yno y my6n manachlaCc ermitwyr or enryded a 
dylyei iarll yr AngiC y cladCyt. Hodlyn ty6yssa6c a 
ducpOyt hyt y^ dinas ehun, yr hCn a el6ir y Tyruan, ac 

25 yno y cladCyt. Y gOyrda ereill a erchis Arthur eu dCyn 
yr manachlogoed nessaf udunt ar hyt y g61atoed.^° Ac 
yna^^ yd erchis ef y 6yr y wlat honno cladu y elynyon,^^ 
ac anuon corff Les amheraCdyr hyt yn sened Rufein. Ac 
erchi menegi udunt na dylyynt hCy^^^^ teyrnget o ynys 

30 Prydein amgen no h6nn6. Ac yno y bu Arthur y gayaf 

(Gh. 57). 3 oc eu holl ynni yn, 4 agheu, 5 vvyaff, 6 om., 7 ac ueHy, 
8 varn, 9 wnaethoedynt, 10 yn y cheissav yn andylyedus y ganthunt 

(Ch. 58), 1 gvahanu a neilltua, 2 yr, 3 owi., 4 ger, 5 hyt— kastell : hyt 
y castell, 6 wnaethoed, 7 yny vu : y bu, 8 om., 9 yn y, 10 gvladoed, 
11 odyna, 12 gelynyon, 13 vy, 14 tremygu y brytanyeit nac erchi add. 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 189 

hOnnO yn goresgyn y dinassoed y MCrgCin.^^ A phan 
yttoed yr haf yn dechreu dyuot, ac Arthur yn ysgynu 
mynyd Mynheeu^^ Crth vynet parth a Rufein, nachaf 
genadeu o ynys Prydein yn menegi y Arthur ry daruot^'' 
y VedraCt y nei, uab y chCaer, goresgyn^^ ynys Prydein a 5 
g6isga6^^ coron y teyrnas am y pen^o ehun^i drCy 
greulonder a brat, a thynu^^ GCenhCyfar vrenhines oe 
rieingadeir a ry gysgu^^ genti, gan lygru kyfreith 
dOywaCl y neithoreu.^^ 

59. A gOedy menegi hynny y Arthur, yn y He peidyaC^ 10 
a oruc ae darpar am vynet y Rufein, ac ymchoelut parth 

ac ynys Prydein, a brenhined yr ynyssed y gyt ac ef. 
A gellCg Howel uab^ Emyr LydaC a llu gantaC y 
tagnefedu ac y hedychu y gCladoed.^ Kanys yr 
yscymunedickaf* vradCr gan VedraCt a anuonassei 15 
Cheldric^ tyOyssaOc y Saeson hyt yn Germania y gynuIIaC 
y Hu mOyaf a gallei yn borth idaO. A rodi udunt a oruc o 
Humyr hyt yn Yscotlont, ac yn achCanec kymeint ac a 
uuassei y^ Hors a Heingyst^ kyn no hynny yg Kent.^ Ac 
Crth hynny y deuth Cheldric ac 6yth cant^ Hog yn IlaCn 20 
o wyr aruaOc gantaC^^ o baganyeit,^^ a gOrhau y Vedra6t 
ac ufudhau megys y vrenhin. Ac neur daroed ida6 
gedymdeithockau ata6 yr Yscottyeit ar Ffichteit, a phaCb 
or a 6ypei ef ida6 gassau y ewythyr,^^ j^y^ p^^ yttoedynt 
oil petwar^^ ugein mil r6g Cristonogyon a phaganyeit. 25 

60. Ac a hynny o nifer gantaO y deuth MedraCt^ hyt yn 
aber Temys, y lie yd oedynt Ilogeu Arthur yn disgynnu. 
A gOedy dechreu ymlad, ef a^ wnaeth aerua diruaCr 

(Ch 58). 15 gvrescyn dinassoed bOrgOyn, 16 mynheu, 17 darvot ? 
18 gverescyn, 19 arwisgaO ? 20 ben, 21 om., 22 thynhu, 23 chysgu, ry om. 
24 neithoryeu 

(Ch. 59), 1 peidaO, 2 ac elTvg hvel m., 3 gvledi, 4 yscymunediccaf. 
5 chledric, 6 om., 7 hengist, 8 ygkeint, 9 can, 10 om., 11 paganyeit, 
12 The word before hyt is (a)rthur ; between pav(b) and this there is a 
hole in the MS,, 13 The initial letters seem to be deu, what follows is 
illegible 

(Ch. 60). 1 om. 



190 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

onadunt yn dyuot yr tir. Kanys yna y dygCydassant 
AraCn uab Kynuarch, brenhin Yscotlont, a G6alchme[i]^ 
uab^ G6yar. Ac yn ol AraCn y deuth Owein vab* Vryen 
yn vrenhin yn Reget, y gCr gCedy hynny a vu clotuaCr 
5 yn HaCer o gynhenneu. Ac or diwed, kyt^ bei drCy 
diruaOr lafur a thrCy eu Had,^ Arthur ae lu a gafas y tir. 
A chan talu yr aerua 6ynt a gymelTassant VedraCt^ ae lu 
ar ffo. A chyn bei mwy eiryf IIu MedraCt no Hu Arthur, 
eissoes kywreinach a doethach yd ymledyntobeunydyaCl 

lOymladeu.^ Ac Crth hynny y bu dir yr anudonaCP gan 
VedraCt gymryt y ffo. Ar nos honno, gCedy ymgynuTIaC 
y wascaredic^^ lu y gyt, yd aeth hyt yg Kaer Wynt. A 
g6edy clybot o WenhCyuar^^ hynny, diobeithaC a oruc, 
a mynet o Gaer EfraCc hyt yg Kaer^^ Lion ar Wysc. 

15 Ac^^ y myCn manachlaCc gOraged a^^ oed yno gOisgaO yr 
abit ymdanei ac adaO cad6 y diCeirdeb yn eu plith o 
hynny allan. Ar abit honno a vu ymdanei hyt agheu. 

61. Ac odyna Arthur a gymerth Hit maCr yndaC am 
golli^ ohonaO y saCl vilioed hynny, a pheri cladu y wyr. 

20 Ar trydyd dyd kyrchu Caer Wynt a oruc ac yn diannot y 
chylchynu. Ac yr hynny ny pheidCys MedraCt ar hynn 
a dechreuassei, namyn, gan annoc y wyr, eu gossot yn 
vydinoed a mynet allan or dinas y ymlad ac Arthur y 
ewythyr. A gOedy dechreu ymlad, aerua vaCr o pob 

25 parth a wnaethant. Ac eissoes mCyaf vu yr aerua o wyr 
MedraGt; ac yn dybryt kymell arnaC ada6 y maes. Ac 
ny hanbCyllCys^ MedraCt yna gohir 6rth gladu y 
ladedigyon, namyn ffo a oruc parth a ChernyC. 

62. Ac 6rth hynny Arthur, yn bryderus ac yn IlidiaCc 

(Ch. 60). 2 aeth ac a add., 3 gOalchmei, 4 mab, 5 only ky is 
legible, 6 a thrOy eu Had om,, 7 medraOt, 8 o beunydyaOl ymladeu : "vvyr 
arthur, kan;^s kyfrOys oedynt o peunydyaOl ymlad, 9 kelwydaOc add., 
10 gOasgaredigyon, 11 vrenhines add., 12 ygkaer, 13 yno add., 14 07ii. 

(Ch. 61). 1 rygolli, 2 handenOys 



THE STORY OF ARTHUR 191 

a achaOs dianc y tOyllCr^ y gantaC, yn y lle^ ae hymlynOys 
hyt y wlat honno hyt ar Ian Kamlan, y He yd oed 
VedraOt yn y aros.^ Ac Orth hynny megys yd oed 
VedraCt gleGaf a gOychraf yn cyrchu, yn y Tie gossot y 
varchogyon yn vydinoed a oruc. Kanys gCell oed 5 
gantaO y lad neu ynteu a orffei, no ffo yn hCy no hynny. 
Kanys yd oed ettwa ganta6 o eiryf trugein mil. Ac o 
hynny y gOnaeth ef whech^ bydin, a whech^ g^yr ^ 
thrugeint a chwe^ chant a chwe^ mil ym pob bydin o wyr 
aruaOc. Ac or rei nyt aed^ yn y chwech^ bydin ef a 10 
wnaeth bydin ida6 ehun, a rodi Hywodron y bop vn or 
rei ereiH oH.^ A dyscu pa6b onadunt ac eu hannoc y 
ymlad a oruc, gan adaO udunt enryded a chyfoeth, os ef 
a orffei. Ac or parth arall Arthur a ossodes y wyr^ 
ynteu drOy naC bydin; a gorchymyn y baCp onadunt^^ IS 
ac annoc Had y lladron tOyllwyr yskymyn,^^ adathoedynt 
o wladoed ereill o dysc y bratCr^^ y geissaC y digyfoethi 
ynteu. *' Ar bobyl a CelGch^^ racko," heb Arthur, '' a^* 
gynuHCyt o wlatoed^^ amryfaelon, ac aghyfyeith ynt a 
Ilesc ag aghyfrCys ar ymlad. Ac ny allant gCrthCynebu 20 
y6ch, kanys kyfrOys yCch ch6i."^^ Acvelly paCb onadunt 
yn annoc y wyr or parth arall. ^^ Ac yn deissyfyt ym- 
gyfaruot a 6naeth y bydinoed yghyt,^^ a dechreu ymlad a 
newidyaC dyrnodeu yn vynych. A chymeint vu yr 
aerua yna o bop parth ac megys yd oed gCynfan^^ y rei 25 
meirO yn kyffroi y rei by6 ar lit ac ymlad, ac megys yd 
oed blin a Hafuryus^^ y yscriuenu nae datkanu. Kanys 
o bop parth y brethynt ac y brethit 6ynteu ; 6ynt a ledynt 
ac Cynteu a ledit. 

63. Ac or diwed gOedy treulaO IlaOer or dyd yn y mod 

(Ch. 62). 1 y mynychet hOnnO add,, 2 ef add., 3 arhos, 4 wliech, 5 Ohe, 
6 whe, 7 aeth, 8 rodi Ilywodraeth y pop bydin oil, 9 lu, 10 ohonunt, 
11 ysgymun, 12 bradOr, 13 welhOchi, 14 ar, 15 wladoed, 16 yOclii, 17 or 
parth arall : o pop parth, 18 ygyt, 19 kOynuan, 20 Ilafurus 



192 THE STORY OF ARTHUR 

hCnnO, Arthur ae vydin a gyrchOys y vydin y gCydat^ 
bot y tOyllOr gan VedraCt yndi,^ ac agori ffyrd udunt ar 
clefydeu,^ ac yn diannot mynet drostunt, a gCneuthur* 
aerua diruaCr^ onadunt. Kanys yn y He y dygOydCys 
5 yryscymunedickaf^ vradOr hCnnO gan VedraCt, a HaCer o 
vilioed y gyt ac ef. Ac eissoes yr hynny ny ffoyssant^ 
y rei ereill, namyn ymgynuITaG y gyt^ or maes oil, ac 
yn herCyd eu gleGder keissaG ymgynhal a gCrthCynebu 
y Arthur. Ac 6rth hynny gCychraf a girattaf^ a 

10 chreulonaf aerua a vu y rydunt yna o bop parth, ac eu 
bydinoed yn syrthaG . Ac yna o bop^° parth y^° VedraCt y 
syrthassant^^ Cheldric^^ac ElafyCs/^ Egberinc^^ brenhin 
or Saeson ; or GCydyl Gilapadric,^^ GillamCri, Gillasel, 
Gillamor.^^ Yr Yscottyeit ar Ffichteit ac 6ynt ac eu 

15 harglOydi oil hayach a las. Ac o bieit^^ Arthur y lias />^V 
Osbrinc brenhin Lychlyn, Echel brenhin Denmarc/^ 
KadCr Lemenic^^ iarll KernyC, KasCallaCn, a IlaCer o 
vililioed^^ y gyt ac Cynteu,^^ rCgy Brytanyeit a chenedloed 
ereill a ducsynt y gyt ac Cynt. Ac ynteu yr arderchaOc 

20 vrenhin Arthur a vrathCyt yn agheuaCl, ac a ducpCyt 
odyna hyt yn ynys Avallach y iachau y?fwelieu. Coron 
y^^ teyrnas o ynys Prydein a gymyn_n6ys ynteu y . 
Gustenin^^ vab KadCr iarll KernyC y gar. D6y vlyned a 
deugeint23 a phump kant gCedy dyfot Crist yg knaCt 

25 dyn oed hynny yna. 

(Ch. 63). 1 gOydyat, 2 yndianc, 3 cledyfeu, 4 tristaf, 5 om., 
6 ysgymunediccaf, 7 foassant, 8 yghyt, 9 girattaff, 10 om., 11 syrthyssant, 
12 chledric, 13 elefyOys, 14 gillapadric, 15 gillamor gillasel gillamOri, 
16 pleit, 17 denmarch, 18 fiymenic, 19 vilyoed, 20 Oynt, 21 om., 
22 gustenhin, 23 deu vgeint 






193 



a CS r^w,- ' -■■•■■■ " P^- 



III. THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH. 

■ -^ r;v ^^-'''"''\ . 

1. Kerdef a orugant Oy y dycf hOnnO educher. Hyny^vyd*^ ryurT' 
kaer uaen^ gymrOt a welasit,^ uOyhaf ar keyryd y byt*. Nachaf 

gOr^ du mOy^ no thryOyr^ y byt hOnn a welant^ yn dyuot or 
gaer. Amkeudant^ OrthaO :. " Pan doy ti,i<^ Or?" " Or gaer a 
welOch chOi yna."^^ " Pieu y gaer?"^^ "Meredic a' wyr 5 
yOchi.^^ Nyt oes yn y byt ny Oyppo pieu y gaer honn. 
Wrnach GaOr pieu."^* "Py iioes yssyd y osp a phellenhi(^ y 
diskynnu yn y gaer honn?" "Ha vnben, DuO ach notho!^^ 
Ny dodyO^^ neb guestei eiroet oheni^^ ae uyO^^ ganthaO.^^ 
Ny edir neb idi namyn a'^dyccOy^^ y gerd."^^ lO 

2. Kyrchu y porth a orugant. AmkaOd^ GOrhyr Gual- 
staO^ leithoet: " A oes porthaOr ? "^ "Oes. A titheu^ ny bo 
teu dy penn,* pyr^ y kyuerchy dy?" " Agor y porth!" 
"Nac agoraf." "POystyr^ nas agory ti?" "Kyllell a edyO 
ym mOyt^ a llynn y mual,^ ac amsathyr yn heuad Vrnach.^ 15 
Namyn y gerdaOr a dyccOy^^ y gerd^nyt agorir."^^ AmkaOd 
Kei :^2 " Y porthaOr, y mae kerd ^enhyf i." "Pa gerd yssyd 
genhyt ti?" "YslipanOr cledyueu goreu yn y byt Oyf ui." 
"Mi a af y dywedut hynny y Vrnach^^ GaOr, ac a dygaf 
atteb yt." 20 

Variants H=Red Book of Hergest, P=Peniarth MS. IV. 
(Ch. 1). 1 yny H, 2 uaOr H, 3 welynt H, 4 vOyhaf or byt H, 5 Or 




19 gantaO H, 20 dycko H, 21 gantaO add. H, 



(Ch. 2). 1 heb y H, 2 borthaOr H, 3 thitheu H, 4 dy dauaOt yth benn 
H, 5 py rac H, 6 Py ystvr H, 7 bOyt H, 8 ym bual H, 9 Ornach gaOr H, 
10 dycko H, 11 yma heno bellach add. H, 12 Heb y kei yna H. 
13 Ornach H . J J . 



194 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

. ~ ■ I- 

3. Dyuot a oruc y porthaOr y myOn. DywaOt^ Wrnach 

GaOr:2 "Whedleu^ porth genhyt?"* "Vssydynt genhyf. 
Kyweithyd yssyd yn drOs y porth, ac^ a uynnynt dytiot y 
myOn." "A ouynneist ti^aoed^gerd*ganthunt?"^ "Gouynneis.^ 
5 Ac vn onadunt a dywaOt gallel^ yslipanu cledyiieu."^^ "Oecr^ 
reit y mi^^ Orth hOnnO. Ys guers yd Oyf yn keissaO a olchei 
vyfg cledyf ; nys rygeueis.^^ Gat hOnnO y myOn, cans oecP* 
gerd ganthaO." , ; . 

4. Dyuot^ y porthaOr ac agori y porth. A dyuot Kei y 
10 myOn ehun. A chyiiarch guell a oruc ef y Wrnach GaOr. 

Kadeir a dodet y danaO.^ DywaOt^ Wrnach^ : " Ha Or, ae 
gOir a dywedir arnat galleP yslipanu cledyiieu ? " " Mi ae 
digonaf."^ DydOyn'' y cledyf attaO^ a orucpOyt.^ Kymryt 
agalen gleis a oruc Kei y dan y geSeil. " POy well genhyt 

15 arnaO,^^ ae guynseit ae grOmseit?" "Yr hOnn a uo da 
genhyt ti, malpei teu uei, gOna arnaO." Glanhau a oruc 
hanher y lleill gyllell idaO, ae rodi yn y laO a oruc. "A 
reinc dy uod di hynny.?" "Oed well genhyf noc yssyd ym 
gOla^, bei oil ft uei^^ val hynn. Dyhed_a beth bo? gOr kystal^t^ ^^f 

20 a thi heb gedymdeith." " Oia Orda, mae^^ imi gedymdeith \ "^ 
kyny dygo[n]ho^^ y gerd'^ honn." " Pwy yO hOnnO ? " " Aet 
y porthaOr allan, a mi a dywedaf ar arOydon idaO.^* Penn y 
wayO a daO y ar y baladyr. Ac yssef a dygyrch y guaet y ar 
y guynt ac a diskyn ar y baladyr." ^^ Agori y porth a 

25 wnaethpOyt, a dyuot Bedwyr y myOn. DywaOt^^ Kei : 
" BudugaOl yO Bedwyr, kyn ny digonho^^ y gerd hon." 



(Ch. 3). 1 ac y dy^vaOt H, 2 OrthaO H, 3 chwedleu H, 4 y gennyt H, 
in P, y has been added over the line, 5 om. H, 6 ouynneist di H, 
7 gantunt hOy H, 8 heb ef add. H, 9 gOybot H, 10 ohonaO yn da add, H, 
11 as oed H, 12 ynni H, iS ac nys keueis H, 14 kan oes H 

(Ch. 4). 1 a oruc H, 2 geyr bron gOrnach add. H, 3 ac y dywaOt H, 
4 OrthaO add. H, 5 arnat ti y gOdost H, 6 Mi a Onn hynn yn da heb y kei H, 
7 DOyn H, 8 Ornach H, 9 wnaethpOyt attaO H, 10 a gouyn or deu pOyoed 
oreu gantaO H, 11 pei bei oil ual H, 12 y mae ymi H, 13 dycko H, 
14 idaO y arwydon H> 15 eilweith add. H, 16 ac y dywaOt H, 17 wypo H 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 195 

5. A^ dadleu maOr a uu ar y gOyr hynny allan. Dyuot^ 
Kei a Bedwyr y myOn. A guas ieuanc a doeth gyt^ ac Oynt 

y myOn, vn mab Custennhin heussaOr. Sef a Onaeth efae ' "^^^ 
gedymdeithon a glyn^ OrthaO mal nat oed^VOy no dim 
ganthunt^ mynet^ dros y teir c^tlys a wnaethant"^ hyt pan 5 
dytiuant^ y myOn y gaer. Amkeudant^ y gedymdeithon 
Orth vab Custenhin : " Goreu dyn yO."^^ O^^ hynny allan y 
gelwit Goreu mab Custenhin. Guascaru a orugant Oy y eu 
llettyeu, mal y kefifynt Had eu llettywyr heb Oybdt yr caOr. 

6. Y cledyf a dateu y Orteith. Ae rodi a oruc Kei yn llaO 10 
Wrnach KaOr,^ y malphei y edrych a ranghei y uod idaO y . 
weith.2 DywaOt^ y kaOr: "Da yO y gueith. a ranc bod y(> 
genhyf." AmkaOd^ Kei : " Dy wein^ a lygrOys dy gledyf. ^v^v 

'*^' Dyro di imi y diotiy tellellprenneu^ oheni/ a chaffOyf inheu - '^ 
gOneuthur rei newyd^ idaO." A chymryt y wein ohonaO, ar 15 
cledyF yn y llaO arall. Dyuot^^ ohonaO vch pen y kaOr, r '^ 
malphei^^ y cledyf a dottei yn y wein. Y ossot a oruc ym 
phen^^ y kaOr, a Had y penn y ergyt y arnaO. DiffeithaO 

^ ,-^y gaer, a dOyn a vynnassaht o tlysseu.^^ Yg kyuenO yr vn ,7 - 

^(?w^'-"dyd ym phen^* y vlOydyn y deuthant^^ y lys Arthur, a 20 
chledyf Wrnach GaOr gantunt. 

y. Dywedut a Onaethant y Arthur y ual y daruu udunt 
Arthur a dywaOt : " Pa beth yssyd iaOnaf y geissaO gyntaf 
or annoetheu hynny?" " IaOnaf yO," heb Oynteu, "keissaO 
Mabon uab Modron. Ac nyi kaffel arnaO nes kaffel Eidoel 25 ' 
uab Aer y gar yn gyntaf" Kyuodi a oruc Arthur a ^t. 
milwyr ynys Prydein gantaO y geissaO Eidoel. A dyuot a 

^^■\r^- orugant hyt ynjac Kaer Glini, yn y He yd oed Eidoel yg 

(Cb. 5). 1 om. H, 2 gan y gOyr a oed aHan am dyuot Bedwyr a Chei H, 
3 A dyuot gOas ieuanc oed H, 4 yg glyn H, 5 mal — ganthunt om. H, 
6 dyuot H, 7 a wnaethaiit om. H, 8 yttoed H, 9 Y dywedassant H, 
■" ■ ' ' H, 11 



10 ti a orugost hynn goreu dyn Oyt Ef, 1 1 Ac o H 

(Ch. 6). 1 gaOr H, 2 gOeith H, 3 ac y dywaOt H, 4 Y dywaOt H, 
5 wein di H, 6 kylXelTbrermeu H, 7 ohonei H, 8 ac y wneuthur ereill 
o newyd H, 9 chedyf P, 10 a dyuot H, 11 mal pei H, 12 ynteu ym pennH, 
13 or da ar tlysseu H, 14 penn H, 15 P ends 



196 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

^♦•^ 

karchar. Seuyll a oruc/ Glini ar vann y gaer ; ac y 
dywaOt : " Arthur, py holy di y mi, pryt nam gedy yn y 
tsurren" honn, nyt da im yndi, ac nyt digrif, nyt gOeriitli, nyt 
keircfi im, kyn ny chfeissych ditheu wneuthur canTim? 

5 Arthur a dywaOt : " Nyt yr dr6c itti y deuthum i yma, 
namyn y geissaO y karcharaOr yssyd gennyt." " Mi a rodaf 
y carcharaOr itti, ac ny darparysswn y "rodi y neb. Ac y 
gyt a hynny **v%^ nerth anT porth a geffy di." Y gOyr a 
dywaOt Orth Arthur : " ArglOyd, dos di adref. Ny elly 

10 di uynet ath lu y geissaO peth mor uari ar rei hynn." 

Arthur a dywaOt: "GOrhyr GOalstaOt leithoed, itti y mae iaOn 

my net yr neges honn. Yr holl ieithoed yssyd gennyt, a 

^' chyfyeith Oyt ar rei or ac^ar ar anniueileit. Eidoel, itti y mae 

iaOn mynet y geissaO dy geuynderO yO gyt am gOyr i. Kei 

15a Bedwyr, goBeith yO gennyf y neges yd eloch ymdanei y^ 
chaffel. EOdH im yr neges honn." ^ H^J^.:^ ^"^L'l^ '^ 

8. Kerdef a orugant racdunt hyt att vOyalch GilgOri. :■,<:. 
Gouyn a oruc GOrhyr idi : " Yr DuO, a'lOdost ti dim y Orth ^ - 
Uabon uab Modron, a ducpOyt yn teirnossic ody rOng y vam 

20 ar parer?" Y uOyalch a dywaOt: "Pan deuthum i yma j 
gyntaf, eingon'ggf a oed yma, a minneu ederyn ieuanc ^'^'^*^ 
oedOn. Ny wnaethpOyt gOeith arnei, namyn tra uu \y^ 

'^ geluin arnei bob ucher. HediO nyt oes kymmeint kneuen 

ohonei heb dr^laO. Dial DuO arnaf, o chigleu i dim y Orth ^K4 ^, , 

25 y gOr a ovynnOch chOi. Peth yssyd iaOn hagen adylyet y * 
mi y wneuthur y gennadeu Arthur, mi ae gOnaf. Kenedlaeth 
vileit yssyd gynt rithOys DuO no mi ; mi a af yn gyuarwyd 
ragoch yno." 

9. Dyuot a orugant hyt yn He yd oed*^ karO Redynure. 
30 " KarO Redynure, yma y doetham ni attat kennadeu Arthur, 

kany Odam aniueil hyn no thi. Dywet, a wdost di dim y 
Orth Uabon uab Modron, a ducpOyt yn deirnossic y Orth j^ 
uam?" Y karO a dywaOt : " Pan deuthum i yma gyntaf, nyf 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 197 

J . A ^ 1 

oeg namyn vn reit o bop tu ym penn. Ac nyt oed yma 
goer namyn un o gollen derwen. Ac y tyfwys honno yn dar 
can keing. Ac y dygOydOys y dar gOedy hynny. A hediO 
nyt oes namyn Oystyn coch ohonei. Yr hynny hyt hediO 
yd Oyf i yma ; ny chigleu i dim or neb a ouynnOch chOi. 5 - 
Miui hagen a uydaf gyfarOyd yOch, kanys kennadeu Arthur 
yOch, hyt He y mae aniueil gynt a rithOys DuO no mi." 

10. Dyuot a orugant hyt lie yd oed cuan Cum KaOlOyt. 
" Cuan COm CaOIOyt, yma y mae kennadeu Arthur. A Odost 

di dim y Orth Vabon vab Modron a ducpOyt?" et cetera. 10 
" Pei as gOypOn, mi ae dy wedOn. Pan deuthum i yma gyntaf, y 
cOm maOr a welOch glynn coet oed. Ac y deuth kenedlaeth 
o dynyon idaO, ac y diiiaOyt. Ac y tyuOys yr eil coet yndaO. 
Ar trydyd coet yO hOnn. A minneu neut ydynt yn gynyon 
boneu vy esgyll. Yr hynny hyt hediO ny chiglef i dim or 15 
gOra ouynnOch chOi. Mi hagen a uydafgyuarwydy genadeu 
Arthur, yny deloch hyt lie y mae yr anniueil hynaf yssyd yn 
y byt hOnn, a mOyaf a dreigyl, eryr GOern AbOy. 

11. GOrhyr a dywaOt : " Eryr Gwern AbOy, ni a doetham 
gennadeu Arthur attat y ouyn itt a Odost dim y Orth Vabon 20 
uab Modron a due " et cetera. Yr eryr a dywaOt : " Mi a 
deuthum yma yr ys pell o amser. A phann deuthum yma 
gyntaf, maen a oed ym, ac y ar y benn ef y pigOn y syr bob 
ucher ; weithon nyt oes dyrnffed yn y uchet. Yr hynny hyt 
hediO yd Oyf i yma. Ac ny chiglef i dim y Orth y gOr a 25 
ouynnOch chOi, onyt un treigyl yd euthum y geissaO uym ; "^f 
bOyt hyt yn Lynn ILyO. A phann deuthurn i yno, y Iledeis 

uyg cryuangheu y myOn ehaOS o debygu bot vym bOyt^ yndaO 
wers vaOr. Ac y tynnOys ynteu ui hyt yr affOys, hyf pann 
uu abreid im ymdianc y gantaO. Sef a Oneuthum inheu, mi 30 
am holl garant, mynet yg gOrys OrthaO y geissaO y diuetha. 
Kennadeu a yrrOys ynteu y gymot a mi. A dyuo't a oruc 
ynteu attaf i y diot dec tryuer a deugeint oe §euyn. Onyt 



198 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

ef a wyr peth or hynn a geissOch chOi^ ny Onn i neb ae gOypo. 
Mi hagen a uydaf gyuarOyd yOch hyt lie y mae." ,. 

1 2. Dyuot a orugant hyt lie yr oed. Dywedur a oruc yr 
eryr : " EhaOc Lyn Ly6 , mi a deuthum attat gan gennadeu 

5 Arthur y ouyn a Odost dim y,„!^rth Vabon uab Modron, a 
ducpOyt yn teirnossic y Orth y uam." ^' Y gymeint a wypOyf 
i, mi ae dywedaf. Gan, bob IlanO yd af i ar hyt yr auon 
uchot, hyt pan delOyf hyt y mach mur Kaer LoyO. Ac yno 
y keueis i ny cheueis eirmoet o drOc y gymeint. Ac mal y 

10 crettoch, doet un ar uyn dOy ysgOyd i yma ohonaOch." Ac 
ysef yd aeth ar dOy ysgOyd yr ehaOc. Kei a GOrhyr GOalstaOt 
leithoed. Ac y kerdassant hyt pann deuthant am y uagOyr 
ar karcharaOr. Yny uyd kOynuan a griduan a glywynt am 
y uagOyr ac Oy. GOrhyr a dywaOt : " Pa dyn a gOyn yn y 

15 maendy hOnn?" "Oia Or, yssit le idaO y gOynaO y neb 
yssyd yma. Mabon uab Modron yssyd yma yg carchar ; 
ac ny charcharOyt neb kyndostet yn IlOrO carchar a mi, na 
charchar Lud LaO Ereint neu garchar Greit mab Eri." " Oes 
obeith gennyt ti ar gaffel dy ellOng ae yr eur ae yr aryant ae 

20 yr golut pressennaOl. ae yr catwent ac ymlad ?" " Y gymeint 
ohonof i a gaffer a geffir drOy ymlad." Ymchoelut ohonunt 
Oy odyno, a dyuot hy! lie yd oed Arthur. Dywedut 
ohonunt y lie yd oed Mabon uab Modron yg karchar. 
GOyssyaO a oruc Arthur milwyr yr ynys honn, a mynet hyt 

25 yg Kaer LoyO, y lie yd oed Mabon yg karchar. Mynet a 
oruc Kei a Bedwyr ar dOy yscOyd y pysc. Tra yttoed vilwyr 
Arthur yn ymlad ar gaer, rOygaO o Gei y uagOyr a chymryt 
y carcharaOr ar y geuyn. Ac ymlad ar gOyr ual kynt ar 
gOyr. Atref y doeth Arthur a Mabon gantaO yn ryd. 

30 13. Dywedut a oruc Arthur: "Beth iaOnhaf weithon y 
geissaO yn gyntaf or annoetheu ?" " IaOnhaf yO keissaO deu 
geneu gast Rymhi." "A),wys," heb yr Arthur, "pa du y 
mae hi?" "Y mae," heb yr un, "yn Aber Deugledyf." 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 199 

Dyuot a oruc Arthur hyt yn ty Tringalt' yn Aber Cledyf. 
A gouyn a oruc OrthaO : " A glyweist ti y Orthi hi yma ? Py 
rith y mae hi?" "Yn rith bleidast," heb ynteu, "ae deu 
geneu genthi yd ymda. Hi a ladaOd vy ysgrybul yn vynych. 
Ac y mae hi issot yn Aber Cledyf y myOn gogof." Sef a 5 
oruc Arthur gy rru ym Pry f wen n y long ar uor ac ereill ar y 
tir y hela yr ast ; ae chylchynu uelly hi ae deu geneu. Ac 
eu datrithaO o DuO y Arthur yn eu rith ehunein. GOascaru 
a oruc Ilu Arthur bob un bob deu. 

14. Ac ual yd oed GOythyr mab GreidaOl dydgOeith yn lo 
kerdet dros vynyd, y clywei leuein a griaua[n] girat; a 
garscon oed eu clybot Achub a oruc ynteu parth ac yno. 
Ac mal y deuth yno, dispeilaO cledyf a wnaeth, a Had y 
tOynpath Orth y dayar, ac ev diffryt uelly rac y tan. Ac y 
dywedassant Oynteu OrthaO : " DOc uendyth DuO ar einym 1 5 
gennyt. Ar hynn ny alio dyn vyth y waret, ni a doOn y 
waret itt." HOyntOy wedy hynny a doethant ar naO hestaOr 
ninat, a nodes Yspadaden PennkaOr ar CulhOch, yn 
uessuredic oil heb dim yn eisseu ohonunt eithyr un 
ninhedyn ; ar morgrugyn cloff a doeth a hOnnO kynn y nos. 20 

15. Pan yttoed Gei a Bedwyr yn eisted ar benn 
Pumlumon ar Garn GOylathyr ar wynt mOyaf yn y byt, 
edrych a Onaethant yn eu kylch. Ac Oynt a Oelynt vOg ^'' 
maOr parth ar deheu ym pell y Orthunt heb drossi dim gan y 
gOynt. Ac yna y dywaOt Kei : " Myn llaO vyng kyueillt, 25 
sytl dy racco tan ryssOr." BryssyaO a orugant parth ar mOc, 

a dynessau parth ac yno dan ymardisgOyl o bell. Yny liyd 
Dillus UaruaOc yn deiuaO baed coefc Llyna hagen y 
ryssOr mOyaf a ochelaOd Arthur eiryoet. Heb y Bedwyr 
yna Orth Gei: "Ae hatwaenost di ef?" '* Atwen," heb y 30 
Kei ; " llyna Dillus UarruaOc. Nyt oes yn y byt kynllyuan 
a dalyo Drutwyn keneu Greit uab Eri, namyn kynllyuan o 
uaryf y gOr a wely di racko ; ac ny mOynhaa heuyt, onyt yn 



200 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

vyO y tynnir a chyllenprenneu oe uaraf, kanys breu uyd yn 
uarO." " Mae an kyWgndr ninneu Orth hynny ? " heb y j ^ 
Bedwyr. " GadOn ef," heb y Kei, "y yssu y wla or kic ; c^ 
a gOedy hynny kyscu a Ona." Tra yttoed ef yn hynny, 
5 y buant Oynteu yn gOneuthur kyllenbrenneu. Pan Oybu Gei 
ct.' ■ ' y^ diheu y uot ef yn kyscu, gOneuthur pOfi a oruc dan y ; 

draet mOyhaf yn y byt A tharaO dyrnaOt arnaO anueitraOl \a>^'^'~*^ 
y ueint a oruc, ae ^wascu yn y pOIl, hyt^pan daroed 
,,.. udunt y-gnithiaO yn IlOyr ar kyllellbrenneu y uaryf ; a gOedy v-(^-^^>f- 
* '^j ID hynny y lad yn gObyl.^ Ac odyna yd aethant ell deu hy'l yg ^"^^-''^r 
f^fff Kelli Wic y^ KernyO, a cHynllyuann o uaryf Dillus UaruaOc 
gantunt. Ae rodi a oruc Kei yn_naO Arthur. Ac yna y 
kanei Arthur yr eglyn hOnn : 

" Kynnllyuan a oruc Kei 

15 o uaryf Dillus 1u~ab Eurei ; 

pei iach, dy angheu uydei." >, 

v/i-««*-f^ ^' ^^ ^^■'•*^-'^^ 

Ac am hynny y sorres Xei, hyt pan uu abreid y uilwyr yr 

Iff vw^ ynys honn tangneiiedu y rOng Kei ac Arthur. Ac eissoes 

\^^^' nac yr anghyfnerth ar Arthur nac yr llad y wyr nyt 

^,r^ 20 ymyrrOys Kei yn reitfgyt ac ef o hynny allan. 

'^'^" 16. Ac yna y dywaOt Arthur : " Beth iaOnaf weithon y 

geissaO or annoetheu ?" " IaOnaf yO keissaO Drutwyn keneu 
Greit uab Eri." Kyn no hynny ychydic yd aeth Creidylat ^ 

^- % uerch Lud' LaO Ereint gan Wythyr mab GreidaOl. A chynn 

'^ - 25 kyscu genthi dyuot GOynn uab Nud' ae dOyn y treis. 

*'^' KynnuIlaO Ilu o Wythyr uab GreidaOl a dyuot y ymlad a 

GOynn mab Nud. A goruot o Wyn, a dala Greit mab Eri a 
Glinneu eil Taran a GOrgOst LetlOm a Dyfnarth y uab ; a 
dala o Penn uab NethaOc a NOython a Chyledyr Wyllt y 
30 uab. A llad NOython a oruc, a diot y gallon, a chymhell ar 
Kyledyr yssu callon y dat ; ac am hynny yd aeth Kyledyr 
yg gOyllt. Clybot o Arthur hynny, a dyuot hyt y Gogled. 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 201 

A dyuynnv a oruc ef GOynn uab Nucf attaO, a getlOng y 

wyrda y gantaO oe garchar, a gOneuthur tangneued y rOng 

GOynn mab Nud a GOythyr mab GreidaOl. Sef tangneued d 

a wnaethpOyt, gadu y uorOyn yn ty y that yn diuOyn or dOy 

barth ; ac ymlad bob duO kalan Mei uyth hyt dyd braOt or 5 

dyd hOnnO allan y rOng GOynn a GOythyr ; ar un a orjfo 

onadunt dyd' braOt, kymere! y uorOyn. A gOedy kymot y 

gOyrda hynny uelly, y kauas Arthur MygdOn march GOedO a /"*"* J^X^^ 

chynntlyuan COrs Cant Ewin. ^,^ |. ^ 

17. GOedy hynny yd aeth Arthur hyt yn LydaO, a 10 
Mabon uab Mellt gantaO a GOare GOallt Euryn, y geissaO 
deu gi Glythmyr L[ed]ewic. A gOedy eu kafifel yd aeth 
Arthur hyit -yg ^orllewTh Iwerdon y geissaO GOrgi Seueri, ac 
Odgar uab Aed' brenhin Iwerdon gyt ac ef. Ac odyna yd » 
aeth Arthur yr Gogled, ac y deHs Kyledyr Wytlt. Ac yd iS'""^*^^/,f 
aeth Yskithyrwynn Pennbeid ; ac yd aeth Mabon mab Mellt, 

a deu gi Glythuyr Ledewic yn y laO a Drinwyn geneu Greit 

mab Eri. Ac yd aeth Arthur ehun yr erhyl, a Chauall ki 

Arthur yn y laO. Ac yd esgynnOys KaO o Brydein ar 

Lamrei kass^" Arthur, ac achub yr kyfuarfei. Ac yna 20 ^l^'£jL 

y kymerth KaO o Brydein nerth bOyellic, ac yn wychyr 

trebelit y doeth ef yr baed, ac y holldes y benn 

yn deu hanner. A chymryt a oruc KaO yr ysgithyr. Nyt 

y kOn a nottayssei - Yspaden ar GOlhOch a ladaOd y baed, 

namyn Kauall ki Arthur ehun. 25 

18. A gOedy Ilad Ysgithyrwyn Bennbeid, yd aeth Arthurae 
niuer hyt yng Kelli Wic yng KernyO. Ac odyno y gyrrOys 
MenO mab TeirgOaed y edrych 9. uei y tlysseu y rOng 
deu glust TOrch TrOyth, rac salwen oed uynet y ymdaraO ' 
ac ef, ony^ bei y tlysseu gantaO. DiheuHagen oed y uot ef 30 
yno ; neur daroed idaO diffeithaO traean Iwerdon. Mynet a 
oruc MenO y ymgeis ac Oj^nt. Sef y gOelas Oynt yn Esgeir 
Oeruel yn Iwerdon. Ac yrnrTthaO a oruc MenO yn rith 

1. MS. ac ony, corr. Loth. 



Liu i ^^'^ 
202 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

ederyn ; a disgynnu a Onaeth uch penn y gOal, a cheissaO 
ysglyffyaO Sti or tlysseu y gantaO ; ac yS-chauas dim hagen ^^ . 
namyn un oe wrych. Kyuodi a oruc ynteu yn wychyr da ^^^-^ 

«*■ ' ac ymysgytyaO, hyt pan ymordiwedaOd peth or gOenOyn ac 
5 ef ; odyna ny bu dianaf MenO uyth. ^''— '4^^-'^- ^v'^ 

19. Gyrru o Arthur gennat gOedy hynny ar Odgar uab 
Aed, brenhin Iwerdon, y erchi peir DiOrnach Wydel, maer 
idaO. Erchi o Otgar idaO y rodi. Y dywaOt DiOrnach : 
" DuO a wyr, pei hanffei well o welet un olOc arnaO, nas 

10 kaffei." A dyuot o gennat Arthur a nac genthi o iwerdon. 
KychOynnu a oruc Arthur ac ysgaOn niuer ganthaO, a mynet 
ym Prytwen y long, a dyuot y Ywerdon ; a dygyrchu ty 
DiOrnach Wydel a orugant. GOelsant niuer Otgar eu meint. 
A gOedy bOyta onadunt ac yuet eu dogyn, erchi y peir a 

1 5 oruc Arthur. Y dy waOt ynteu, pei as rodei y neb, y rodei 
Orth eir Odgar brenhin Iwerdon. GOedy lleuerytl nac lidunt, 
kyuodi a oruc Bedwyr ac ymauael "yn y peir, ae dodi ar 
geilyn HygOyd gOas Arthur ; braOt oed hOnnO unuam y 
GachamOri gOas Arthur. Sef oed y sOyd ef yn wastat 

20 ymdOyn peir Arthur a dodi tan y danaO. Meglyt o 



u^ 



J". 



:ur,vv 



LenlleaOc Wydel yg KaletvOlch, ae ellOrig ar y rot, a Had i ^-^ 

DiOrnach Wydel ae niuer ach[l]an. Dyuot Iluoed Iwerdon 

ac ymlad ac Oy. A gOedy ffo y Iluoed achlan, mynet Arthur 

^fi^T''" ae wyr yn eu gOyd yn y Hong, ar peir yn IlaOn o sOHt 

25 lOerdon gantunt ; a diskynnu yn ty LOydeu mab Kelcoet 
ym Forth Kerdin yn Dyuet. Ac yno y mae messur y peir. 
20. Ac yna y kynnuIlOys Arthur a oed o gynifyOr yn 
teir ynys Prydein ae their racynys, ac a oed yn Freinc ^ 
a LlydaO a Normandi a GOlat yr Haf,ac a oedo gicOr dethol V'-'^ 

30 a march clotuaOr. Ac yd aeth ar niueroed hynny oil hyt yn 
lOerdon. Ac y bu ouyn maOr ac ergryn racdaO yn Iwerdon. 
A gOedy disgynnu Arthur yr tir, dyuot seint Iwerdon attaO 
y erchi naOd idaO. Ac y rodes ynteu naOd udunt hOy, ac y 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 203 

rodassant Oynteu eu bendyth idaO ef. Dyuot a Oruc gOyr 
Iwerdon hyt att Arthur a rodi bOyttal idaO. Dyuot a oruc 
Arthur hyt yn Esgeir Oeruel yn lOerdon, yn y He yd oed 
TOrch TrOyth ae seithlydyri' moch gantaO. GellOng kOn 
arnaO o bop parth. Y dyd hOnnO educher yd ymladaOd y 5 
GOydyl ac ef ; yr hynny pymhet 'ran Iwerdon^ a Onaeth yn 
dififeith. A thrannoeth yd ymladaOd teulu'-^Arthur ac ef; 
namyn a gaOssant o drOc y gantaO, ny chaOssant dim o da. 
Y trydyd dyd yd ymladaOd Arthur ehun ac ef naO nos a 
naO nieu ; ny ladaOd namyn un parchell &e uoch. GouynnOys 10 
y gOyr y Arthur peth oed ystyr yr hOch hOnnO. Y dywaOt 
ynteu : "Brenhin uu, ac am y bechaOt y rithOys DuO ef yn hOch." i 

21. Gyrru a Onaeth Arthur GOrhyr GOalstaOt leithoed y 
geissaO ymadraOd ac ef. Mynet a oruc GOrhyr yn rith 
ederyn, a disgynnv a Onaeth vch benn y wal ef ae seithlydyn 1 5 
moch. A gouyn a oruc GOrhyr GOalstaOt leithoed idaO : " Yr y - ^ 
gOr ath wnaeth ar y delO honn, or gellOch dywedut, y harchaf 
dyuot un ohonaOch y ymdidan ac Arthur." GOrtheb a Onaeth 
Grugyn GOrych Ereint (mal adaned aryant oed y wrych oil ; 
y fford y kerdei ar goet ac ar uaes y gOelit, ual y Hithrei y 20 
wrych). Sef atteb a rodes Grugyn : " Myn y gOr an gOnaeth 
ni ar y delO honn, ny wnaOn, ac ny dywedOn dim yr Arthur. 
Oed digaOn o drOc a Onathoed DuO ynni, an gOneuthur ar y ''^•^ 
delO hon, kyny deleOch chOitheu y ymlad a ni." "Mi a 
dywedaf yOch yd ymlad Arthur am y grib ar etlyn ar 25 
gOelleu yssyd rOng deu glust TOrch TrOyth." Heb y 
Grugyn : " Hyt pann gaffer y eneit ef yn gyntaf, ny cheffir 
y tlysseu hynny. Ar bore auory y kychOynnOn ni odyma ; 
ac yd aOn y wlat Arthur, ar meint mOyhaf a allom ni o drOc 
a OnaOn yno." KychOyn a orugant hOy ar y mor parth a 30 
Chymry. Ac yd aeth Arthur ae luoed ae ueirch ae gOn ym 
Prytwen, a tharaO lygat ymwelet ac Oynt. Disgynnu a Onaeth 

1. MS. y iwerdon. 



204 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

TOrch TrOyth ym Forth Cleis yn Dyuet. Dyuot a oruc 
Arthur hyt ym MynyO y nos honno. Trannoeth dywedut 
y Arthur eu mynet heibaO. Ac ymordiwes a oruc ac ef yn 
llad gOarthec Kynnwas KOrr y Uagyl. A gOedy Had a oed yn 

5 Deugledyf o dyn a mil kynn dyuot Arthur, qt pan deuth 
Arthur, y kychOynnOys TOrch TrOyth odyno hyt ym Presseleu. 
Dyuot Arthur a Iluoed y byt hyt yno. Gyrru a oruc 
Arthur y wyr yr erhyl, Ely a Thrachmyr, a Drutwyn keneu 
Greit mab Eri yn y laO ehun ; a GOarthegyt uab KaO yghongyl 

lo arall, a deu gi Glythmyr Letewic yn y laO ynteu ; a Bed wyr 
a Chauall ki Arthur yn y laO ynteu. A restru a oruc y 
milwyr oil o deu tu Nyuer. Dyuot tri meib Cledyf DivOlch, 
gOyr a gauas clot maOr yn Ilad Ysgithyrwyn Pennbeid. Ac 
yna y kychOynnOys ynteu o Lynn Nyuer, ac y doeth y 

1 5 GOm KerOyn, ac y rodes kyuarth yno. Ac yna y HadaOd ef 
bedwar ryssOr y Arthur, GOarthegyd mab KaO, a TharaOc 
Ant ClOyt, a ReidOn uab Eli Atuer, ac Iscouan Hael. 
A gOedy Ilad y gOyr hynny, y rodes yr eil kyuarth udunt 
yn y lie, ac y ItadaOd GOydre uab Arthur, a Garselit Wydel, 

20 a GleO uab YscaOt, ac IscaOyn uab Panon ; ae doluryaO 
ynteu yna a OnaethpOyt. 

22. Ar bore ym bronn y dyd drannoeth yd ymordiwedaOd 
rei or gOyr ac ef. Ac yna y IladaOd HuandaO a GogigOr a 
Phenn Pingon, tri gOeis GleOlOyt GauaeluaOr, hyt nas gOydyat 

25 DuO was yn y byt ar y helO ynteu, eithyr Laesgenym 
ehunan, gOr ny hanoed wen neb ohonaO. Ac y gyt a hynny 
y IladaOd IlaOer o wyr y Olat, a GOlydyn saer, pensaer y 
Arthur. Ac yna yd ymordiwedaOd Arthur ym PelumyaOc ac 
ef. Ac yna y IladaOd ynteu MadaOc mab Teithyon, a GOyn 

30 mab Tringat mab Neuet, ac EiryaOn Pennlloran. Ac odyna 
yd aeth ef hyt yn Aber TyOi. Ac yno y rodes kyuarth 
udunt. Ac yna y IladaOd ef Kynlas mab Kynan, a 
GOilenhin bre[nh]in Freinc. Odyna yd aeth hyt yg 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 205 

Glynn Ystu. Ac yna yd ymgollassant y gOyr ar cOn ac ef. ^*" ''' 
Dyuynnu a oruc Arthur GOyn uab Nud attaO, a gouyn idaO a 
Oydyatef dim y OrffiTOrchTrOyth. YdywaOtynteunasgOydyat. 
23. Y hela y moch yd aeth y kynnydyon yna oil hyt yn 
Dyffryn Lych6r. Ac y digribyOys Grugyn GOallt Ereint 5 
udunt a L6yda6c Gouynnyat ; ac y nadass[ant] y 
kynnydyon, hyt na diengis dyn yn vyO onadunt namyn un 
gOr. Sef a oruc Arthur dyuot ae luoed hyt lie yd oed 
Grugyn a LCydaCc, a gellOng yna arnadunt a oed o gi 
rynodydoed yn IlOyr. Ac Orth yr ao? a dodet yna ar kyuarth, 10 
y doeth TOrch TrOyth ac y diffyrtli Oynt. Ac yr pan 
dathoedynt dros uor Iwerdon, nyt ymweTserac Oynt hyt 

V^'l-^-.Z^U^-f. ■ Vt^ <v^..*jA,* Ik's-,,. \ 

yna. DygOj^daO a OnaethpOyt yna a gOyr a chOn arnaO. 
Ymfodi y gerdel' bhoiiaO "^riteu hyt ym Mynyd AmanO. 
Ac yna y lias banO 6e So^h ef. Ac yna yd aethpOyt eneit 15 ^ 



/v^ 



dros eneit ac ef. Ac y IladOyt yna TOrch LlaOin. Ac (^/»^ 
yna y lias arall oe voch ; GOys oed y enO. Ac odyna 
yd aeth hyt yn Dyffrynn AmanO. Ac yno . y lias banO 
a bennwic. Nyt aeth odyno gantaO oe uoch yn vyO 
namyn Grugyn GOallt Ereint a L6yda6c Gouynnyat. 20 
Or lie hOnnO yd aethant hyt yn L6ch EOin. Ac 
yd ymordiwedaOd Arthur ac ef yno. Rodi kyuarth a Onaeth 
ynteu yna. Ac yna y IladaOd ef Echel UordOyt TOII, ac 
ArOyH eil GOydaOc GOyr, a llaOer o wyr a chOn heuyt. Ac 
yd aethant odyna hyt yn LlOch TaOy. Yscar a Onaeth 25 
Grugyn GOrych Ereint ac Oynt yna. Ac yd aeth Grugyn 
odyna hyt yn Dintywi. Ac odyna yd aeth hyt yg 
KeredigyaOn, ac Eil a Thrachmyr gantaO, a IliaOs gyt ac 
Oynt heuyt. Ac y doeth hyt yg Garth Gregyn, Ac yno 
y^ Has LlOydaOc Gouynnyat yn y mysc. Ac y tladaOd 30 
RuduyO Rys, a IlaOergyt ac ef. Ac yna yd aeth LOytaOc z,,^, ,^. 
hyt yn Ystrat YO. Ac yno y kyuaruu gOyr LydaO ac ef. *'^*^. 
/^,'^ 1. MS.yy "y^^ 



2o6 THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 

Ac yna y lladaOd ef Hir PeissaOc brenhin Lyda6, a 
Lygatrud Emys a GOrbothu, eOythred Arthur, vrodyr y 
uam. Ac yna y lias ynteu. 

24. TOrch TrOyth a aeth yna y rOng TaOy ac Euyas. 

5 GOyssyaO KernyO a Dyfneint o Arthur yn y erbyn hyt yn 
aber Hafren. A dywedut a oruc Arthur Orth vilOyr yr 
ynys honn : " TOrch TrOyth a ladaOd llaOer om gOyr. Myn 
gOrhyt gOyr, nyt a mi yn uyO yd aho ef y GernyO. Nys 
ymlityaf i ef bellach, namyn mynet eneit dros eneit ac ef a 

10 wnaf. GOneOch chOi a Onelhoch." Sef a daruu o gyghor 
gantaO ellOng kat o uarchogyon, a chOn yr ynys gantunt, 
hyt yn Euyas, ac ymchoelut odyno hyt yn Hafren, ae ragot 
yno ac a oed o vilwyr proiiedic yn yr ynys honn, ae yrru 
anghen yn anghen yn Hafren. A mynet a Onaeth Mabon 

15 uab Modron gantaO ar Wynn mygdOn march GOedO 
yn Hafren, a Goreu mab Custennin, a MenO mab TeirgOaed 
y rOng Lynn LiOan ac aber GOy. A dygOydaO o 
Arthur arnaO, a ryssOyr Prydein gyt ac ef Dynessau 
a oruc Osla GyllelluaOr a ManaOydan uab Llyr a 

20 ChacmOri gOas Arthur a GOyn Gelli, a dygrynnyaO yndaO, 
ac ymauael yn gyntaf yn y traet, ae gleicaO ohonunt yn 
Hafren, yny yttoed yn HenOi odyuchtaO. Brathu amOs o 
Uabon uab Modron or neil[l] parth, a chael yr ellyn y 
gantaO. Ac or parth arall y dygyrchOys Kyledyr Wyllt y 

25 ar amOs arall gantaO yn Hafren, ac y due y gOelleu y gantaO. 
Kynn kaffel diot y grib, kaffel dayar ohonaO ynteu ae 
draet. Ac or pan gauas y tir, ny allOys na chi na dyn na 
march y ganhymdeith, hyt pan aeth y GernyO. Noc a gaffat 
o drOc yn keissaO y tlysseu hynny y gantaO, gOaeth a gaffat 

30 yn keissaO diffryt y deu Or rac eu bodi. KacmOri ual y 
tynnit ef y uynyd, y tynnei deu uaen ureuan ynteu 
yr affOys. Osla GyllelluaOr yn redec yn ol y tOrch, y 
dygOydOys y gyllell oe wein ac y kolles ; ae wein ynteu 



THE HUNTING OF TWRCH TRWYTH 207 

gOedy hynny yn llaOn or dOfyr, ual y tynnit ef y uynyd, y 
tynnei hitheu ef yr affOys. Odyna yd aeth Arthur a Huoed, 
hyt pan ymordiwedaOd ac ef yg KernyO. GOare oed a gafat 5- ■ 
o drOc gantaO kyn no hynny y Orth a p-affat yna gantaO yn 
keissaO y gnb. O drOc y gilyd y kaifat y gnb y gantaO. 5 
Ac odyna y holet ynteu o GernyO, ac y gyrrOyt yr mor yn y 

]^(,i'^^^ gyueir. Ny wybuOyt vyth o hynny allan pa le yd aeth, ac 
Anet ac Aethlem gantaO. Ac odyno yd aeth Arthur y 

<^ ;;m ymehfeThau^ac y uOrO y ludet y arnaO hytyg Kelli Wic yg KernyO. 

25. Dywedut o Arthur : "A oes dim weithon or anoetheu 10 
heb gafifel?" Y dy waOt vn or gOyr : "Oes. GOaet y widon 

.t.yv.w>v.Q^^^ merch y widon Orwen o penn Nan't Gouut yg gOrthtir ^f;^!!^^-. 
Ufifern." KychCyn a oruc Arthur parth ar Gogled, 
a dyuot hyt lie yd oed gogof y wrach. A chynghpri o ' 
Wynn uab Nud a GOythyr uab GreidaOl gellOng KacmOri a 1 5 
HygOyd y uraOt y ynilad ar wrach. Ac ual yd euthant y 
. myVn yr ogof, y hachufi S" oruc y wrach ; ac ymauael yn ^^^ "7 f 
HygOyd herOya gOallt y benn, ae daraO yr IlaOr deni. i-'-^f^-^ 
Ac ymauel o GacmOri yndi hitheu herOyd gOatlt y ', ,i ^' "^^ 
phenn, ae thynnu y ar HygOyd yr tlaOr. Ac ymchoelut a 20 
oruc hitheu ar KacmOri^ ac eu dygaboli yU deu, ac eu diaruu, ae cu. -^ 
gy rru allan "Han eulnib ac eu hob."' A HidyaO a oruc Arthur 9..^... . 
o welet y deu was hayachen wedy eu Ilad, a cheissaO achub 
yr ogof. . Ac yna y dywedassant GOynn a GOythyr OrthaO : 
" Nyt dec ac nyt digrif genhym dy welet yn ymgribyaO a 25 
gOrach. GellOng Hir Amren a Hir Eidyl yr ogof." A mynet 
a orugant. Ac dr bu drOc tranerth y deu gynt, gOaeth uu 
drafferth y deu hynny, hyt nas gOyj^ei D^uO y vn ohonunt 
etl pedwar allu mynet or lie, namyn mal y dodet ell pedwar (j'"^- '^ 
ait Lamrei kassec Arthur. Ac yna achub a oruc Arthur 30^ * 

'^' ' drOs yr ogof, ac y ar y drOs a uyryei*y wrach a Charnwehnan '^■ 

y gyllell, ae thara^am y banner, yny uu yn deu gelOrn hi. A "> H4 

chymryt a oruc KaO o Brydein gOaet y widon ae gadO ganthaO. 



208 

IV. THE PROCEDURE IN A SUIT FOR 
LANDED PROPERTY. 



Puipe^^ac aue/^no kefroy 
haul am tir a dayar.^ Kefroet 
panuewno o nauuethid ka- 
langayaf allan. Neu onauu- 
5 ethid mey. Kanis^ eram- 
seroyd h&nwy ybit agoredic 
keureith am tir ay dayar. 

Oderuit yr haulur me«nu 

lO holi tir en eramseroyt hi«ni 
deuhet^ ar er argluit yerchi 
did y guarandau y haul 
a hi«ni aretir. In edid 
hu«nu datkanet y haul. Ni 

1 5 dele y dithun^ kaifail ateb * 
edithun. Kanis haul dissiuit 
yu ar^ guercheidveith ' ac 
wrth hi«ni yguercheidveith 
a deleant oyt urth porth. 

20 Yaun yu irhalur y ludyas 
udunt onit ekeureyth ay 
deweyt ydeleu. Ac ena 
emay* ereneyt ev guarandau. 
A gouin pale emay eu porth. 

25 Odeweduuant pot eu porth 
eneu ke;A/mut euhun. Roy 
oyt trideu udunt. Obit en 



1. Pwy bynnac a uynno 
kyffroi hawl am dir a dayar, 
kyffroet pan uynno o nawvet 
dyd kalan gayaf allan, neu 
o nawvet dyd Mei. Kanys 
yn yr amseroed hynny y 
byd agoredic kyvreith am 
dir a dayar. 

2. O deruyd yr hawlwr 
mynnu holi tir yn yr 
amseroed hynny deuet ar yr 
arglwyd y erchi dyd y 
warandaw y hawl, a hynny 
ar y tir. Yn y dyd hwnnw 
dadganet y hawl. Ny dyly 
kaffael atteb y dyd hwnn. 
Kanys hawl dysseivyt yw ar ' 
y gwercheidweit. Ac wrth 
hynny y gwercheidweit a 
dylyant oet wrth borth. lawn 
yw yr hawlwr y ludyas udunt/"^ _ 
onyt y gyvreith a dyweit y 
dylyu. Ac yna y mae iawn 
yr yneit eu gwarandaw, a 
govyn pa le y mae eu porth. 
O dywedant bot eu porth yn 
eu kymmwt eu hun, roi oet 



\< 



>^ 



(Ch. 1). 1 the second a is added over the line, 2 add yn with several MSS. 
(Ch. 2). 1 h over the line, 2 omit, 3 add y vnth many MSS,, 4 add iaun 
imth many MSS. 



\ 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 209 



eli^ kemut naunieu. Obit 
en etredit neu uot llanu a trey 
eregthun ac eu porth. Os 
kin banner did ebernir eroyt' 
petheunos or did hunnu ebit 
eroyt. Os guedi ha;2ner did 
petheunos otra^noyth. Ac 
essev achaus yu he;^ne. 
Kanydoys did kubil • ac nat 
yaun talu drill did en lie did. 
Ac en eroyt barnedic hu^^nu * 
emay yaun deuod ar etir^ ac 
vynt ac eu porth. 



Ac ena ymay yaun 
guneythur^ du^ pleit ac 
eiste en^ keureithiaul. Esseu 
ual etestedyr en keureythiaul. 
Eiste orbrenhin neu or neb 
a uo enile. ay keuen ar er 
eul* neu ar er^ hin. Rac 
aulonidu er hin oyuyneb ef. 
Ar enat His neu egnat 
ekemut erhun henau auo 
en eiste rac euron ef. Ac 
ar^ llau assu y hu^^nu er 
egnat arall auo enemays neu 
er eneid.*^ Ac ar; ellau 



tridieu udunt. O byd yn yr 
eil gymmwt, naw nieu. O 
byd yn y trydyd neu vot 
llanw a thfei yryngthunt ac ^ . 
eu porth, os kyn hanner^dyd 5 
y bernir yr oet, pythewnos 
or dyd hwnnw y byd yr 
oet ; OS gwedy banner dyd, 
pythewnos o drannoeth. Ac 
yssef achaws yw hynny ; 10 
kanyt oes dyd kwbyl, ac nat 
iawn talu djyll dyd yn lie r^ 
dyd. Ac yn yr oet barnedic -it^^ 
hwnnw y mae iawn dyvot ar 
y tir ac wynt ac eu porth. 1 5 

3. Ac yna y mae iawn 
gwneuthur dwy bleit ac eisted 
yn gy freithiawl. Sef ual yd ^^'' 
eistedir yn gyfreithyawl. 
Eisted or brenhin neu or neb 20 
a uo yn y le ae gevyn ar yr 
heul neu ar yr hin, rac 
avlonydu yr hin oe wyneb ' ' "^ 
ef. Ar ynat llys neu ynat y 
kymmwt, yr hwn hynaf a uo, 25 
yn eisted rac y uron ef. Ac 
ar y Haw assw y hwnnw yr ' ' 
ynat arall a vo yn y maes. 
Ac ar y Haw deheu idaw yr 



i.U 



(Ch. 2). 5 leg. ereil, 6 e over the line 

(Ch. 3). 1 n and y over the line, 2 leg. dui, 3 MS. eneu, 4 the e 
over the line, 5 added over the line, 6 add y with many MSS., 7 after neu 
some letters cancelled : er eneid added over the line 



210 A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 



deheu ydau ereferiat neu er 
eferieit.^ Ac egkell^ er ar- 
gluid edeu heneuid. Ay 
guirda o hinny allan o pop- 
5 thu ydau. Odena ford yr 
eneyt keuarvyneb* ac eu^^ 
darimret yeubraudle. Keg- 
haus er haulur ar ellau assu 
ydau ar eford • ar haulur 

lo enessav ' ydau • en eperued^^ 
ar kanllau ar ellau arall 
ydau. Ar^^ rigyll en seuill 
trakeuen ekeghaus^^* er 
amdiffinur ar ellau deheu ar 

1 5 eforth * ar amdiffinhur 
enessau * ydau • eneperued • 
ay kanllau or tu arall ydau * 
arigill traigeuen entheu. 
Gwedi darvo eiste euelly * 

20 Kemerer^* mach ar keureith. 
Esseu meychyeu auid ar^^ 
tir ay dayar. Guystlon^^ o 
dynyon • deu^'' dyn neu auo 
muy • o popleit * arey^^ hinni 

25 emedyant er argluid edant 



effeiryat neu yr efifeiryeit. Ac 
yg kylch yr arglwyd y deu 
hyheuid ; ae wyrda o hynny^-^^ 
allan o bob tu idau. Odyna 
fford yr yneit gyvarwyneb j\ 
ac wynt y darymret y eu ",,>i^l* 
brawdle. Kyngh'lws yr 
hawlwr ar y Haw assw idaw 
ar y fford, ar hawlwr yn 
nessaf idaw yn y perved, ar ' 
kanllaw ar y Haw arall idaw; f^'^^ 
ar ringyll yn sevyll tracheuyn - '-^ 
y kynghaws. Ar Dieit arall Y"^ 
y tu arall yr fford ; yn nessaf '. ^ 
yr fford kynghaws yr amdiff- ^(^ 
ynnwr ar y Haw deheu ar y 
fford, ar amdiffynnwr yn 
nessaf idaw yn y perued, ae 
ganllaw or tu arall idaw ; , 
ar rhingyll traegevyn ynteu.^y^. 
Gwedy darvo eisted yvelly, yiiP^ 
kymerer mach ar gyvreith. / *^ 
Sef meichyeu a vyd ar dir a 
dayar, gwystlon o dynyon, 
deu dyn neu I a' vo mwy o 
bob pleit. Ar rei hynny yn 
medyant yr arglwyd yd ant. 



(Ch. 3). 8 in marg,, where it has been written twice, the first 
entry having been mutilated by the cutting of the margin, 
9 on p. 103 the phrase is yny gylch, 10 leg. uj j or the like, 
11 after this ydau tvith a stroke beneath it, 12 after this some 
letters cancelled, 13 some words omitted which in the text of the Laws are : 
ar bleit arall y tu arall yr ford yn nessat yr fford kyglaOs, 14 MS. Kemere'^t, 
15 MS. a't, 16 some letters cancelled, 17 e over the line, 18 h after a 
cancelled and r written above it. 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 211 



Odena guedi henne e dodir 
tellued*^ essev yu hene.^ 
Gostec ar emays. Puipenac 
a thorro etelleued ho«no teyr 
biu^ camluru a tal ne nau 
ugeint. Ar geyr adeweter 
guedi er ostec bot hunnu* en 
diuunyant er neb ay deweto* 
ac yr keghaus edevether 
irporth ydau. 

Guedi daruo eyste^ en 
keureithaul mal y redewes- 
sam ny vchot ena e may 
yaun yr egnat deueduit 
wrth e dupleit ymdeve- 
duch o keureith weithion. 
Ac ena may yaun iregnat 
gouin yr^ haulur puy de 
keghaus^ di a puy de kanllau* 
ac ena e may yaun^yr haulur 
ev henwi. Ac ena may 
yaun eregnat gouin ir haulur 
a dodycollia kaffayl eneu pen 
vinteu. Ac ena ema yaun 
yr haulur*^ dodav heb eff. 
Ac ena may yaun eregnat^ 
ac yr kanllau * a sauant huy 
ydau ef' en erenmay ef 
enidody arnadunthuy.'^ Ac 



4. Odyna gwedy hynny y ^ .^^^ 
dodir tyllwed. Sefyw hynny, "^ 
^stec ar y maes. Pwy 
bynnac a dorro y dyllwed ' 
honno, teir buw camlwrw a 5 

dal neu naw ugeint Ar f^"^ 

geir a dy wetter gwedy yr^***^ '" 
ostec, bot hwnnw yn divwyn- ^^^'^ 
yant yr neb ae dywetto, ac 
yr kynghaws y dy wetter yr lO -f'"^' 
porth idaw. 

5. Gwedy darvo eisted yn 
gy vreithiawl, val y rydywed- 
assam ni uchot, yna y mae 
iawn yr ynat dyvedut wrth y 1 5 
dwy bleit : "ymdywedwch 

o gyvreith weithyon." Ac 
yna y mae iawn yr 
ynat ovyn yr hawlwr : "pwy 
dy gynghaws di a phwy dy 20 
ganllaw?" Ac yna y mae 
iawn yr hawlwr eu henwi. 
Ac yna y mae iawn yr ynat 
ovyn yr hawlwr : " a do_dy ^' f - •''^ 
colli a chaffael yn eu pen 25 
wynteu?" Ac yna y mae 
iawn yr hawlwr dywedut, 
" dodaf," heb ef. Ac yna y 
mae iawn yr ynat ovyn yr 
kynghaws ac yr kanllaw, a 30 



(Ch. 4). 1 u over the line, 2 h over the line, 3 i over the line, 4 after this 
did cancelled 

(Ch. 5). 1 y over the line, 2 MS. hyr, 3 ke over the line, 4 after this eregnat 
cancelled, 5 leg. haulur deueduyt, 6 add gouin yr kyghaus, 7 h over the line 



212 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 



ena emay yaun^ udunt huin- 
theu dewedvyt sauun. 



5 

Ac guedi hinny emay yaun 
eregnat gouin eramdiffenvr^ 
puy dekeghaus ditheu apuy 
de kanllau. Ac ena emay 

10 yaun ydau entehu eu henwi. 
Ac ena emay yaun^ yr egn- 
at gouin ydau entehu • a did 
ev kolli a kaffayl en eu pen 
Ac ena may yaun ydau 

15 entheu dewetuyt dodau heb 
ef. Ac ena emay iaun^ 
eregnat devetvit wrth er- 
haulur • haul di weython de 
haul. Ac ena emay* yaun 

20 yhaulur^ decreu. 

Llema essit yaun yr haulur 
edewetuyd'^ men egi • yuot 
ef en briodaur ar etir hun- 

25 ema ardayar. Ac obit 
aameuho ydau ef yuot en 
briodaur ' bot kanthau entheu 
a kathuo ybriodolder * o * ach 
ac edriu * hit emay digaun 

30 en ekeureyth. Ay reerru en 



savant hwy idaw ef yn yr vA 
hyn y mae ef yn y dodi^^ 
arnadunt hwy. Ac yna y 
mae iawn udunt hwynteu 
dy wedut : " saviin." 

6. A gwedy hynny y mae 
iawn yr ynat ouyn yr 
amdiffynnwr : " pwy dy 
gynghaws ditheu, a phwy dy 
ganllaw?" Ac yna y mae 
iawn j^dau ynteu eu henwi. 
Ac yna y mae iawn yr ynat 
ovyn idaw ynteu, a dyd ef . 
goUi a chaffael en eu pen. 
Ac yna y mae iawn idaw 
ynteu dy wedut : "dodaf," heb 
ef. Ac yna y mae iawn 
yr ynat dywedut wrth yr 
hawlwr : " hawl di weithon 
dy hawl." Ac yna y mae 
iawn yr hawlwr dechreu. 

7. Llyma yssyd iawn yr 
hawlwr y dywedut, menegi y 
vot ef fn briodawr ar y tir 
hwnn yma ar dayar. Ac o 
byt a amheuo idaw ef y vot ^' 
yn briodawr, bot ganthaw^^J^w 
ynteu a gatwo y briodolder 
o ach ac edrif, hyt y mae 



^^ 



H^, 



<?^/1l3 



digawn yn y gyvreith, ae 
8 after this yregnat cancelled 



(Ch. 5) _ _ 

(Ch. 6). 1 e over a cancelled i, 2 over the line, 3 over the line 
irhaulur cancelled, 4 e over the line, 5 leg. yrhaulur 
(Ch, 7). 1 MS. edewetduyd 



after this 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 213 



agkeurelthiaul yar ybriodol- 
der • ac osid ay ha/^^mehuho^ 
emay ydau eP ay guyr* 
yreherru enagkeureithiaul. 
Ac essev emayentehu^endodi 
ar ekeureith deleu deuot en 
keureythaul traykeuen er lie 
ereherruyd en agkeureith- 
yauP ohonau. 

Oderuit bot rey adewetho 
dodi keythveid ac guybed- 
yeid or un pleyt Ninni 
adewedun egellir ene war- 
handawer atteb er amdiffen- 
hur. 

Heb amdiffenhur^ myuy 
essit briodaur o acch^ ac 
edriu • ac esseu eduyf en 
guarchadu empriodolder^ val 
emay goreu edeleauvy y- 
guarchadu * ac osid ay 
hameuho y am* henni 
emay ymy ageidu digaun^ 
bot en guir adewedau. A 
thitheu obuosty ema ty hay- 
thost en keureythaul odema. 
Ac osid a hamehuo hinni* 
emay ymy digaun ayguyr. 



ryyrru yn anghyvreithyawl 
y^dik'y briodolder. Ac qsit 
ae hamheuo, y mae idaw ef 
digawn ae gwyr y ryyrru yn 
anghyvreithyawl. Ac yssef 
y mae ynteu yn dodi ar y 
gyvreith, dylyu. dyvot yn 
gy vreithyawl traegevyn yr lie 
y ryyrrwyt yn anghyvreith- 
yawl ohonaw. / lO 

8. O dervyd bot rei a 
dywetto dodi ceidweid a 
gwybydyeid or un ble'it, 
Ninni a dywedwn y gellir, 

yny warandawer atteb y 15 

amdififynnwr. 

9. Heb yr amdiffynnwr : 
" Mivi yssyd briodawr o ach 
ac edrif. A sef yd wyf yn 
gwarchadw vym priodolder, 20 
val y mae goreu y dylyaf y "^ ' 
warchadw . Ac osit ae ham- 
heuo imi hynny, y mae imi 
ageidw digawn bot yn wir a ^^ 
dywedaf. A thitheu, o buost 2$ 
ti yma, ti a aethost yn 
gyvreithyawl odyma. Ac osit 

a hamheuo hynny y mae imi 
digawn aegwyr." i^- '' ' 



U 



tr^ 



dz 



(Ch. 7). 2 the third h over the line, 3 digawn has probably been 
omitted, 4 h over the line, 5 r over the line 

(Ch.9 ). 1 leg. eramdiffenhur, 2 there is something like an h over the 
second c, 3 the third letter seems to have been altered top, 4 y am ; leg. 
y mi ? 5 leg. digaun ageidu 



214 A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 



Ninni adewedun ket darfo 

eramdiffenur rohi atheb kin 

oyholy ev or haulur bot en 

anolo er ateb • eny warandao 

5 ef • er haul ac odena atebet. 

Ac guedy darfo vdunt 
euduy kegheussayth mal ede- 
wedassam ni vchot. Gouenet 

10 er egnat udunt aydygaun hyn 
adewedassant. Ac gouenet 
udunt auennant guellau eu 
kykeussayth.^ Ac obit ay 
menno gather^ ydau. Ac 

15 onibit ay menno kyemeret 
eregnat euduy kegheussayth^ 
a dadkanet huy. A guedy 
estadkano aynt eregneyt 
allan. ar effeyryhet y gyt 

20 ac vy • a. Righyll ygyt aguy * 
hy eu kadv. Rac douot 
dynyon ywarandu* arnadu;^t. 
Oderuit idyn deuot ywaran- 
dau arnadunt huntheu^ ev 

25 adely talu teyrbuy kamluru 
hir brenhin. Ac o bit ebrenin 
enemays * ev adele talu kam- 
luru deudeplic am hinny. 
Ac ena guedy edeystedont 

30 huy emay iaun * yr effeyryat * 
guedya duy ydangos oduy 



10. Ninni a dywedwn, kyt 
darffo yr amdififynnwr roi ^ 
atteb kyn noe hoji ef or 
hawlwr, bot yn anolo yr"^" 
atteb, yny warandao ef yr 
hawl, ac odyria attebet. 

1 1. A gwedy darffo udunt >n 
eu dwy gyngheusaeth, val y \ 
dywedassam ni uchot, gov- 
ynet yr ynat udunt, ae 
digawn yr hyn a dywedas- 
sant, , ^a gouyn^t: udunt a 
vynriant gwellau eu kyng- 
heussaeth. Ac o byd ae ^^^ 
mynno, gatter idaw. Ac ony^ -r' 
byd ae mynno, kymeret yr 
ynat eu dwy gyngheussaeth, 

a dadganet hwy. A gwedy • 
as dadgano, aent yr yneit 
allan, ar effeiryeit y gyt ac 
wy, ar ringhyll y gyt ac wy 
y eu kadw, rac dyvot dynyon 
y warandaw arnadunt. O 
dervyd y dyn dyvot y waran- 
daw arnadunt wynteu, ef a 
dyly talu teirbuw kamlwrw 
yr brenhin. Ac o byd y 
brenhin yn y maes, ef a dyly 
talu kamlwrw deudyplic am 
hynny. Ac yna gwedy yd 
eistedont hwy y mae iawn 



(Ch. 11). \ky over the line, 2 h over the line, 3 ssa over the line, 4 
y warandaw, 5 the second h over the line 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 215 



er yaun^ udu;?t. Akanu 
onadunt huyntheu eu pader* 
Ac guedy epader emay yaun 
yr egnat dadkanu eduykeg- 
hessaith eylweyth. 



Ac o deruit bot enreyt^ 
egeyr keuarch. Elleger deu 
oy ouyn. Ac obit reyt yr 
bleyt egouener egeyr keuarhc 
ydy vrth kemyrit keghor^ 
aynt tuy kan kanyat^ yr 
egneyt hyeu keghor* ac 
essev edantynyuer ebuant en 
eukehussayth* heb auo muy 
aguas yr argluyd ygyt aguy • 
yeu kadu Rac deuod neb 
yeu keghor * ygyt ac huy * 
ac odau neb atadu;2t ay 
keghoro talet ef kamluru er 
brenin a bot en anolo 
ekeghor. Ac guedy edarfo 
ekeghor deuent edeu hinny 
ar eregneyt* adatkane/^t 
egneyth^ ekeghor. 

Oderuit nabo reyt urth eyr 
keuarch yaun yu gadayl 
udunt vintheu eu ardelu • 



yr efifeiryat gwediaw Duw y 
dangos o Duw yr iawn 
udunt. A chanu onadunt 
wynteu eu pader. A gwedy 
y pader y mae iaun yr 5 
ynat dadganu y dwy gyng-ov^'*^-^^^ 
heussaeth eilweith. 

12. Ac o dervyd bot yn 
reit y geir kyvarch, ellynger l^y ' 
deu qe ovyn. Ac o byd reit 10 
yr bleit y govyner y geir '" ^ ' ' 
kyvarch idi wrth gymryt 
kynghor, aenti-wy gan ganyat 

yr yneit y eu kynghor. Ac 
yssev yd ant, y niver y buant 1 5 
yn eu ky ngheussaeth, heb a vo ^ ' ^ 
muy, a gwas yr arglwyd y 
gyt ac wy y eu kadw rac 
dyvot neb y eu kynghor y ^^, 
gyt ac wy. Ac o daw neb 207^^ 
attadunt ae kynghoro, talet a ^^""^ 
ef gamlwrw yr brenhin, a 
bot yn anolo y kynghor. A 
gwedy y darffo y kynghor, 
deuent y deu hynny ar yr 25 
yneit a dadganent yr yneit y 
kynghor. 

13. O dervyd nabo reit wrth "-' 
eyr kyvarch, iawn yw gadael 
udunt wynteu eu hardelw, a 30 



(Ch. 11), 6u over the line 

(Ch. 12). 1 some MSS. ao^cf wrth, 2 h over the line, 3 y over the line, 
4 the second e over the line, 5 n over the line ; leg. eregneit 



2i6 A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 



agerru deu youyn puy eu- 
gubideyt * ac eu kedweyt • a 
phale emaynt * odewedant eu 
bot ene mays * munaher vynt* 
5 odewedant^ eubot en^ un ke- 
mut ac vy rodher oyd trideu^ 
udunt Odewedant eubot en 
ereil kemud rodher oyd 
naunyeu udunt. Odewetant 

lO eubot egulat arall vynt* neu 
lanu neu trey eregthunt ac 
vy • oyt petheunos or did 
hunnu* os kin banner did 
vit • OS guedy ha;^ner did 

1 5 petheonos odranoyth * ar did 
hennu endyd kolli akaffayal. 
Abot eguystlon egkarch^ 
brenin* hit edid hunnu* ac 
erchi y paup deuot ay devni- 

20 dev kanthau edid hynnu * 
hit ar etir. Kenebo duun 
kan edu bleyd • hinny. Neu^ 
edyu endid keuereit bar- 
nedic. 

25 

En etrededet guedi edele- 
her vyneb-*^ iaun yu i paup 
eistet enelle mal ereystedus 
edid kint * ac obetant meiru 

30 rey or guir auu en ekeg- 



gyrru deu y ovyn pwy eu ^. , 
guibydyeit ac eu keidweit, Si<^ 
pha le y maent. O dywedant J' 
eu bot yn y maes, mwynhaer^^ 
wynt. O dywedant eu bot 
yn un kymwt ac wy, rodher 
oet tridieu udunt. O dywe- 
dant eu bot yn yr eil gymwt, 
rodher oet naw nieu udunt. 
O dywedant eu bot yg gwlat 
arall neu lanw neu drei 
yryngthunt ac wy, oet 
pythewnos or dyd hwnnw^ 
OS kyn hannerdyd y byd. 
Os gwedy hannerdyd, .(^ 
pythewnos o dranoeth, arr"^, 
dyd hwnnw yn dyd kolli a "^ 
chaffael. A bot y gwystlon 
yg karchar y brenhin hyt y 
dyd hwnnw. Ac erchi y 
bawp dyvot ae devnydeu 
ganthaw y dyd hwnnw hyt 
arytir. Kynnyboduungany; >v 
dwy bleit hynny, neud ydiw^h^ 
yn dyd kyvreith'barnedic. 

14. Ynytrydyd dyd guedy 
y delher wyneb yn wyneb 
iawn yw y bawb eisted yn y 
lie, val y ryeistedws y dyd 
kynt. Ac o bydant meirw 



(Ch. 13). 1 ed over the line, 2 over the line, 3 e over the line, 4 omitted 
in several MSS., 5 leg. karchar e, 6 written twice over ; leg. neud 

(Ch. 14), 1 leg. vyneb en vynep ; there are remains of the missing words 
on the margin 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 217 



kussaeith doder ereill en eu 
lie • a guedi er^ eisteter ena 
emae yaunt yr haulur • kenic 
y devnidieu iam etestion ay 
keidveit^ adeueduit evot ef 
GYiparRut. Ac ena emayyaun 
ir^amdifinnur gurtheb ac esev 
ateb a dere • deueduit yvot ef 
en p<3:raut * ay defnetyeu 
kanhau val y hedeuis ac 
ena emae yaun yr brenin 
hercki dankos eguestelon en 
emays * kanys vint essit 
vechieu.^ ^Ac ena emay yaun 
ir egnat deuedut kosb er 
anostec* esseu eu bene teir 
biu camluru abot en anolo 
egeir adeueter. 



Ac ena emae yaun ir haulur 
dodi em pen er eneyt pan niu 
efifo adedeuis^ en kentaf 
testion * akeitueit * a deleu 
ohonau enteu^ muenhau en 
kentaf Ac ena emay yaun 
yr eneit erchi ydau enteu 
duyn y keditveit^ ay testion 



rei or gwyr a vu yn y gyn- 
gheussaeth, dotter ereill yn 
eu lie. A gwedy yr eistether, 
yna y mae iawn yr hawlwr 
kynnic y devnydyeu y am y 5 
dystyon ae geidweit, a 
dyuedut y vot ef yn barawt. 
Ac yna y mae iawn yr 
amdiffynnwr gwrtheb. Ac "' 
yssef atteb a djry, dyuedut 10 
y vot ef yn barawt, ae 
devnydyeu ganthaw, val y 
hedewis. Ac yna y mae 
iawn yr brenhin erchi dangos 
y gwystlon yn y maes ; 1 5 
kanys wynt yssyd veichieu. 
Ac yna y mae iawn yr ynat 
dywedut kosb yr anostec. 
Sef yw hynny teir buw 
kamlwrw a bot yn_anolo y 20 ^^^*^ 
geir a dywetter. ^^^^^^■■'''" "^^ 

15. Ac yna y mae iawn yr ^.^^ 
hawlwr dodi ym pen yr yneit t^f['j\ 
panyw efo a edewis yn hj^ckZ^Jj 
gyntaf dystyon a cheidweit,^25 f-v- 
a dylyu ohonaw ynteu eu 
mwynhau yn gyntaf Ac 
yna y mae iawn yr yneit 
erchi idaw ynteu dwyn y 



(Ch. 14). 2 some MSS. yd, 3 the second i over the line, 4 after this 
brenin cancelled, 5 kanis—vechieu interlined, in part on the margin and 
illegible, 6 there seems to he a lacuna here ; some MSS, have : Ac ena 
gOedy dangosser y gOystlon y mae iaOn yr brenhin erchi yr righyll dodi 
gostec ar y maes 

(Ch. 15). 1 leg. aedeuis, 2 leg. enteu eu, 3 leg, keidveit 



2i8 A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 



y eu muinahu. Ac ena 
emae yaun idau enteu eu 
duin huy ene keuil* ef ac 
eudangos • esseu eu rei 
5 aedeueis^ ef erei a enguis 
en edit kyntaf Ny dele er 
amdife^^nwr llessu yrun ona- 
dunt kanivir^ nabo da idau 
adeueduit.^ Ar hun a llesso 

10 onatuunt kin guibot bet 
aduedoent -^ bit sauedc^ 
hunu • er amdifenur aeil 
gouin^^ aoes breint yr rei- 
hinny. Ac obit doent rac- 

1 5 dunt • esseu pa achaus^^ 
egeill ef gouin hinny vrth na 
eill alldut bot en vybitiat ar 
treftadauc. Ac na eill 
gureic ' ar gur. Ac ekit 

20 ahene ni heill llauer o 
deneon bot yn vibetiet nac 
en kedueit heruit breint ar 
amdifenur ni lluger arnau 
deueduit hinny. 

25 

Oderuit ir amdifenur 
readau testion auo gwell no 
rei aedeuis er haulur • ae ouot 
en guell yu breint ay o bot 

30 en amlach Ame^nu ohonau 



geidweit ae dystyon y eu 
mwynhau. Ac yna y mae 
iawn idaw ynteu eu dwyn ^ 
hwy yny kyvyl (?) ef ac eu uV' 
dangos. Sef yw rei a edewis . 

ef y i^ei a enwis yn y dyd ""^" 
kyntaf. Ny dyly yr am- 
diffynnwr llyssu yr un on- 
adunt, kany wyr na bo da 
idaw a dy wettont. Ar hwn 
a lysso onadunt cyn gwybot 
beth a dy wettont, bit savedic ^'-" 
hwnnw. Yr amdififynnwr a ^^^ 
eill ovyn a oes breint yr rei'^-*^'-/' ^ 
hynny. Ac o byd, doent ^,^,,;, 
racdunt. Sef pa achaws y 
geill ef ovyn hynny, wrth 
na eill alltut vot yn wyby- '^T ^ . 
dyat ar drevtadawc, ac na 
eill gwreic ar wr. Ac y gyt 
a hynny ny eill llawer o 
dynyon vot yn wybydyeit 
nac yn geidweit herwyd*'*'" 
breihl:. Ar amdififynnwr ny 
Iwgyr arnaw dywedut hynny. 

16. O deruyd yr amdiffyn- .., '-- 
nwr ryadaw tystyon a uo^'^ 
gwell nor rei a edewis yr 
hawlwr — ae o vot yn well eu 
breint ae oe bot yn amlach — yr"^' 



(Ch, 15). 4 some MSS, have kylch, 5 the second e over the line ; 
leg. aedewis, 6 the second i over the line, 7 leg. adeueduint, 8 o over 
the line, 9 leg. sauedic, 10 i over the line, 11 the second a over the line 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 219 



kannal hinny. laun eu^ 
dangos aguedi da;^gosso ef 
etestion nityaun^ yr haulur 
eu llessu vyntheu. Ena emai 
iaun yr enat gouin yr haulur 
may breint de destion dy. 
Ac ena emay yaunt yr haulur 
deueduit breint y testion • ae 
vntoe en veirri neu en 
kegheoron^ ae vnteu en 
veneich* neu en ahtraon ae 
vnteu en efferiet neu en 
escoleicion ae vinteu en 
lleecion breinaul Guedi 
daruo ir enat gouen ir haulur 
breint etestion iau;^ eu yr 
enat goui;^ yr a;;^difenur 
breint y testion Ac ena 
emay yaunt yr a;;^dife;2nur 
deuedut ebreint goreu avo oy 
testion Ac ena emay yaunt 
yr enat datkanu deubrein 
yreduedasant eduypleit yeu. 
testion. 



Ena emay yaun yr enat 
gouin ir duipleit^ a sauant 
huy hen erhen ededis en 
y dodi en eu pen ' llema paup 
or guebethit en deueduit 



^^ 



a mynnu ohonaw gynnal*^*^*^ 
hynny, iawn yw eu dangos. 
A gwedi dangosso ef y 
dystion, nyt iawn yr hawlwr 
eu llyssu wynteu. Yna y '5 
mae iawn yr ynat ovyn yr 
hawlwr : " Mae breint dy 
dystyon di?" Ac yna y 
mae iawn yr hawlwr dy wedut 
breint y dystyon, ae wynteu 10 
yn veiri neu yn gynghell- 
oryon, ae wynteu yn veneich 
neu yn athrawon, ae wynteu 
yn effeiryeit neu ysgoleigyon, 
ae wynteu yn Heygion brein- 1 5 
niawl. Gwedy darvo yr 
ynat govyn yr hawlwr breint 
y dystyon, iawn yw yr ynat 
govyn yr amdiffynnur vreint 
y dystyon. Ac yna y mae 20 
iawn yr amdiffynnwr dywe- 
dut y breint "gfdrieif a vo oe '*- ■ 
dystyon. Ac yna y mae 
iawn yr ynat dadganu deu ^""^ 
vreint y rydywedassant y 25 
dwy bleit y eu tystyon. 

17. Yna y mae iawn yr 
ynat ovyn yr dwy bleit a 
savant hwy yn yr hyn yd ^■' 
ydys yn y dodi yn eu pen. 30 VVT 
Llyma bawb or gwybydyeit 



^s. 



.^ 






(Ch. 16). 1 leg. eu eu, 2 t over the line, 3 leg. keghelloron, 4 MS. venich 
Ch. 17). 1 There is a smudge between jt> and / 



220 A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 



esauahanf llema popun or 
duipleit yn amheu guibytied 
y kilit nasdegant yr degin * 
ket as deuetoent ar eutauaut 

5 \Querit jaun eu yr eneit ena 
ev kreirhau * ac guedi askreir- 
hauont emay yaun vddunt 
menet allan. Ac edrych^ er 
hyn jaunaf aueloent vrth a 

10 gluassant. Ac oguelhant bot 
en veil testion eneill rei noe 
gilit* diuarnent buy eguae- 
thaf e testion. Od^mit bot en 
kestal eutestion * diuarner er 

15 amdife;^nur- kanys etheuis 
ef testion a vey guell noc 
aoet ka« ellall. Ac nis 
cauas. Ac ena emay jaun 
yr egneit barnu deuot er 

20 haulur ar etir * ar e breint 
edoet pan kechuinuus^ en 
agkaefreithiaul yarnau 



25 Ac guediheni emay^ yr 
eneit proui ekedueit*^ y edric 
a due pop rey onadunt buy 
bot en pr/odaur ebleit emaent 
enika;^helu a deueduit o 

30 keituueit pop rey eu bot 
en priodaur Ac odamheuir 



yn dy wedut y savant. Llyma 1 
bob un or dwy bleit ynl 
amheu gwybydieit y gity3j 
nas dygant yr dygyn,"Iiyt as| 
dywettont ar eu tavawti 
leveryd. lawn yw yr yneit* 
yna eu kreirhau. A gwedy 
askreirhaont y mae iawn 
udunt vynet allan, ac edrych 
yr hyn iawnaf a welont wrth 
a glywassant. Ac o gwelant 
bot yn well testyon eneill rei 
noe gilyd, divarnent hwy y 
gwaethaf y dystyon. O 
dervyd bot yn gystal eu 
tystyon, divarner yr amdiff- 
ynnwr ; kanys edewis ef 
tystyon a vei well noc a oed 
gan y Hall, ac nys kauas. Ac 
yna y mae iawn yr ygneit 
barnu dyvot yr hawlwr ar y 
tir, ar y breint yd oed pan 
gychwynws yn aghyvreithy- 
awl y arnaw. 

18. A gwedy hynny y 
mae iawn yr yneit prgyi y 
keidweit, y edrych a dwng 
pob rei onadunt hwy bot yn 
briodawr y bleit y maent yn 
y chyhnelu ; a dywedut o 
geidweit pob rei eu bot yn 









I^D-- 



^- 



^ 



.^r' 






(Ch, 17). 2 A over c, 3 A over the line 

due 

(Ch. 18). 1 leg. emay iawn, 4 MS. ekeuit 



OJi-' 



A SUIT FOR LANDED PROPERTY 221 

briodawr. Ac ot amheuir 

wynteu, iawn yw eu kreir- . 

hau. Ar neb a gilio y geid- ^^>;^'^^- 

weit onadunt y wrth y Uw, 

kollet y dir. O seif y keidweit 5" ' 

or dwy bleit, kyhyded yw. 

Ar lie y bo kyhyded deu- ^-^"^ 

banner vyd. 



vntheu yaun eu eucreirhau 
ar nep akellio y kedueit 
onadimnt y vrht ellu kollet 
etir • o seif ekeitueit or due- 
pleit kehedet yv ' ar lie ebo 
kehedet deuhann^r vit. 






'cU^ 



Ked barner ydau deuod 
yr tir* nikecuuin egur aoet 
ene mediant kynt erdau 
okeill kaffael * tu * atal • ydau 
en er un lie ac en kastal 
edeudir vrth na burir odena 
ef. Ac nideleir talu tir 
ambreinaul en lie tir abreint 
ohonau val kegkalloraith 
neu vaerony neu red it. 

Ac ena emay yaun er 
egneit deuot traceukeuen y 
eu braudle ac ena emay 
yaun vdunt ke;;^rit ked^r- 
nit a^ bot vrth ebraut a 
ka;/^rit mach areugober. Ac 
ena edeleant er eneit datcanu 
eduy kegheusaeh* a guedi 
bene datcanu eu uaraut^ ac 
ena ebrenin adele redhau 
eguestelon * oeu carcar. 

(Ch. 20). 1 leg. ar, 2 leg. braut 



19. Kytbarner idaw dyvot 

yr tir, ny chy'ctiwyn y gwr a 10 
oed yn y medyant gynt 
yrdaw, o geill gaffael tu a 
thai idaw yn yr un lie ac yn 
gystal y deu dir, wrth Tfia 
vwryir odyna ef. Ac ny 15 
dylyir ' taiu Hir ammreiniawl 
yn lie tir a breint ohonaw, 
val kynghelloraeth neu vae- 
roni neu rydit. 

20. Ac yna y mae iawn yr 20 
yneit dyvot tracheukevyn y 
eu brawdle. Ac yna y mae 
iawn udunt kymryt kedernit 

ar vot wrth y vrawt, a 
chymryt mach ar eu gobyr. 25 
Ac yna y dylyant yr yneit 
dadganu y dwy gyngheu- 1:,,..,, 
saeth, a gwedy hynny dad- 
ganu eu brawt. Ac yna y 
brenhin a dyly rydhau y 30 
gwystlon o eu karchar. 



222 



V. THE PRIVILEGE OF ST. TEILIO. 



The following Latin Charter (Lib. Land,, page 118) deals with the 
same subject, and illustrates the Welsh : 

Priuilegium Sancti Teliaui est et ecclesiae suae Landauiae, datum sibi 
et omnibus successoribus suis in perpetuo a regibus istis et prineipibus 
Brittaniae, confirmatum apostolica auctoritate, cum omnibus legibus suis 
in se plenariis sibi et terris suis, libera ab omni regali seruitio, sine 
consule, sine proconsule, sine conuentu intus nee extra, sine expeditione, 
sine uigilanda regione. Et cum omni iustitia sua ; de fure et furto, de 
rapina, de homicidio, de arsione, de rbca, de sanguine, de refugio uiolato 
ubique in terra sancti, de assaltu uiarunTet extra uias, de faciendo iudicio et 
patiendo, de omni populo Sancti Teliaui in curia Landauiae ; de 
conirnunione aquae et herbae, campi et siluae populo ecclesiae Sancti 
Teliaui ; cum mercato et moneta in Landauia ; cum applicatione nauium 
ubique per terras Sancti Teliaui libera pro regibus et omnibus nisi ecclesiae 
Landauiae et episcopis eius. De opprobrio et omni iniuria quod rex 
Morcanhuc et sui homines fecerint episcopo Sancti Teliaui et suis 
hominibus, idem rex Morcanhuc et sui homines rectum faciant episcopo et 
suis hominibus, et indicium patiantur in curia Landauiae. Omnis lex 
quae f uerit regali, omnis etiam et in curia plenarie episcopali Landauensi. 



Lymma y cymreith ha 
bryein eccluys Teliau o 
lanntaf arodes breenhined 
hinn ha touyssocion Cymry 

5 yntrycyguidaul dy eccluys 
teHau hac dir escip oil gueti 
ef amcytarnedic o audurdaut 
papou rumein y hoU cyfreith 
didi hac dy thir* hac di dair* 

lo ryd o pop guasanaith bre- 
ennin bydaul * heb mair * 
heb cyghellaur • heb cyhoith* 
dadlma ymeun gulat hac ny 
dieithyr • heb luyd • heb 

I5gauayl* heb guylma ycyf- 
reith idi ynhollaul * o leityr 
o latrat * o treis ' odynnyorn * 



Llyma y gyvreith a breint 
eglwys Deilaw o Lanndaf, a 
rodes y brenhined hynn a 
thywysogyon Cymry yn dra- 
gywydawl y eglwys Deilaw 
ac yr escyp oil gwedy ef, 
amgadarnedic o awdurdawt 
pabeu Ruvein. Y holl 
gyvreith idi ac y thir ac y 
dayar ; ryd o bob gwasanaeth 
brenhin by d awl ; heb vaer, 
heb gynghellawr, heb gyhoed 
dadylva y mewn gwlat ac yn 
y dieithyr ; heb luyd, heb 
avael, heb wylva. Y chyv- 
reith idi yn hoUawl o leidyr, 
o ladrat, o dreis, o dynyorn, 



THE PRIVILEGE OF ST. TEILIO 



223 



o cynluyn hac o lose * o 
amryson canguayt aheb- 
guayt* y diruy hay camcul 
yndi didi yn hollaul * o dorri 
naud ynn lann hac yn- 
dieythyr lann * orachot ynn 
luhyn hac dieithyr luhyn * 
o cyrch y popmynnic artir 
, teliau hay guir * hay braut 
dy lytu yr ecluys ygundy 
teliau ynn lantaf * hac ny lys • 
dufyr ha guell • hac choyt ha 
mays yncyfrytin dy lytu 
teliau • cyfnofut habathori- 
ayth ynn lanntaf hac aperua 
ardir teliau dyr loggou adis- 
cynno nythir y pop mynnic 
yt uoy ryd rac brennin arac 
paup namyn dy teliau ay 
eccluys lantam * ha dy escyp • 
har mefyl har sarhaythar cam 
har ennuet a gunech^ brenn- 
hin morcannhuc hay gur hay 
guas dy escop teliau hac dy 
gur hac dy guas * dyuot 
brennhin morcannhuc y- 
gundy teliau yn lanntaf * dy 
gunethur guir ha cyfreith" 
ha diguadef braut diam 
y cam a diconher dy escop 
teliau ha dy gur ha dy guas * 
ythir hay dayr dy luyd 
♦ dy uuner digauayl • ha pop 



o gynllwyn ac o lose, o amry-^' ' ' 
son gan waet ac heb waet. 
Y dirwy ae ehamgwl yndi 
idi yn hollawl o dorri nawd ^''' ~ 
yn. llann ac yn diethyr llann, 5 
o ragot yn llwyn ae diethyr 
llwyn, o gyrch [m ^M- <vvJUw'?.. ] vv-.,Af r.M^ 
ar dir Teilaw. Ae gwir ae 
brawt y deulu yr eglwys yg 
Gwnd}/_ Teilaw yn Llandaf 10 '"** 
ac yny ify^.' Dwvyr a gwellt r e?^./-^ 
a choet a maes yn gyffredin 
y deulu Teilaw. Cyvnewit fv-^-s? c,-, 
a bathoriaeth yn Llandaf, ac 
aberva ar dir Teilaw yr 15 
llongeu a diseynno yny thir 
pa le bynnae y bo, ryd 
r^c"" brenhin a rac pawb 
nimyn y Deilaw ae eglwys 
Landaf ac y hescyp. Ar 20 ; 
mevyl ar sarhaet ar cam ar 
enywet a wnel brenhin Mor- 
gannue ae wr ae was y escop 
Teilaw ac y wr ac y was, 
dyvot brenhin Morgannue y 2^ ^., - 



Wwdy Teilaw yn Llandaf y 
wneuthur gwir a chyvreith a 
diodef brawt yam y cam a 
a digonher y escop Teilaw 
ac y wr ac y was. Y thir ae 30 
dayar di ' luyd divuner 
diavael. A pob cyvreith a 
vo y vrenhin Morgannue yn 



224 



THE PRIVILEGE OF ST. TEILIO 



cyfreith auo dy brennin 
morcannuc yn lys * ou bot 
oil yn hollaul dy escop teliau 
ny lys yntou * hay bot 
5 ynemelldicetic hac yn yscu- 
munetic yr neb aitorro hac 
ay dimanuo y bryeint hunn * 
hac ef hay plant guety ef. 
Hynn bendicetic hac ef hay 
10 plant ay enrydedocao y- 
breint hunn hac ay cat(Oo).^ 
Amen. 



[y] lys, eu bot yn hollawl y 
escop Teilaw yn y lys ynteu. 
Ae vot yn emelldigedic ac 
yn yscumunedic y neb ae 
torro ac ae divanwo y breint 
hwnn, ac ef ae blant wedy 
ef. Yn vendigedic ac ef ae 
blant ae enrydedockao y 
breint hwnn ac ae katwo. 
Amen. 



1. leg. gunel. 2. Oo added in later hand. 



225 



VI. MORAL VERSES. 

I Kalan gaeaf, kalet graOn, 

deil ar gychOyn, llynnwynn IlaOn : 
y bore gynn noe vynet 
gwae a ymdiret y estra6n. 

"-^ Kalan gayaf, kein gyfrin ; ^^^ c 

«- ' kyfret awel a dryckin : '"^ ' ' 
gCeith keluyd y6 kelu riii. 

3 Kalan gayaf, cul hydot, , 

melyn blaen bedO, gOedO hauot : 

g6ae a haed meuyl yr bychot. lO 

d Kalan gayaf, crOm blaen gOrysc, 
V ^ ' ■ : gnaOt qjDenn dirieit teruysc : 
He ny bo da6n ny byd dysc. 

^ Kalan gaeaf, garO hin, 
y^^"-^ anhebic y gynteuin:^^ ^''^^ ^ it 

namwyn Du6 nyt oes dewin. 

Kalan gaeaf, kein gyfreu' ' 
adar, byrr dyd, ban cogeu : 
trugar daff^r.DuC goreu. 

Kalan gayaf, kalet cra^^^ ^„ 20 

u> *^^purdu bran, buan o vras^ 

am gOymp hen chwerdit gOen gOas. 



226 MORAL VERSES 

Kalan gaeaf, cul kerwyt, 

gwae wann pan syrr ; byrr vyd byt : 

gOir gOell hegarOch no phryt. 

Kalan gayaf, IlOm godeith, 
arady r yn rych, ych yg gweith : 
or kant edit kedymdeith. 



22/ 

VII. DOOMSDAY. 

Deus Du6 delwat, 

G61edic, gCaed neirthyat. 

Crist Jessu gOyliat, 

R6ysc rihyd amnat 

Aduelach kaffat. 5 

Nym gCnel heb ranned 

Moli dy trugared. 

Ny dyfu yma, 

GCledic, dy gynna. 

Ny dyfu, ny dyfyd lO 

Neb kystal a Douyd, 

Ny ganet yn dyd pl6y6 

Neb kystal a Du6. 

Nac nyt adef 

Neb kystal ac ef . 15 

Vch nef, is nef 

Nyt gGledic namyn ef . 

Vch mor, is mor 

Ef an creGys. 

Pan dyffo De6s, 20 

Ef an gwnaho maOr trOs. 

Dyd braOt yn echwrys. 

Kennadeu o dr6s 

Gwynt a mor a than, 

Luchet a tharyan, 25 

Eiryf ab^ gOengan. 

]L6yth byt yg griduan 

ErgelaOr, dygetaOr HaOhethan. 

ErgelhaOr mor a syr^, 

1. leg. eiry fab? 2. leg. ser. 



228 DOOMSDAY 

Pan discynho Pater 

Y dadyl ae nifer, 

A chyrn gopetror 

Ac ennynnu mor. 
5 LlOyth byt IloscetaOr 

Hyny uCynt marwaCr, 

LoscaOt ynyal ran 

Rac y vaCr varan. 

Ef tynho aches 
lO Rac y varan res. 

Dififurn dyd reges 

G6ae ae harhoes. 

Ef tardho talaOr ; 

Terdit nef y laCr. 
15 G6ynt rud dygetaCr 

Ech y gadOynaOr. 

Neu byt mor wastat 

Mai pan great. 

Seith Pedyr ae dywaOt, 
20 Dayar diwarnaCt. 

DywaCt duO SadCrn 

Dayar yn vn ffOrn. 

SadCrn vore rCyd 

In gOnaho ny CulOyd. 
25 Tir bydaOt tywyd, 

GOynt y todo g6yd. 

Ebryn pop dyhed, 

Pan Iosco mynyded. 

Atuyd triganed 
30 A chyrn rac rihed. 

KyfoethaOc ae henuyn, 

Mor a tir a Hyn. 

Atuyd cryn dygryn 



DOOMSDAY 229 

A dayar gychwyn. 

Ac uch pop mehyn 

A marO mein uudyn. 

Eryf argelCch 

Ac enynnu llOch. 5 

Ton aghyolOch, 

Taryan ymrythOch. 

TeithyaOc afar 

Ac eryf trCy alar 

Ac enynnu trOy var 10 

Rwg nef a dayar. 

Pan dyffo TrindaOt 

Y maes maestaCt, 

Lu nef ymdanaC, 

L6yth Ilydan attaO, 15 

Kyrd a cherdoryon, 

A chathleu egylyon. 

Drychafant o vedeu ; 

Eirant o dechreu. 

Eirant kOn coet, 20 

Ar gymeint adoet. 

A rewinyOys mor 

A wnant maCr gaCr, 

Pryt pan dyffo 

Ef ae gOahano. 25 

*' Y saOl a uo meu, 

Ymchoelant o deheu. 

A digonOy kamwed, 

Ymchaelent y perthgled. 

Ponyt erlys dy gyfreu 30 

A lefeir dy eneu ? 

Dy vynet yn du hynt yn nanheu 

Yn tywyll heb leuuereu. 



230 DOOMSDAY 

Ac ym oed y ereu, 

Ac ym oed i ieitheu, 

Ac ym oed i ganwlat 

Ac eu cant Iloneit. 
5 Canuet gClat pressent 

Ny bum heb gat went. 

Oed mynych kyfar chwerC 

Yrof am^ kefynderO. 

Oed mynych kyryscGydat 
lO Yrof y am kywlat. 

Oed mynych kyflafan 

Yrof i ar truan. 

Am goryO h6n vyth ; 

Nym gCnaei dyn byth. 
15 Am gy rrCys yg croc, 

A wydCn yn oc. 

Am gyrrCys ym pren 

DipynCys vym pen. 

TafaO ti vyn deu troet, 
20 Mor tru eu hadoet. 

Taua6 dy 'r boenet, 

Escyrn vyn tract. 

Taua6 dy vyn d6y vreich ; 

Ny ny dybyd eu beich. 
25 TauaC dy vyn d6y yscOyd ; 

Handit mor dyuyd. 

TauaC dy 'r cethron 

Y myCn vyg callon. 

TauaC dy gethraCt 
30 Yrwg vyn deu lygat. 

TauaC yr da allat, 

Coron drein ym iat. 

TauaC dy oestru, 

1. MS. eim. 



DOOMSDAY 231 

A wanpOyt vyn tu. 

Teu yO chitheu 

Mai yr yOch IlaO deheu. 

lOch ny byd madeu 

Vy gwan a bereu." 5 

"A wledic, ny wydyem 

Pan oed ti a grogem. 

G61edic nef, gOledic pop tut, 

Ny wydem ni, Grist, tut vyhut. 

Bei ath 6ybydem, 10 

Crist, ath athechem.'* 

**Nyt aruoHir gCat 

Gan lOyth eissyfflat. 

DigonsaOchi anuat 

Yn erbyn Dofydyat. 15 

Can mil egylyon 

Yssyd imi yn tyston, 

A doeth ym kyrchaC 

G6edy vyg crogaC. 

Yg croc yn greulet 20 

Myhun ym gCaret. 

Yn nefoed bu cryt, 

Pan ym crogyssit. 

Pan orelwis Keli 

Dy CulCyd vch keli. 25 

A chenOch deu ieuan 

Ragof y deu gynran, 

A deu lyfyr yn ach HaG 

Yn eu darlleaO. 

Nys deubi ryrys 30 

RygossCy rygossys. 

Ac aOch bi wynnyeith 

GOerth aOch ynuyt areith. 



232 DOOMSDAY 

Kayator y dyleith 
ArnaCch y vffern Ileith.'* 
Crist Jessu uchel ry seilas trycha[n] mil 
blCydyned, 
5 Er pan yttyC ym buched. 

Ac eil mil kyn croc 
Yt lewychi Enoc. 
Neu nyt atwen drut 
Meint eu heissyllut. 
10 GOlat pressent yth ermut, 

A chyt aOch bei odit. 
Trychan mil blOydyned namyn vn 
Oric odit buched tragywyd. 



233 



VIII. TO GWENWYNWYN. 

Ysym arglOyd gOrd, gordiuOng y var, 

^ ^'IgojdOy neb nyC hjystCag)*^*^^^ *^ 
I r^*^ gly^ diwteiS gCrdvleid^ gorvlOg,^^^''*'^ ^,, 
gle6 dywal, ny dal, ny dCg.^i^""'' X 

Yssit ym arglCyd aerglGyf ner nerthuaOr,^ 5 

aerlleC Hatir,^ IlaCch niuer, ,v -^tV^^ 
- ^/^ ny oleith Ileith yr Ilyf yrder, 

ny odef cam, nyw kymer.H^"^ 

Yssit ym arglOyd eurgledyfrud gaOr, t ^J-^' * 

<?^^ breisc IlafnaCr br6ysc nofrud,f^'^^ lO 

"^^^> ' 3 ny daCl Crtn aelmaCl^'maCruud, f ' ^^^ 

Yssit ym argl6yd argledyr anaC beird, 
am bardeir yn eidaO, 
^. am karyat kadarn arnaO, ^5 

am kerd, am kynnelj^ ohonaO. 

Yssit ym arglOyd argledyr cat a tharyf, 
9^ • a theruyn ar gy wlat,^-^^ »-'>-'' 
klotuaOr Ila6f, HaO aghaeat, ^--'^' 
' v-f>,v>^ koryf toryf, teruysc oe anghat.^^*^' 20 



Yssit ym wledic wlat amdiffyn Hary, 'f'^ ^^"'^ 
(Ilawer dyn ae govyn) y^ '-'«""' >-"' 

^'t '/" gwalchlan^;wospiarth ^wartlf ^^wrthryii^ 
gOalpar g6anar GOenwynwyn. 

^T over d ^r over 6 



234 



IX. CYNDDELW TO RHYS AB GRUFFUDD, 

(*) Black Book, page 39^. 

Assuynaw naut Duv diamhev^ y daun 
ae donyauc wiffinnhev. 
ar dy guir erir aerev. 
ar dy gulad guledic dehev. 

5 Assuinaf archaf eirchad ymgelwir. 

naut kyuir kygwastad. 
ar dy drissev aer. drussad. 
ar di drissaur gvaur gwenvlad. 

Assuinaw archaw arch vaur y periw. 
10 a peris new a Haur. 

naut rac dy uar car kertaur. 
ar dy pirth ar di porthaur. 

Assuinaf naut haut haelon deheuparth 
diheuporth kertorion. 
15 ath turuf oth tarianogion. 

ath toryf oth teern meibon. 

Assuinaf ych naut na cheluch ych porth. 
can p^rthin attreguch. 
gostecwir llis gosteguch. 
20 gostec beirt bart aglywuch. 

Assuinaf naut haut^ haelvonet worsset. 
nyth orsseiw teernet. 
ar dy torif coryf kywrisset 
ar dy teulu teilug met. 
1. MS. diamehv. 2. MS. haut naut with marks of transposition. 



CYNDDELW TO RHYS AB GRUFFUDD 235 

Metcuin ev gwiraud metkirn ae gwallav. 
ae gwellig in eurdirn. 
a gloev y ved in edirn. 
a gliv deur. a glev teeirn. 

Teernweilch Fride'm prydaw ych priwgert. 5 

ych pr/wclod a digaw. 
ych bart ych beirnad vytaw. 
ych porth p^rthin yv ataf. 

Attep a ganaw ar canhuyw vy argluif 

ergliv. wi. can dothuif. 10 

Ileissaun lliw Ilev gliv glevrvit. 
Ilaessa di var di bart wif. 

Viw kertaur im ruw. ruisc. morkimlaut gurt. 
ruisfirt kirt kert. vahaut. 
assuin asserv herv hirvlaut. 15 

assuinaf ar wut naw. naut. 

(b) Red Book. 
DadolCch Rys vab Gruffud. KyndelO ae cant. 

Ass6ynaf naCd Du6 (diarnheu dy da6n, 
ath doXyaCc 6yf inneu) 
ar dy wfr, erff' aereu, 20 

ar dy wlat,^wledic deheu. 

AssGynaf, archaf arch vaOr y beryf 
a beris nef a HaOr, 
naOd rat dy var, car kerdaOr, 
ar dy byrth, ar dy borthaCr. 25 

AssOynaf, archaf (eirchat ym gelwir) 
naOd kywir ky^^gwastat 
ar dy drysseu, aer drGssyat, 
ar dy dryssaCr, gCawr gCenwlat. 



236 CYNDDELW TO RHYS AB GRUFFUDD 

\l, AssOynaf aOch naOd, na chelOch aOch porth, 

can perthyn attregCch. 
Gostecwyr llys, gostegOch: 
" Gostec, beird ! bard a glywch." 

5 Ass6ynaf naCd ha6d haelon deheubarth, 

diheuborth kerdoryon, 
» ath daryf oth duranogyon, 

ath doryf ath deyrnueibyon. 

AssOynaf naCd ha6d haeloned worsaf 
10 (nyth orseif teyrned) 

I, ar dy doryf, koryf kywryssed, 

ar dy deulu teilCng med. 

Medgwyn eu gOyn eu gOiraOt, medgyrn ae gOarchae, 
ae gOercheidO yn eurdyrn, 
1 5 ,. a gloeO yfet yn etyrn, 

a gly6 de6r, a gleO deyrn. 

Teyrnweilch Prydein, prydaf aCch prifgerd, 
aOch prifglot a dygaf, 
aOch bard, aOch beirnyat vydaf, 
20 aCch porth perthyn y6 attaf . 

Atteb a ganaf a ganOyf ; arglOyd, 
erglyO vi, kan dothCyf. 
*t LeissaCn llyC, IleO glyO gleO rOyf, 
Ilaessa dy var, dy vard 6yf. 

25 Wyf kerdaOr ym r6yf rCysc morgvnilaCd gCyrd, 

rOysc ffyrd, kyrd kerd wahaOd. 
AssOyn asserO herO hirvlaOd, 
assGyuaf ar ud naf na6d. 



237 



X. A RELIGIOUS POEM. 

(^■^^"'' ^^'^-^ 
■' Black Book. 

In enu domni 

meu y. voli. 

maur y uolaud. 



Molawe douit. 
maur y kinnit 

ar y cardaud. 

Duu an amuc. 
Duu an goruc. 

Duu an guaraud. 

Duu an gobeith. 
teilug pirfeith. 

tec y purfaud. 

Duu an dyli. 
Duu issi vry. 

vrenhin trindaud. 

Duu a broued 
in y truyted 

in^ y trallaud. 

Duu a dyfu. ^ 

oe garcharu 

gan vuildaud. 

Guledic deduit 
an gunel in rit 

erbin dit braud. 



Red Book. 
^ Yn enO Dni, 
meu y rjiroli ; 

maOr y molaOt. 



Molaf Douyd/"^ 5 

maOr y |ynnyd ^^p;. 

ar y cardaOt. <^^* .,' - 
•^ J....... ,. 

DuO an hamuc, *^- 
Duw an goruc, 

DuO an gOaraOt. 10 



DuO an gobeith, ! 
^-^^ teilOng perffeith, 

tec y purffaOt.V^ 



rv 



DuO an dyly, 
DuO yssy J^ry, 

brenhin trindaOt. 

DaO a prouet 
ynn yn drOydet -^"^ 
drOy y drallaOt. 



IS 



20 



Duw a dyuu 
oe garcharu ^t"*' 
gan uvulldaOt. 

GOledic detwyd l>^>^^^ 
an gOnel ni yn ryd 

erbyn dyd braO[t]. 25 



1. drwy M.A. 



238 



A RELIGIOUS POEM 



An duch ir gulet 
ir y varet. 

ae werindaud. 

Ym paraduis. 
5 im pur kynnuis 

rac puis pechaud. 

An gunel iechid 
ir y penid 

ae pimp dirnaud. 

lo Dolur eghirith. 
Duu an diffirth 

ban kymirth cnaud. 

Din a collei 
bei nas prinhei 
15 diuei devaud. 

Or croc crevled 
y deuth guared 
ir vedissyaud. 

Kadarn bugeil 
20 Crist nid adweil. 
y teilygdaud 



oJ^--^ 



An dOc yr wled 
yr y wared 

ae werindaOt. 

Ym ParadOys, 
ym pur gynnOys 
4^*^ rac pOys pechaOt. 

An gOnel iechyt 
' ^.rypenyt ;^.- 

ae pym dyrnkOt. 

Dolur eghyrth — 
DuO an diffirth, .^^ 

pan gymerth knaOt. 

Dyn a gollei 
pei nas prynei — 
|;;^|^^^ diuei deuaOt. p^*^^-'' 

Or groc greulet 
y deuth gwaret 

yr vedissyawt. 

Cadarn uugeil 
Crist nyt adueil 
y teilyngdaOt. 



/:^ 



239 



XL A DIALOGUE BETWEEN UGNACH UAB 
MYDNO AND TALIESSIN. 

"Marchauc a girch y dinas, 
ae cun gwinion ae cirn bras, 
nythadwaen, mi ryth welas." 

" Marchauc a kirch ir aber 
y ar march cadarn kadfer, S 

dabre genhiw ; nym gwatter.'r >(•'"** 

"Mi nyd aw ina iri^aur, 
gotev gueith y godriccaur : 
elhid bendith new a llaur." 

"Y gur nim guelas beunit lo 

y^ tebic y gur deduit, 
ba hid ei dy? a phan doit?" 

"Ban deuaw o Caer Seon 
o imlat ac Itewon, 
it aw Caer Lev a Gwidion." 15 

"Dabre de genhiw ir dinas, 
ath uit met ara phellas, ' 
ac eur coeth ar di wanas." 

" Mi nyd adwaen y gur hy 
f,^. JL &x^' ; a metev tan a gveH : 20 

"{ tec a chuec y diwedi." 

1. leg. vyt. 



240 A DIALOGUE 

"Dabre genhiw im tino, 
ath uit guin gorysgelho, 
Vgnach yw vy heno^mab Mydno." 

"Vgnach, bendith ith orsset ! 
5 ath vo rad ac enrydet ! 

Taliessin viw inheu, talaw itti dy 
gulet."(-' 

"Taliessin, penhaw or guir, 
beitad yg kert kyuergir, 
lo ^ trie ima hid dyv merchir."^ 



Vgnach, mvihaw y alaw, 
ath vo rad y gulad penn 
ny haetaw kabil, ny thrigiaw." 



ath vo rad y gulad pennhaw 



2. ir added in a later hand. 



241 



XII. WINTER. 

Llym awel, Hum brin, 
anhaut caffael did itV*^*^ 
llicrid rid, reuhid llin, 
ry seiw gur ar vn conm. 

Ton tra thon toid tu tir, ^ 

goruchel guaetev rac bron banev 
bre : breit allan or seuir. 

Oer lie lluch rac brythuch , ^>> 
gaeaw, crin caun, calaw truch/ 
kedic awel, coed in i bluch. lo 

Oer guely pisscaud yg kiss6aud . 

iaen, cul hit, cSiin barywhaud^ -"^^"^ 
birr diuedit, guit gvyrhaud.^ ^ ^- 

Ottid eiry, guin y cnes, 

nid a kedwir oe negQS, 15 

oer llinnev, eu llyu heb tes, 

Ottid eiry, guin aren^^^ 
segur yscuid ar iscuit hen, 
ryuaur gui;^t, reuhid dien?^^ 

Ottid eiry ar warthaw rev^, k 20 

go^cupid guint^ blaen guit tev, 
kadir yscuid ar yscuit glev.''^ 

1. In MS. res has been altered later to reo. 
2. MS. gint 



242 WINTER 



C'' 



Ottid eiry, tohid istrad, 
diuryssint vy keduir y cad, 
mi nid aw, anaw nim gad. 

Ottid eiry o dv riv, 
karcharaur goruit, cul biv, 
nid annuyd hawdit heliv. 

Ottid eiry, guin j^oror^ 
mynit, Hum guit Hog ar mor 
meccid Hvwyr Hauer kyghor. 



Glossary 



GLOSSARY 



The paragraphs refer to the Grammar, voc. = causing vocalic mutation (lenation). nas. = 
causing nasal mutation, spir. = causing spirant mutation, coll. = collective, n.l. =nomen loci, 
chw follows c, 8 follows d, ng follows g in the order of the alphabet. ^ 



1. a (VOC.) rel. part. § 82 tf. With 
pers. pron. (§ 48 ff.) sg. 1 am, sg. 2 
ath (voc), sg. and pi. 3 ae, ay, as, 
pi. 1 an, pi. 2 ach. 

2. a(voc.)inteEr. part. §239. With 
pres. of copula ae. ae . . ae whether . . 
or. 

3. a (voc.) inter j. §243. 

4. a (spir.) prep, loith, see 1. ac. 

5. a (spir.) conj. and, see 2. ac. 

6. a (voc) prep., see 1. o. 

6. a- used to infix pronoun. §94. 
With pers. pron. sg. 1 am, sg. 2 ath, 
sg. and pi. 3 as. 

abad m. an abbot; pi. -eu. 

aballu to perish. 158, 15. 
v' aber a river-mouth, estuary. 

aber-fa f. harbour, harbourage. 

aberth sacrifice. 150, 17. 

abid f . a habit, monastic dress. 
^ abreiS scarcehj, hardly. 159, 10. 
197, 20. 200, 17'. 

1. ac, a (spir.) prep, with, §162. 
With art. ar; withposs. adj. sg. 1 am, 
sg. 2 ath (voc), sg. 3 m. ae (voc) 
f. ae (spir.), pi. 1 an, pi. 2 ach, 
pi. 3 ae. 

2. ac, a (spir. ) conj. and, as. § 198. 
With art. ar ; with poss. adj. sg. 1 
am, sg. 2 afli (voc.) etc. ac . . ac 
both . . and. 

1. ach (awch, ych) your. §§ 57, 58. 

2. ach lineage, descent; pi. -oe5. 

3. ach, see 1. a, 1. ac, 2. ac. 
achaws m. cause, reason, pa a. 

why? 218, 16. o a. because § 199. 
Cf. achwysson. 

achenoctid, see ang-henoctid. 

aches (from Lat. accessus) flood- 
tide. 228, 9. See CZ. V, p. 566. 

achlan entire, all. 202, 22. 23. 

achub to occupy, seize, precipitate 
oneself , snatch. 151,5. 180,19. 199, 
12. 201, 20 (see cyfarth). 207, 17. 

achubeid to seize. 152, 8. 

achwanecau to augment, increase. 



achwaneg more. 

achwanegu to increase. 

achwysson (pi.) causes. 161, 15. 

achyfyeith, see anghyfyeith. 

adan f. a wing ; pi. -e5. 203, 19. 

adar (coll. ) birds ; sg. ederyn. 

adaw to leave, allow, pres. ind. 
pass. edir. rB2, 4. 158, 8, 193, 10. 

adeilad to build, a building]; pi. 
-eu. 139, 3. 

ad-feilaw to decay, decline. 238, 20. 



fut. ind. sg. 3 



153, 



§144. 

pret, 
atref 

175, 






ad-fod to exist, be. 
adiyd 228, 29. 33. 

ad-libin a ivretched remnant. 
28. 

ad-na-bod to recognise, know. 
pres. ind. act. sg. 1 adwaen. 

ad-newy5u to renew. 155, 4. 

adolwyn to beseech. 142, 31. 
pi. 3. adologyssant. 149, 10. 

adref homeward. 196, 9. 
198, 29. 

adwaen, see adnabod. 

adwy a gap, opening ; pi. -eu. 
17, 

Sidsisfit, meet, suitable. 

aSassu to fit, adjust. 150, 26. 

aSaw to promise. 170, 13. 177, 7. 
218, 27. presTmd. sg. 3 eSew 239, 20. ^ 

aSef to acknowledge, admit, allow. 
227, 14. 

aSfelach ? 227, 5. 

a5-fwyn-der m, gentleness, nobility, 
honour. 181, 24. 

a5-oed m. appointed time ; destiny, 
fate. 229, 21. 230, 20. 

aSurn adornment. 163, 29. 

aSurnaw to adorn, decorate. 155, 5. 

1. ae, see La. 2. ae, see 2. a. 

3. ae, see 1. ac. 4. ae, see 2. ac. 

aed, see myned. 

Ae5 (Ir. Aed) n. pr. m. 201, 14. 

aeSfed ripe, mature. 165, 20. 

aer slaughter ; pi. -eu. 

Aer n. pr. m. 195, 26. 

aer-fa f. slaughter ; pi. -eu. 



246 



GLOSSARY. 



Si^T-gWryi dealing tvounds in battle. 
233, 5. 

aer-llew m. lion of battle. 233, 6. 

aeth, see myned. 

aeth-lym keen and sharp. Aeth-lem 
f. the name of a soiv. 207, 8. 

af, see myned. 

Afallach n.l. Avallon. 

afar m. grief 229, 8. 

af-lony5u to incommode. 209, 23. 

aflonySwch disturbance. 148, 6. 

afon I. a river; pi. -oeS. 

afory to-morrow. 203, 28. 

Affnc Africa. 
•^ affwys m. an abyss, deep, bottom. 
197, 29. 206, 32. 207, 2. 

agalen f. a whetstone. 194, 14. 
X, agori to open ; part, agoredig. 

agos near ; comp. nes ; sup. nessaf. 

angel an angel ; pi. engylyon. 

angerSm. vehemence, force. 151, 17. 
184, 24. 186, 4. 

angeu, see angheu. 
•^ anghad f . hand. 233, 20. 
- anghaead unclosed, open, liberal. 
233, 19. 

anghen (agen) m. need, necessity ; 
a. yn a. by sheer necessity 206, 14; 
cf. Hg. II. 197, 25. 

anghenoctid (achenoctid) ivant, 
indigence. 142, 20. 146, 3. 

angheu (agheu, ageu) f. death. 
150, 15. 

angheuawl deadly ; mori 
wounded. 159, 8. 18. 183, 26. 

anghlywedig unheard of 

anghreiflt(agreifft, agriff ) example. 
165, 12. 

anghyf-nerth helplessness, im- 
potence. 143, 6, 

anghyf-reith injustice, wrong. 

anghyfreithiawl unjust, wrongful. 

anghyfrwys untrained, unskilled. 

anghyf-yeith alien in speech, 
foreign. 191, 19. pi. -ySyon. 153, 17. 

anghyolwch ? 229, 6, 

aho, see myned. 
V alaf wealth ; pi, -oeS. 164, 9. 

Alban Scotland, yr A. 141, 7. 
^ allan out, outwards, outside, o 
hynny a. thenceforth. 

allt a cliff. A. Clwyd (wrongly, 
instead of Clud) Dumbarton. 

all-tud a foreigner, alien; exile. 

am (voc.) prep, about, on account 
of § 164. am hynny therefore. 

am-blygu to embrace. 148, 12 v. 1. 



amcawS said (he). amkeuSant 
said they. § 133 (&). 

SLtn-Siffynto defend,protect; defence. 
amSiffynwr m. a defendant in a 



am-gadarnedig confirmed, ratified. 

amgen different, nyd a. namely. 

amherawdyr m. an emperor ; pi. 
amherodron. 

amherodraeth f. empire, do- 
minion. 

amheu to doubt, dispute, call in 
question. 

amlach, amiaf, see amyl. 

amlwg clear, manifest. 

ammreiniawl (ambreinawl) without 
privilege. 221, 16. 

amnad ? 227, 4. 

amod m. a covenant, compact. 
149, 17. 150, 20. 158, 24. 159, 10. 
-^ amryfael vaHous, different ; pi. -on. 

amryson a quarrel. 223, 2. 

am-ryw various, divers. 

am-sathyr a treading, moving of 
feet. 193, 15. 

amser m. time ; pi. -oe5. 
^' amug, see amwyn. 
^ amws m. a stallion ; pi. emys. 
w Sim-vryn to protect. §133(6). pret. 
ind. act. sg. 3 amug. 

Amw3rthig Shrewsbury. 161, 31. 

amyl frequent ; numerous ; comp. 
amlach; sup. amlaf. 

amylder plenty, abundance, multi- 
tude. 145, 23. 

amylhau to increase, augment. 

1. an (yn) our. § 57. 

2. an, see 1. a. 

3. an, see 1. and 2. ac. 
anadyl breath. 

^ anaf m. a blemish, wound. 242, 3. 

ansiw poetry, muse. 233,13. 

anaw5, see an-haw5. 

an-dylyedus illegal, ivrong. 167, 26. 

an-eiryf innumerable, countless ; 
a countless number. 184, 27. 

an-fad evil, crime. 231, 14. 
V an-feidrawl immense. 

' anfon to send, dispatch, pres. ind. 
sg. 3 enfyn 228, 31. 

Angiw Anjou. 

an-haw5 not easy, difficult. 241, 2. 
^ anhebig (y) unlike, dissimilar {to). 
225, 15. 

anheilwng unworthy. 

anher, see hanher. 
\anifeil m.an animal, beast; pi. -eid. 



GLOSSARY. 



247 



annerch to greets address ; pi. -eu 
greetings. 143, 8. 

annobeithaw (o) to despair {of). 

sinnod delay. 171, 27. 

annoeth (anoeth) a precious thing ; 
pi. -eu. 165, 13. 187, 13. Cf. Arch. 
I, p. 453. 

annog to urge, encourage, recom- 
mend, 

annwyd nature, temper. 242, 6. 

anolo void, worthless, nugatory. 

an-osteg^ f. disturbance, disorder. 

anreg f. a dish of meat ; pi. -yon. 
163, 31 (fercula). 

anreithaw to plunder, ravage. 

anreithwr m. a plunderer. 

anrydeS, see enrydeS. 

ansaw^ f . condition, nature, quality, 
state, station. 160, 10. ' 180, 6. 

ansoSedig established, founded. 

ant, see myned. 

an-udonawl perjured, treacherous, 
wicked. 149, 31 v. 1. 

an-uundeb (-dab) discord, disunion, 
conflict. 167, 30. 

an-waethach no less. 145, 20 v. 1. 

anwyl a friend ; pi. -yd. 160, 26. 

anyanawl natural, native, innate. 

1. ar (voc.)prep. on,over,for, before. 
§ 165. unthin 146, 25. ar hynt there- 
upon. About to, on the point of. 
ar gychwyn 225, 2. 

2. ar, see 1. and 2. ac. '"^^ - 

3. ar=a (rel. part.) + ry, see § 95 
note. 

4. ar, see 1. o. 

• aradyr a plough. 

araf slow, gentle, mild. 155, 27, 

arall another, other; pi. ereill. 
§ 68. ereill . . ereill some . . others. 

arbed to spare, save. 153, 23. 

ar-benhigf chief, principal. 

arch f. a request. 153, 34. 234, 9. 

arch-esgob m. an archbishop; pi. 
archesgyb. 

archesgobaeth an archbishopric ; 
pi. -eu. 

archesgobawd f . an archbishopric. 

archesgob-dy m. an archbishop's 
palace. 

archyssant, see erchi. 

ar-dymheru to temper, warm. 
143, 13. 

ar-5elw a voucher. 215, 30. 

ar-5erchawg exalted, noble, illus- 
trious. 

ar-5erchocau to exalt, honour. 



ar-5yrchafel to raise, exalt ; part. 
ar-5yrchafedig. 

areith f. a speech. 231, 33. 

aren (arien) hoarfrost. 241, 17. 

• arf m. a weapon ; pi. -eu. 

arfawg armed. 

ar-fer to be wont, be accustomed ; 
use, wont. 

arferu (o) to use, employ, enjoy, be 
accustomed. 

arfoll to entertain, receive. 148, 10 ; 
231, 12. 

ar-gelwch concealment, seclusion. 
229, 4. 

ar-gledyr m. a protector. 

arglwyS m. a lord ; pi. -i. 

arglwySes f . a lady, mistress. 

arglwySiaeth f. lordship. 

ar-gyfreu a marriage f^ortion. 
140, 12. 24. 

ar-gywe5u (y) to injure, hurt. 

arnaf etc. , see ar § 53. 

aros to await, expect, wait, past 
subj. sg. 3 arhoei; pret. sg. 3arhoes. 

arth m. a bear. 172, 27. 

aruthreS terror, fear. 172, 28. 

aruthyr terrible, fearful. 172, 29. 

ar-we5u to bear, wield. 159, 3. 

arwein to carry, bear. 163, 3. 10. 

arwyS f. a token, mark; a battle- 
standard ; signal ; pi. -on. 150, 26. 
158, 32. 180, 4. 183, 8. 194, 22. 

arwySocau to signify, imply. 

aryant silver. 

as (es), see 1. and 6. a. 

asgell a wing ; pi. esgyll. 

asgell-wrych m. spray. 154, 18. 

asgrifenu, see ysgrifenu. 

asgwrn a bone ; jpl. esgyrn. 
t^sserw bright, brilliant. 235, 15. 

assw (asseu) left. 

asswyn an invocation. 235, 15. 

asswynaf / invoke, entreat. 

at (voc.) prep. j5o. §§ 53, 166. 

attal to restrain, withhold, hinder. 

atteb (at-heb) m. to answer ; an an- 
swer, defence; pi. -yon. 167,19. 169,1. 
'^attregwch a stopping, delay. 
234, 18. 236, 2. 

1. ath, see 1. and 6. a. 

2. ath, see 1. and 2. ac. 
athechem? 231,11. 
athoeS, see myned. 

athraw a teacher ; pi. -on. 145, 3. 
161, 11. 219, 13. 
awdurdawd m. authority. 222, 7. 
awch, see ach. 



248 



GLOSSARY. 



awel m. a breeze, tvind. 241, 1. 
awn, see myned. 

awr f. houi\ yn a. noiv. 239, 7. 
yr a. hon noiv. 142, 15. 
awssen absence. 177, 6. 
awst August. 166, 16. 

1. ay, see 1. a. 

2. ay, see 1. and 2. ac. 

ba, see pa. 

bach a bend, angle. 198, 8. 
y' baeS m. a boar. b. coed a wild 
boar. 184, 12; pi. beiS. 201, 16. 

BaSon n. 1. Bath. 179, 31. 

bagyl f . a crook, crutch. Cwrr y 
Fagyl n. 1. 204, 4. 

1. ban loud. 227, 18. 

2. ban, see pan. 

bann a height ; pi. baneu 241, 6. 
b. y gaer battlement ; 196, 1. 

banw a pigling, porchell . . hyt 
tra uo en denu . . ac o henne eny el 
e moch yr coet banu vyt BCh. 92, 28. 
v' bar m. wrath, anger. 229, 10. 
233, 1. 

baraf, see baryf. 

baran ivrath, fury. 280, 8. 

baran-res rank of soldiers, host. 
228, 10. 

Barberfloi n. 1. Barfleur. 
«^bar5 ni. a poet, bard ; pi. beirS. 
v- bar5-eir song, panegyric. 235, 14. 

barfawg bearded. 199, 31. 

ham judgment. 188, 6 v, 1. 

barnu to judge, decide, fix, pass judg- 
ment, deem. past. part, barnedig. 

barwn m. a baron ; pi. -eid, -yeid. 

baryf (baraf) a beard. 

baryf hau to grow a beard. 241, 12. 
Cf. baryf -Iwyt rew FB. 244. 9. 

h3ithon3ie.^i. mintage, mint. 223,14. 

bedissyawd f. the universe. 238, 18. 

bedw f. (coll.) birch-trees. 225, 9. 

Bedwyr n, pr. m. 

beS m. a grave ; pi. -eu. 

1. bei, bey, see bod. 

2. bei a faidt. 

beich a burden, load. 230, 24. 

beiSad m. a challenger. 240, 9. 
\/beirnad (beirnyad) m. a judge. 
235, 7. 236, 19. 

bendigedig blessed. 

bendyth (bendith) f. a blessing. 

bennwig f. a young sow. 205, 19. 

ber a spike, lance ; pi. -eu. 231, 5. 

beth, see peth. 

beunySyawl daily. 190, 9. 



biw f. cattle. 242, 5 ; a standard 
of value, teirbuw 211,5. 

blaen m, point, top, end, front. 
or b. in front, oe f. before him, ym 
b. pawb before any one else, yn ol ac 
ym b. behind and before. 

blaen-we5 highest state, summit. 
169, 21. RB. II. 41, 33. 

blawS tumult, commotion. 235, 15. 
^blei5-ast f. a she- wolf. 

blin weary, wearisome. 

blinaw to iveary, molest, harass. 

blinder iveariness. 

blodeuaw to flourish, prosper. 186,1. 

blwch? 241,10. 

blwySyn f , a year ; pi. -e5. 

blynghau to become angry, to frown. 
140, 7. 172, 23. 

blyneS f. years (after numerals). 

bo, see bod. 

bocsach f. a boasting, vaunting. 
174, 13. 

boch, see bod. 

bod to be, state of being (verbsubst. 
and copula) § 152 ff. 

bo5 goodwill, pleasure, oc eu b. of 
their own free unll. 156, 6. 12. 

bo5i to drown. 

bogel f. the navel, 174, 25. 

Bolwyn n. 1. Boulogne. 184, 31. 

bon stem, root, stump; pi. -eu. 

boneS lineage, noble birth. 162, 1. 

hovihebi^ hereditary, innate 180, 15 : 
noble; pi. -yon; superl. bonheSickaf. 

bore m. morning, y b. in the 
morning. 225, 3. 

brad m. and f . treachery, plot. 

bradwr m. a traitor ; pi. bradwyr. 

bran m. and f. a raven; pi. brain. 

bras stout, fat. 241, 2. 227. 20. 
Cf . Gnawd buan o vain, gnawd buan 
o vras MA, 845^ 15. 

brath m. a stab, wound. 188, 21. 
^ brathu to luound, stab, spur, impf, 
ind. act. pi. 3 brethynt; impf. ind. 
pass, brethid; part, brathedig. 

1. brawd f. judgment, day of 
judgment. 185, 16. 

2. brawd m. a brother;^!, brodyr, 
broder. 

brawd-le m. a judgment seat, i 

bre hill, promontory; 24|, 7. 
Redyn-fren.l. 

breich m. and f . an arm. 230, 23. 

breiS hardly, scarcely. 241, 7. 

breiSwyd f . a dream, vision. 173, 6 ; 
V. 1. ib. 14. 



GLOSSARY. 



249 



hreiniaT/vl privileged. 219, 14. 

breint (bryein, brein) m. privilege, 
prerogative ; state, condition. 220, 22. 
^ breis^ stout. 233, 10. 

brenhin, (breenhin, brennhin, bren- 
nin) a king ; pi. -e5. 

brenhinawl kingly, royal. 

brenhines f. a queen. 

brenhin-wisg royal robe ; pi. 
-oe5. 

brenhinyaeth f. kingdom. 

brethid, brethynt, see brathu. 

breu brittle. 200, 1. 

breuan f. a handmill, quern. 206, 31. 

briwaw to break in pieces, shatter, 
destroy, past part, briwedig. 147,3. 

broder, brodyr, see brawd. 
^ bron (bronn) breast; pi. bronnoeS; 
dwy-fron breasts, rac b. before, in 
front of; ger b. before; ym b. y dyS 
towards day; cf. ymrou y gorjEfen 
Hg. II, 248, 17 ; dynyon ymron agheu, 
ib. 201, 34. 

V brwysg strong, impetuous, sivift. 
233, 10. 

bry adv. above. 237, 15. 

bryd mind, thought; o un f. with 
one accord. 175, 10. 

bryn (brin) m. a hill, mount. 

brys m. haste ; ar f. in haste. 

bryssyaw to hasten. 

Brytaen f. Britain. B. Fechan 
Brittany. Brytanyeid Britons. 

brythwch tumult, storm 229, 7 ; 
241, 8. brythwch gaeaf MA. 189a46. 

bu, see bod. 

bual a drinking-horn. 
- buan swift, rapid. 151, 21. 

buaned swiftness, fleetness. 
v«^buche5 f. life, salvation. 

bucheSu to live. 165, 9. 
vbuSugawl victorious, gifted. 1 64, 28. 

buSugolyaeth f. victory, triumph ; 
pi. -eu. 144, 5. 

buSyn? 229, 3. 

bugeil m. a shep)herd. 238, 19. 
iiv^'^^ bwich a gap ; pi. bylcheu embra- 
Q^'zures. 164, 22. 

Bwlwyn n. 1. Boulogne. 162, 14. 

hwrd m. a table : pi. byrSeu. 

Bwrgwyn n. 1. Burgundy. 

bwrw to throiv. cast, strike, hit, 
overthroiv. impf. ind, act. sg. 3 
byryei ; pret. ind. sg. 3 byryawS. 



225, 21. 
158, 29. 
150, 15. 



bwyell-ig a small hatchet. 201, 21. 

bwyd m. meat, food. 

bwyta to eat, act of eating. 

bwyttal victuals. 203, 2. 

bychan small. 

bychod a trifle. 227, 10. 

1. byd m. world, gwyn y f. happy 
he! 170, 18. goreu yn y b. best of 
all ; gwas yn y b. any youth. 

2. byd, see bod. 
bydawl earthly. 222, 11. 

bySin f. a troop, division of an 
army ; pi. -oe5. 

bySinaw to array in troops, to draw 
up in battle array. 

byhud ? 233, 9. 

bylchau, see bwlch. 

byrr (birr) short, brief 

byryei, see bwrw. 

byth (fyth) ever, 

byw (1) alive ; (2) life. 

bywyd life. 193, 9 v. 1. 



cabil reproof. 240, 13. 

cad f. (1) battle, ro5i c. ar faes to 
give battle ; (2) a battalion. 

cadarn strong, firm, powerful. 

cadarnhau to strengthen, fortify, 
confirm, ratify, affirm. 

cadeir f . a chair, seat. 

Cadell n. pr. m. 

cad-ffer strong in battle. 241, 5. 
'cad-lys f. a fortified court. 195, 5. 

cadw to keep, preserve, maintain. 

Cad-wallawn n. pr. m. 

cadwent f. battle, fight, contest. 
198, 20; 230, 6. 

cad-wr m. a warrior ; pi. cedwyr. 
241, 15. 242, 2.— n. pr. m. 

cadwyn a chain ; pi. -awr. 228,16, 

cadyr strong, firm. 241, 22. 

cae m. an enclosure, fence. 149, 6. 

cael, see caffel. 

caer f . a citadel, fortress, city. pi. 
ceyryS 156, 31. 193, 2. C. Alclud 
(Ir. Ail Cluaide) Dumbarton, C. 
Efrawg York, C. FaSon Bath, C. 
FudeiSilchester, C. Geint Canterbury, 
C. Idor Dorchester, C. Lew Dinas 
Dinlle^, C. Loyw Gloucester, C. Lyr 
Leicester, C. Lleon Chester, C. Llion 
ar Wysc Caer Icon, C. Lwydcoed 
Lincoln^, C. Seon Segontium,^ C. 

' See Rhys, Celtic Heathendom, p. 406. 

'■^ According to Holder, Altkeltischer Sprachschatz II, col. 192, Letocetum is the old British 
narre for Lichfield in Staffordshire. 

' On p. 239, 1. 13 Caer Seon is confused with C. Sion ' Zion ' ; hence the mention of Jews 
in 1. 14. Cf. Rhys, I.e., p. 272. 



250 



GLOSSARY. 



Weir Wartdek, C. Wynt Winchester, 
C. Wyrangon Worcester. 

caeth captive ; pi. ceith. 

caeu to s'httt, close, fut. ind. pass. 
cayator. 232, 1. 

Cafall the name of one of Arthvr^s 
hounds. Cabal, Nennius ed. Momm- 
sen, p. 217. 

caffel (caffael, cael) to get, seize, 
obtain, succeed 184, 15. pres. ind. sg. 
2 ceffy, pi. 2 ceffwch, pret. pass, 
caffad (cahat), etc. § 145. 

calaf (coll.) stalks, reeds; 241, 9. 

calan m. Calends; c. Awst^r*^ of 
August; c. gaeaf All Saints' Day; 
c. Mei May-day. 

calaneS corpses, pi. of celein. 188, 12. 

caled hard, severe ; pi. -yon. 

Caled-fwlch (Ir. calad-bolg) m. 
hard in making notches, the name of 
Arthur's sword. 

calon (callon) heart ; pi. -eu, -oeS. 

cam crooked, torong; wron^, in- 
justice; gan g. wrongfully, unjustly. 

camgwl a fine, penalty. 225, 3. 
V. 1. for camlwrw Leg. Wall. 40b2. 

camlwrw a fine, penalty for the 
lesser offences. 

cam-ryfygu to act arrogantly. 
166, 10. Cp. Hg. I. 219, 28. 

cam-we5 sin, iniquity. 229, 28. 

1. can (gan) (voc.) prep, with, by. 
§167. With pron. end. §53. gellwngy 
eneit gan yr wybyr spiritumin auras 
emisit 159, 25; yr yscymunedickaf 
vradwr gan Vedrawt that most 
accursed traitor of a Medrawd 
189, 15. 

2. can (gan) conj. since. § 202. 

3. can, see 1. cant, 
canal, see cynhal. 

canfed hundredth, a hundredth 
part. 230, 5. 
^^ can-fed to perceive. § 160. 

canhorthwy help, aid. 178, 8. 10. 

canhorthwyaw to help. 176, 8. 

canhwyf, see canu. 

canhym-deith to accompany, keep 
up with. 208, 28. 

cani, see cany. 

can-lyn to follow. 

can-Haw m. a supporter. 212, 11; 
213, 21 ; 214, 10. 

can-mawl to praise, commend. 

canonwr m. a canon ; pi. -wyr. 

cans, see canys. 



1. cant (can) (nas.) m. a hundred. 

2. cant, see canu. 

canu to sing, celebrate in song, 
recite, play; pres. subj. act. sg. 1 
canwyf ; inipf. ind. pi. 3 cenynt ; pret. 
ind. sg. 3 cant. 

can-wlad a hundred countries. 
232, 3. 

can-wr a hundred men 151, 25. 
172, 15. 

cany (cani), before vowels canyd, 
conj. since not, § 202. 
\ cany a.d permission, consent. 217,13. 

canys (cans) i.e., can with the 
present of the copula, for, since. 
§ 202. 

caplan m. a chaplain. 155, 3. 
vcar a friend, relative ; pi. -ant. 

Caranwys Carnotensis. 179, 21. 

carchar m. a prison, gaol. 

carcharawr m. a prisoner; pi. 
carcharoryon. 
. carcharu to imprison. 242, 5. 

cardawd charity, alms. 237, 7. 

earn a cairn. 

carreg a rock ; pi. cerrig. 

carn-wyn having a white hilt. 
Hence carnwennan f., the name of 
Arthur's knife. 207, 31. 

caru to love. impf. ind. act. pi. 3 
cerynt ; past part, caredig. 
^ carw a stag. 196, 29. 

caryad m. love, affection. 233, 15. 

caryant 140, 4, either mis written 
for caryat or formed like mol-yant, 
me5-yant, &c. 

cassau to hate. 
V casseg f. a mare. 

castell m. a castle, fortress; pi. 
cestyll. 

cathyl f. a song, lay, poem ; pi. 
cathleu. 229, 17. 

Catyneis n. 1. Caithness. 145, 11. 

Caw n. pr. m. 201, 19. 

cawn m. (coll.) reed grass, stalks, 
coarse grass; 241,9; 12; sg. 
conin, 

cawr m. a giant, mighty man ; pi. 
cewri. 

cawssei, see caffel. 

cayator, see caeu. 

cedernid strength, force, security, 
violence. 

cedig battlesome, boisterous. 241, 10. 

cedwyr, see cadwr. 

cedymdeith, see cydymdeith. 

cefeis, see caffel. 



GLOSSARY. 



251 



cefyn (keuen) hack ; pl.cefneu ; dan- 

fos eu cefneu to flee, take to flight, 
rachefyn behind, hack, again; trae- 
gefyn hehind him ; dyfod t. to return 
213, 8; trach-eu- cefyn 221, 21; 
drae- cefyn wynteu behind them. 
179, 26. 

cefynderw a cousin, plant yr lien- 
vam a uyd keuyn-dyru BCh. 75, 28. 

ce^in f . a kitchen. 

Cei n. pr. m. Caius. 

ceidwad m. a ivitness ; pi. keidweid. 
-^ ceing f. a branch. 165, 21. 197, 3. 

cein beautiful, fair, delightful. 

Ceint (Cent) Kent. 189, 19. 
• ceissaw to seek, fetch, endeavour. 

ceirch oats. 196, 4. 

ceith, see caeth. 

celfyS skilful, ingenious ; an artist. 

celfySyd f . an art ; pi. celfySodeu. 

cell the heavens. 231, 25. Celi 
God. 231,24. 
^ celu to hide, conceal. 



celwrn m. a piece ? 207, 32, 



190, 10. 
25 = coit 



celwySawg lying, false. 

CelySon: Uwyn C. 148 
Celidon, Nennius, p. 199. 

Celli-wig f. the name of Arthur's 
court in Cornwall, now Callington . 

cenedlaeth f . a race, kind. 

cenedyl f . a race, kind ; pi. cened- 
loeS. 
>/ ceneu m. a ivhelp. 198,32. 199,4. 
32. Ceneu n. pr. m, 162, 3. 

cennad m. and f. a messenger ^ 
emissary, embassy ; pi. -eu. 
- cennadwri f . a message, tidings, 

cenfeint a convent ; pi. cenveinoeS. 

cenwch, see 1. can. 

cerS craft, art, song ; pi. cyrS. 
^ cerSawr m. a craftsman, minstrel, 
hard ; pi. cerSoryon. 

cerSed to walk, travel, journey, go. 

cerSedyad a course, motion, 161, 11. 

Ceredigyawn Cardigan, 205, 28. 

cerenhyS relationship, 168, 20. 

Cernyw Cornwall, 
^ cerwyd a stag. 226, 1. 

cerwyn f. a caldron. Cwm C, 
n. 1. 204, 15. 
v/cesseil the armpit. 194, 14. 

cethr a spike ; pi. -awd. 230, 29. 

cethron a spike. 230, 27. 

cewi\y8 shame. 141,8. 142,31. 

cewssynt, see caffel. 

ci m. cc hound; coll. 205, 9; pi. 
cwn. 



cicwr a footsoldier; coll. infantry. 
202, 29. 

cig" m. flesh. 

ciglef, see clybod. 

cil a recess, nook. 

Cil-gwri n.l. 
■^Z cilyaw to retreat, desert, fail. -— 

cilyS a mate, fellow. § 72. ^/ ^ j^l ^ ^-^^^ 

ciwdawdwr m.a citizen, inhabitant. '^ A^^; 

claSu to bury. 

claf sick. 143,13. 149,28. 

cleSyf m. a sivord; pi. -eu, per 
metathesim clefySeu. 
• clefyd m. sickness, disease. 161,27. 

clefySeu, see cleSyf. 
t cleigaw to plunge, im^nerse. 206,21. 

cleis a stripe. 194, 14. Cf. maen 
cleis, marble. Lhwyd. — Forth Cleis 
n. 1. 204, 1. 

did a shelter. 241, 2. 

clod m. and f. fame, renown, 

clod-favrr famous, celebrated, 

clodfori to make illustrious, render 
famous. 165, 15. 
/cloff lame. 

clomen (colomen) f. a dove. 163, 10. 

clust m. an ear. 201, 29. 203, 26. 

clwm a tune', pi. clymeu moduli 
147, 14. 

Clwyd a river-name. 204, 17. 

clybod to hear. impf. ind. act. 
sg. 3. clywei ; impf. pass, clywid ; 
pret. ind. sg. 1 ciglef ; sg. 3 cigleu. 
§ 133 b, clybod ar to hear of. 

clymeu, see clwm. 

cna.wdi flesh. 238, 12. 

cnes skin. 241, 14. 

cneuen a nut. 196, 23. 
'Cnithiaw to pluck. 200, 9. 

^coch red. 

cochi toredden, becomered, 173, 16. 

coSyant m. provocation, ofl'ence, 
166, 4. 

coed (coyt) m. {aoW,) a wood, trees ; 
baeS c. a ivild boar. pi. coydyS. 

coeth pure,flne. eur c. reflned gold. 

cof memory, recollection. 

coffau to remember, to call to 



cog a cuckoo ; pi. -eu. 
congyl f. a corner, angle. 204, 9. 
colled m. loss ; pi. -eu 175, 31. 
coUen hazel, '^c. derwen an oak 
ipling. 197, 2, 
colli to lose, be lost. 238, 13. 
conin, see cawn. 
corff a body, corpse. 



252 



GLOSSARY. 



corn a horn, trumpet ; a drinking 
horn. pi. cyrn, cirn. 

coron f . a crown. 
^ coryf2wm7nel, saddle-bow; metaph. 
stay, support. 233, 20; 234, 23. 
Arch. I, p. 487. 

cosh punish77ient, Jine. 217, 18. 

craff Jirm, steadfast. 140, 5. 

eras hard, dry. 225, 20. 

crawn, see croni. 

credu to believe, pres. subj. pi. 2 
crettoch. 

crefy 5us devo ut; a religious person. 
pi. -son. 155, 5. 

crefySwr m. a religious person. 
144, 13 (miswritten for crefftwyr = 
operarii Geoffrey II, 14). 

CreiSylad n. pr. f. 

creir m. a relic ; pi, -eu, 153, 26. 

creirhau to cause to swear by 
relics. 221. 2. 

crettoch, see credu. 

creu to create. 227, 19. 228, 18. 

creu gore, blood. 

creu-lawn blood-thirsty, cruel ; 
eompar. creulonach. 

creulon-der cruelty, tyranny, op- 
pression. 

creu-lyd blood-stained, gory ; f. 
creuled. 231, 20. 238, 16. 

crib f. a comb. 203, 25. 

crin ivithered, brittle. 241, 9. 

Crist Christ. 

cristawn a Christian; pi. cristonog- 
yon. 

cristonogawl Christian. 

crog f . a cross. 

crogaw, crogi to crucify, hang. 

^ croni to hoard, amass, accumtdate. 

pres. ind. act. sg, 3 crawn 233, 12. 

crwm bent. 225, 11. 

crychyad a shake (in music) ; pi. 
-eu. 147, 14 v.l. 

cryd a trembling, tremor. 231, 22. 
^ cryfang a talon; pi. -heu 197, 28. 

cryn a trembling, quaking. 228, 33. 

cryno suitable. 156, 32. eompar. 
-ach. 169, 2. 

crynu to tremble, quake. 184, 22. 
past part, crynedig 152, 16. 
^ cuan an owl 197, 8 ; 9 ; a rock-oivl, 
Lhwyd. 

cuSyaw to cover, hide. 154, 13. 
^ cul lean, thin, emaciated. 

CulwyS God. 228, 24. 231, 25. 

Custenhin n, pr. m. Constantine. 



cwbwl (cwbyl) entire, ivhole. 

cweiraw, see cyweiryaw. 

cwfeint (cwfent) f. convent, assem- 
bly ; pi. cwfenoeS. 
V cwm m. a valley. 197, 12. 

cwnsli m. counsel. 148, 2. 

cwrr an edge, corner. C. y Fagyl 
n.l, 204, 4. 

cwymp m. a fall. 225, 22. 
^cwynaw to lament. 
vcwyn-fan f. a lament, wailing. 
V cychwyn, cychwynnu to set out, 
7nov&, start, deil ar gychwyn = dail 
yn syrthio MA. 361 b, n, 8. 

cyd (ced) conj. though ; § 205. 

cyd ac, y gyd ac together with. 
y gyd yg cyd together 155, 2. § 171. 
y gyd a hjnnj liketvise204,, 26. 218, 20. 

cyd-5io5ef to suffer. 142, 14. past, 
part, -edig (y) suffering {with). 

cyd-5iolch to congratulate. 180, 10. 

cyd-farchawg m. a knight-comrade. 

cyd-gynghor Joint counsel. 155, 2. 

cyd-synyedigaeth f. consent. 145,4. 

cyd-tjrwyssawg m. a Joint leader: 
178, 1. 

cyd-ym-deith m. a companioii, 
comrade ; pi. -on. 

cydymdeithocau to accompany, 
associate with. 146, 4. 

cyf-agos near. 

cyfan whole, entire. 183, 32. 

cyfar trouble, anger ; 230, 7. Cf. 
Rhyfedd ym fyw llyw llawged gan 
gyfar o gwyn gofid MA. 301 a 17.* 

cyf-arch (keuarch) to request, ask ; 
c. gwell to greet ; geir cyfarch a 
supplementary question asked after 
the trial, before the verdict is 
given. 

cyf-ar-fod to 7heet, e7icounter, 
touch ; § 160. 

cyfarth to ba7^k, bay ; ro5i c. r endive 
les abois, to stand at bay. achub yr c. 
(sic leg.) to be first at the cha7^ge. 
^ cyf-arwy5 m. a guide. 

cyf-ar-wyneb(ac)o/J/?os^^e(to)210,5. 

cyf-eillt m. a friend. 
^ cyf-eir f. yn y gyfeir straight 
befo7^e him, headlong. 207, 6. 

cyf-enw a namesake, jg kyuenw 
yr vn dyd ym phen y vlwydyn that 
day a year. 195, 19. 

cyf-ergir m. and f. a conflict, con- 
test. 240, 9. 

cyf-ing narrow, strait. 175, 17. 

cyf-lawn full, complete. 



GLOSSARY. 



253 



cyflafan f. an outrage, slaughter. 

cyf-le m. an opportunity. 159, 16. 

cyflehau to dispose, arrange, place. 
163, 27. 

cyf-lym sharp, quick, speedy. 

cyf-newid (O.W. cyfnofud) f. coin, 
merchandise. 223, 13. Cf. efahoUtir 
furyf y gyfnewit ; haner erwn a vyd 
RB. 2. 146, 19. 

cyfodi to arise. 

cyf-oed having the same age, 
so old. 141, 28. 

cyf-oeth m. power, dominion, king- 
dom, luealth ; pi. -eu. 

cyfoethawg power fid, wealthy. 

cyfoethogi to enrich. 

cyfranc f. an encounter, fight, 
combat. 178, 12. 

cyf-red equally swift. 225, 6. 

cyf-reith f . laiv, right ; pi. -eu. 

cyfreithiawl legal, lawful. 

cyirevL plumage ? 225,17. action? 
229, 30. 
^ cyf-rin a confidant. 225, 5. 

cyfrwch a meeting. 147, 5 (v.l.). 

cyfrwng m. mean, interval, jg c. 
in the midst of 184, 9. 

cyfrwys trained, expert. 186, 19. 
190, 9 v.l. 191, 21. 

cyf-rjrw m. the same kind. 181, 27. 
a kind 161, 27. similar, like, such. 

cyf-uch of equal height, yn g. ac 
on a level with. 174, 30. 
CaU^jJt cyf-un-deb unity, concord. 167,23. 
atJj]^) cyf-yawnhau to adjust, arrange. 
TVr 163, 27 v.l. 

^^^ cyf-yeith having the same lan- 
guage. 196, 13. 

cyf-yl nearness, proximity, yn y 
gyfyl near him. 

cyff m. stock, trunk, stem; pi. -yon. 

cyffelybu to compare, imitate. 

cyffredin common, yn g. in com- 
mon 185, 25. 223, 12. 
[r^cyffrom. excitement. 164,27. 176,6. 
r cyffroi (kefroy) to excite, arouse, 
disturb ; c. cyfreith (haw!) to insti- 
tute a legal action {a claim), past 
part, cyffroedig. 184, 10. 

cyffur occasion, opportunity. 147, 9. 

cynghaws m. a counsel, advocate. 

cyng-hellawr m. a chancellor, the 
king\s principal steward or reeve. 
J cynghelloraeth f. chancellorship. 
y^cyngheusaeth f . a pleading. 

cynghlodforussed equally renown- 
ed. 186, 5. 



cjrnghor (keghor) m. counsel, 
advice; caff el yn y gyghor to decide. 

cynghorfynt envy, malice. 156, 20. 
Cf. LA. 12, 19. 
v^ cynghori to advise. 

cynghreir f. a covenatit, truce. 
159, 12. 

cyngwastad constant. 234, 6. 
235, 27. 

cyhoed public. 222, 12. 

cy-hyd having equal length, yn 
gyhyd ac as long as. 

V cyhyded equality, parity. 221,6.7. 
cylch m. a circle, yg c. around, 

about, towai^ds, concerning ; yn eu c. 
about them, around them ; yg c. 
hynny about that. 

k/ cylchynu to surround, encompass, 
besiege. 146, 17 v. 1. 

cyllell f. a knife, dagger. 

cyllell-bren the wooden lath of a 
scabbard ; pi. -eu 195, 14. wooden 
^tweezers 200, 5. 

cyllell-fawr big-knived. 206, 19. 

cymhell to compel, force, drive, 
exact. c. y law to force one to sur- 
render. 

cymenn wise-, compar. cymhen- 
nach. 175, 28. 

cymer, see cymryd. 

cymmeint of equal size, as much, 
as many, so great, so m,any. 

cymmwd m. a commote, a division 
of country. 

V cymod to propitiate, make peace. 
197, 32. 201, 7. 

cymodawg a neighbour ; pi. cym- 
odogion. 

cymod-loneS a concord, agreement. 

cymrwd mortar. 193, 2. 

Cymry (pi. of Cymro m. a Welsh- 
man) Wales. 154, 10. 203, 31. 222, 4. 

cymryd (kemyrit) to take. pret. 
ind. sg. 3. cymerth, cymirth. c. arnaw 
to feign ; c. eu fforS (hynt) to set out ; 
c. ffo to take to fiight. 

cymyn to entrust. 157, 10. 

cymynediw a command, injunc- 
tion; pi. -eu; 150, 24 ; 166, 26. 

1. cyn (cynn) prep, before. § 170. 

2. cyn (gynn) conj. sooner, before. 
§ 204. gynn noe fyned before he 
goes. 225, 3. 

^3. cyn a stump ; pi. -yon. 197, 14. 

cynadyl a meeting, assembly. 
171, 19. 

cyn-deced as/mV. 163,14. 



254 



GLOSSARY, 



cyn-digrifed as pleasant. 163, 14. 

cyn-dosted equally harsh. 198, 17. 

Cyn-5elig n. pr. m. 162, 7. 

Cyn-5elw n. pr. ni. 

Cyn-farch n. pr. m. 

cynefawd custoin, usage. 163, 24. 
167, 1. 

Cyn-felyn n. pr. m. 

cynhal, cynnal (kanal) to sustain, 
siqyjiort, maintain. 
cynhebig similar, like. 

cynhebygu to compare. 161, 2. 
v/ cynhelu to support. 220, 30. 

cynhen contention, strife, contest; 
pi. cynhenneu. 

cynhyrfu to excite, move. 173, 27. 

cynired to come together, assemble; 
bring together; a concourse. 162, 20. 

Cyn-las n. pr. in. 
V- cynllwyn an ambush, ivay laying. 
223, 1. 

cyn-llyfan a leash, a slip. 
"^ cynna equally good, peer. 227, 9. 

cjrnnal, see cynhal. 
^ cynnelw pattern, example, m,odel. 
233, 16. 

cynnifywr (coll.) ni. combatants, 
warriors. 202, 27. 

cynnig to propose, proffer, suggest. 

cynnullaw to collect, call together. 
V cynnwys to receive, admit, adopt. 
238, 5. At sawl a oed dan geithiwet 
heuyt ef ae kynnwyssawd ym 
paradwys LA. 13312 ; Creawdyr cell 
an kynnwys ni yn trugared, 
FB. 1996. 

1. cynnyS m. a huntsrmin ; pi. 
-yon. 205,4. 7. 

2. cynnyS increase, prosperity. 
237,6. ef a doeth att Walchmei. Ac 
a gyuarchawd gwell idaw. Duw a ro 
kynnyd arnat, lieb y Gwalchmei 
Hg. I. 223, 2. 

cynnySu to increase. 180, 12. 

cyn-ran m. a first or chief part ; 
a leader. 231, 27. 

cynt adv. formerly, before, yn g. 
sooner, rather 181, 8, 

cyntaf first; yngyntai first, at first. 

cyntefin (Ir. cetemuin) the be- 
ginning of summer. 225, 14. 

Cyn-was n. pr. m. 204, 4. 

cyny (kene) conj. though not. § 205. 

cyrch m. an attack, onset, raid. 

cyrchaw to fetch, bring. 231, 18. 
^ cyrchu to attack, set upon, march 
%ipon, make for, approach. 



cyrn, see corn. 

cyryscwySad a quarrel, contention? 
230, 9. 

cysgawd m. shade, shelter, sha- 
dow. 241, 11. 

cysgu to sleep. 

cystal equally good, as good. 

cy-war-sangu to trample ripon, 
oppress, crush. 149, 26. 152, 16. 
180, 32. 

cy-weir prepared, equipped, com- 
plete. 158, 29. 179, 16. 

cyweiryaw to prepare, equip, lay 
out. 

cy-weithy5 a company. 194, 3. 

cy-wir true, just. 234, 6. , 
-^ 1, cy-'wlad f. a neighbouring terri- 
tory, borderland. 233, 18. Rybu Vran 
vab Llyr llu rwymadur mat ygkamp 
ygkyulat ygkur MA. 180 b 13. 

2. cy-wlad m. a compatriot. 230,10. 

cywrein skilful, cunning. 

cy-wrisse5 contention, strife. 234, 
23. 236, 11. 

cy-wy5-ol-{y)aeth f. harmony, 
music; pi. -eu 163, 14. Used also 
as sg. pa gywydolyaethev yw hoim? 
LA. 82, 10. 

chwaer f. a sister; pi. chwioryS. 

chware to play ; play; pi. chwar- 
yeu. 

chwech, chwe (whe) (spir.) six. 
y/ chwedyl m. a story, tale, neivs, 
tidings; pi. chwedleu. 

chweg sweet. 239, 21. 

chwerthyn to smile. chwerSiS 
(§ 129) 225, 22. 

chwerw bitter. 230, 7. 

chwi you. Emphatic chwichwi, 
conjunctive chwitheu, chitheu. § 45. 

Chwintus n. pr. m. Quintus. 



da (1) good, profitable ; (2) goods, 
wealth, benefit. 

dabre come ! § 141. 

dad-ganu to recapitulate, rehearse, 
recite. 173, 6. 

dadolwch intercession, invocation, 
235, 17. 
y dad-rithaw to re-transform. 199, 8. 

dadyl m. and f. a meeting, dispute, 
suit, judgment ; pi. dadleu (used as 
sg. masc. and pi. ) a dispute. 

dadyl-fa a meeting -place, court. 
O.W. dadlma222, 13. 

dafad f . a sheep ; pi. defeid. 



GLOSSARY. 



255 



daffar provision. 225, 19 ; cf. 
gwnaeth Duw trvgar gardaud FB. 
15, 14. 

dangos (dankos) to shew, disclose, 
produce, d. cefneu to flee; d. bronnoeS 
^ to face ; d. deheuoeS turn the right to, 
face; d. ysparduneu y to spur. 

dala (daly) to hold, seize, retain, hold 
back, capture, act. pret. ind. sg. 3 
delis (dellis), pastsubj. pi. 3 delhynt, 
pluperf. pi. 3 dalyassant. 

dam-gylchu to stirround ; past 
part, damgylchedig. 

dam-g^ylchynu to surround. 142, 17. 

damunavr to desire, ivish, seek for; 
part, damunedig. 

damw^ein m. accident, chance, for- 
tune, event; pi. -eu; o 5. by chance. 

damweinaw (y) to happen to, to 
befall. 173, 11. 

danfon to send, dispatch. 178, 7. 

dar f. an oaktree. 197, 2. 

dar-estwng to subdue, subjugate, 
yield ; past part, darestyngedig. 

dar-fod to cease, end, come to pass, 
happten. pres. ind. act. sg. 3 deryw ; 
fut. ind. sg.' 3 dervyS; impf. ind. 
sg. 3 daroeS; cond. sg. 3 darffei. 
§ 160. 

dar-lleaw to read. 231, 29. 

darmerth provision, preparation. 
162, 19. 

dar-o-gan prophecy, prognostica- 
tion ; pi. daroganneu. 

darpar (am) ni. preparation (for), 
provision, project. 

darparu to prepare, intend. 196, 7. 

dar-ym-red to pass to and fro ; 
210, 7. 
-K dathoedd, see dyfod. 

■^% ' 1 . daw ni. a son-in-laio ; pi. dofyon. 
'^' ' 2. daw, see dyfod. 

dawn gift, mnentcd endowment ; pi. 
donyeu. 

dayar (dayr, dair) f. earth, land, 
ground. 
' dayar-dy a subterranean vaidt. 

dayar- gychwyn an earthquake ; 
229, 1. 

dayoni goodness, virtue, valour. 

dayrawl earthly, m,undane, ma- 
terial. 164, 9. 

de, see dy. 

dechreu to begin, inaugurate ; a 
beginning, on^igin. 

dedwy5 happy, blessed, virtuous. 

dedwySyd hapjnness, felicity. 



defawd f. custom, practice, habit, 
ordinance; pi. defodeu. y 

defnyS m. material, element, sub- ^ ' 
stance, cause; pi. defnySeu, defnySyeu 'hj^-^^f, 
witnesses, guarantors, etc. in a laiosuit . S- A 

deg, deng (nas) ten. § 41. 7;^^ 

deheu (1) right [dexter), righteous; 
(2) the right hand or arm, the right 
side of the body, south, South- Wales ; 
pi. -oe5. 

Deheu-barth South- Wales. 

dehongyl (dehogyl) to interpret; *-^ 
interpretation. 173, 8. 13. 
- dehol to expel, banish. 143,21. 155,7. 
^deifaw to roast. 199, 28. 

deil (coll.) leaves. 

deissyfeid (deissyfyt, dissiuit) to 
demand, reqiiest, seek, merit. 

deissyfyd (dysseifyd) sudden, unex- 
pected. 147, 3. 187, 23. 208, 17. 

1 . delhynt, see dala. 

2. delhynt, see dyfod. 
delw f . image, form. 
delwad m, creator. 227, 1. 
delwyd, see dyfod. 

deni, see 1. tan. 

derwen f. an oak-tree. coUen d. 
a young oak. 

dethol select, picked. 202, 29. 

deu m. two; f. dwy (dui, du). 
§ 42 (a). 

deubi, see dyfod. 

deu-5eg (nas.) twelve. 

deu-Seg-mlwyS tivelve years old. 

deu-5yblig double, two-fold. 214, 29. 



deugeint /or^?y. 
deugeinfed fortieth 



forty 



§165. 



ar y d. with 



Deu-gle5yf the name of a cantref 
in Pembroke. 204, 5. 

deu-hanner divided in tivo equal 
halves. 221, 7. 

deuth, see dyfod. 

Dewi n. pr. m. David. 

dewin ni. a magician. 225, 16. 

dewis to choose, prefer. 

dewr brave. 

dewreS prowess, valour, pHme of 
life. 140, 6. 180, 10. 186, 1. 4. 
.warriors 144, 1, {omnevn armatum 
militem). 

Dews{Deus) Lat.Dcw^. 227,1.20. 

1. di, see ti. 

2. di (dy) (voc.) O.W.=later i, y, 
prep. to. diSi to her. § 195. 

di-aerfa without slaughter. 170, 10 
(sic leg.) 



256 



GLOSSARY. 



^ di-afael exempt from seizure. 
223, 32. 

di-angc to escape, pret. ind. act. 
sg. 3 diengis (dihegis). 

di-al to avenge ; vengeance. 

di-am(O.W.) /or. §164. 

di-amheu undoubted, certain, evi- 
dent. 235, 18. 

V di-anaf ^atvless, whole. 202, 5. 
di-annod without delay. 
di-anryde5u to dishonour. 142, 6. 
di-arfeu unarmed. 156, 1. 
di-arfod unprepared. 177, 30. 
di-arfu to disarm. 

diawd drink. 170, 16. 

did, see dodi. 

di-drifwr m. a hermit. 165, 8. 

di-dryf a solitary place, hermitage. 
165, 9. 

di-5arbod to consider, care, heb 5. 
parum cogitans 184, 14. impf. ind. 
act. pi. 3 diSorynt 175, 26. § 147. 

di-eithyr outside. § 172. yn y d. 
222, 14. 

dien huds. 241, 19. Arch I. p. 503. 

dieu, dieuoeS, see dy5. 
^ difa to destroy, annul. 197, 13. 

V di-fanw (O.W. dimanw) to dis- 
parage, slight, pres. subj. act. sg. 3 
difanwo. 224, 7. 

di-farnu / judge, decide against. 
"■ 140, 9. 220, 13. 16. fut. sg. 3 
diwarnawd 228, 20. 

6\-i^\ faultless, perfect. 238, 15. 

di-fetha to destroy. 197, 31. 

di-fryssio to hasten, speed. 242, 2. 
' ^X'iyxntx exempt from allegiance to 
a lord. 223, 31. 

di-fwlch without a notch. CleSyf D. 
n. pr. m. 204, 12. 

di-fwyn void, idle, unused, un- 
touched {of a virgin). 201,4. 

6.i'ivTynya.r\t profitless. 211, 8. 

V diffeith waste. 
diffeithaw to lay waste. 
diffeithwch m. a waste, wilderness. 
differei, see diffryd. 

V diffryd (rac) to defend, protect 
(from). past. subj. act. sg. 3 
differei ; pret. ind. sg. 3 diffyrth, 
diffirth. § 133a, 

diffurn? 228,11. 

di-garyad unloving, unkind. 142,4. 

1. digawn (dygawn) m. a suffi- 
ciency; sufficient. 

2. digawn to be able, to effect, do, 
accomplish; pres. ind. sg. 1 digonaf. 



di-gribyaw (y) to attack. 205,5. 
Cf. ym-gribiaw. 

digrif pleasant, agreeable. 

digrifwch j)leasure, enjoyment. 

di-gyfoethi to dispossess, deprive of 
territory. 191, 17. 

diheu undoubted, certain, d.-porth 
^firm support. 234, 14. 

di-hewyd affection, inclination, 
desire. 175, 25. _ 180, 32. 182, 11. 

dileu to exterminate, annihilate, 

dilid to pursue. 

di-luy5 exempt from hosting. 223,31. 

dillad (coll. ) clothes, dress. 154, 8. 

dim a thing, something ; nothing, 
naught, dileu hyd ar 5im to annihi- 
late; dilid hyd ar Sim to pursue to 
extinction ; adv. at all. 

din a fortress. DinTjrwi n. 1. 205, 27. 

Din-dagwl n.l. Tintagel. 

dinas m. a city, citadel ; pi. dinas- 
soe5. 

di-obeithaw to despair. 190, 13. 

di-od to take off, divest, extract, 
^ di-o5ef (O. W. diguadef) to suffer, 
undergo, unthstand. 

dioer verily, certainly, 176, 1. 

di-o-gel safe, secure. 

diogelwch safety, security. 

diolch (i) to thank. 

dipynwys, see dybynu. 

dir necessary. 190, 10. 

dir-fawr very great, huge, enormous. 
' dirieid wicked. 225, 12. 

dirwy f. a fine, mulct. 
^ di-rjhnb without learning. 158, 12. 

disgyblu to study, imitate (like a 
disciple). 156, 22. Cf. Hg. I. 208, 5. 
.^ disgynnu to dismount, descend, 
alight, land, put up at. 

dispeilaw to unsheathe. 199, 13. 

dissifid, see deissyfyd. 

distr3rw to destroy, demolish. 

ditheu, see titheu. 

dith-wn{O.^Y.) this day. 208,15. 16. 

di-wall carefid, unceasing. 164, 5. 

1. diwarnawd m. a day. 

2. diwarnawd, see di-farnu. 
diwedyS m. evening. 241, 13. 
diweS end or d. at last. 
di-weir chaste. 164, 15. 
diweir-deb chastity. 190, 16. 
diwethaf last. 154, 30. 
di-wrei5 an uprooting. 233, 3. 
di-wrei5edig uprooted, demolished. 

155, 4. 
di-wyll cultivation. 167, 8. 



GLOSSARY. 



257 



dodi (dody) to 'place, put, give, 
charge, pres. ind. act. sg. 3 did ; 
dodi ar y gyfraith to appeal to the 
law ; dodi ym mhen un to suggest, 
submit^ entrust, hand over. 

doSyw, doent, see dyfod. 

1. doeth wise, sage. 143, 3. 

2. doeth, see dyfod. 
doeth-ineb wisdom. 142, 32. 
DofyS m. the Lord, God. 
DofySyad m. the Lord. 231, 15. 

♦ dofyon, see 1. daw. 

^o^yn portion, share. 202, 14. 

doi5, see dyfod. 

dolur grief, anguish. 144, 20. 

doluryaw to grieve. 154, 25. 204, 20. 

domni = Lat. Domini. 237, 2. 

donyawg gifted, endowed. 235, 19. 

donyeu, see dawn. 

dos, see myned. 

dothuif,doy, doynt, see dyfod. 
. drachefyn, see trachefyn. 

dragon, dreig f. a dragon; 172, 29. 
a battle standard. pi. dreigeu. 
150, 26, 180, 2. 184, 3. 

drein (coll.) thorns. 230, 32. 

dros, see tros. 

drud bold, arrogant, wicked. 1 86, 1 3. 
232, 8. 

dnidannaeth f. arrogance. 165, 28 
(protervia). 

Drud-wyn m. the name of a hound. 
204, 8. 

drwg bad, evil ; mischief, harm. 
•^rws door, entrance ; pi. drysseu. 

drwy, see trwy. 
v' drycin (i.e. dryg-hin) /o«<^ weather. 
225, 6. 

drychafel to raise, lift ; rise. 

dryg-5amwein misfortune, ill-luck. 

dryll vsx. portion, fragment ; pi. -eu, 

dryllyaw to break in pieces, shatter. 

dryssawr m. a doorkeeper. 234, 8. 

drysseu, see drws. 

du black. 

due m. a duke. 

duch, dug, see dwyn. 

du-hunaw to awake. 173, 6. 

Du-las (Jr. Dub-glas) a river-name, 
146, 14. 

du-un accordant, agreeable. 216, 23. 

duw (dyw^) : pob d. on every day. 
201, 5, d. Sadwrn on Saturday. 
228, 21. 240, 10. 

Duw m. God. pi. dwjnveu 142, 21. 

dwfrein, see dwyrein. 

dwfyr (dwfwr) m. water. 



dwrn a fist, hand ; pi. dirn. 235, 2. 

dwy, see deu. dwyweu, see Duw. 

dwywawl divine. 

dwy-law (pi. of Haw) hands. 

dwyn to take, carry, bring, capture ; 
§ 133 (b). d. ar gof to call to 
mind. d. ruthur to attack, d. yr 
dygyn to affirm on oath. pres. 
ind, act. sg. 1 dygaf ; fut. ind. pass. 
dygetawr (§ 129. n.) ; imper. sg. 2 
dwg; pres. subj. sg. 3 duch (§ 110 
n. 2) ; pret. ind. sg. 3 dug. 

dwyrein (dwfrein, dwyfrein) the 
east. 172, 1. 181, 17. 

1. dy, see 2, di. 

2. dy (de) (voc.) poss. adj. thy. § 57. 

3. dy (de), see ti. 

dy-borthi to carry, inflict. 180, 26. 

dy-bryd ugly, foul, base. 178, 6 ; 
180, 19; 190,26. 

dybynu to hang down. 230, 18. 
'■ dycco, dyccwy, see dwyn. 

dychymyg m. invention, device ; 
pi. -eu, -yon. 164, 26. 

dyS (O.W. did) m. day, daytime, 
daylight, date; pi. dieu (after 
numerals), dieuoeS, dySyeu ; d, brawd 
Doomsday ; banner d. mid-day. 

dyS-gweith on a certain day, one 
day. 199, 10. 

dy-5wyn to bring. 194, 13. 

Dyfed Demetia. 

Dyfnarth n. pr. m. 200, 28. 

Dyfneint n. 1. Devon. 206, 5. 

dyfod (deuod, douot) to come. § 141. 

dyfodedigaeth f . a coming, arrival. 

dy-fryssyaw to hasten. 242, 2. 

dyfuant, dyfyS, see dyfod. 
y/djiynnn to summon. 201,1. 205,2. 

Dyfyn-wal n. pr. m. 

dyffo, see dyfod. 

dyffryn m. a valley. D. Llychwr 
the valley of Loughor. 

dyffygyaw to fail, lack. 145, 24. 
180, 11. 

dy-gaboli to belabour, beat soundly 
207, 21. 

dygaf, dygetawr, see dwyn. 

dygonho, see 2. digawn. 

dy-gryn terror. 228, 33. 

dygrynnyaw to seize, clutch. 
206, 20. 

dy-grynoi to avail, profit. 153, 10. 
175, 30. 

dy-gwy5aw to fall, chance. 

dygwySedigaeth f . setting (of the 
sun), 151, 4. 



258 



GLOSSARY. 



dygyn hard, severe ; a test, proof. 
See dwyn. 
V dy-gyrchu to Tiiake for, set upon; 
draw. 194, 23. 202, 12. 206, 24. 

1. dy-he5 discordant, strange ? 
piteous, a pity ? 194, 19.^ 

2. dyheS? 228, 27. Here MA. 
73 b 6 has the variant tuedd, pi. of 
tu 'country-side, country.' 

dy-leith death. 232, 1. 

dylyed f. due, claim, right, title. 

dylyedawg high-horn, noble; pi. 
dylyedogyon. 140, 29. 155, 14. 
156, 24. 

dylyedus due, proper. 182, 20. 

dylyu (deleu) to have a right to, 
deserve, he due, owe. 171,26. 208,20. 23. 
217, 25. 237, 19. 

dyn m. andf. a human being, man; 
coll, men 204, 5. pi. -yon (deneon). 

dy-nessau to approach, draiv near. 
' dyn-y-orn (cf, Ir. duin-orgun) homi- 
cide, murder. 222,17. 

dyrchefynt, see drychafel. 

dyrn-awd m. a blow ; pi. dyrnodeu. 

dyrn-fe5 a handbreadth. 197, 24, 
y dy-ro5i to give. pres. ind. act. 
sg. 3 dere, dyry ; imperat. sg. 2 dyro. 

dyrys (1) difficult, intricate; (2) 
adversity. 162, 20. 167, 16. 175, 18. 

dysg m. teaching, instruction, 
example, behaviour. 164, 12. 182, 19. 
184, 23 {hortamen). 187, 7. 

dysgu to teach, instruct. 

dysseifyd, see deissyfyd. 

dywad, see dywedud. 
. i/dywalferce. 183, 13. 233, 4. 

dywalhau to harass. 185, 26. 

dyfyS, see dyfod. 

dyw, see duw. 

dywedud to say. § 133. 

dywygyad (di-) manner, fashion. 
164, 12. 

1. e, see yd. 

2. e, see 4. y. 

eb-rwy5 sunft, quick. 176, 11. 

ebryn ? 228, 27. 

ech outside of beyond P 228, 16. 
Cf. FB. 66, 8 ; 106, 30 ; 140, 31 ; MA. 
208a 49. 

Echel Achilles. 

' echenawg needy, destitute. 143, 5. 

echwrys violent, fierce. 227, 22 ; 
Cf. FB. 159, 5 ; 199, 20. MA. 247, 
24. 36. 



ed, see y5. 

ederyn, see adar. 

edifar repentant, sorry. 149, 17. 

edir, see adaw. 
1/ edirn (etyrn) sovereignty, supre- 
macy. 235, 3. 236, 15, 

edrych to look, see. 164, 23, 220, 9. 

ed-rif descent, lineage. 212, 29. Cf. 
MA. 168a 51. 

ed-ucher ( =hyd ucher) till evening. 
193, 1. 203, 5. 

edyw, see ydyw. 
^/ eSewis, see aSaw. 

ef (eff) he, it. §§ 45 ; 47. Emphatic 
efo (effo) ; conjunct, ynteu. § 45 (b). 

efelly thus, so. See felly. 

efo, effo, see ef. 

Efyas n.\. a cantred in Hereford- 
shire. 206, 4. 

effeiryad m. a priest; pi. effeiryeid. 

eglur clear, bright, brilliant, 
renowned, famous. 167,1. 169,22. 

eglur-der brightness, brilliance. 
173, 1. 



eglwys f . church ; pi, eglwysseu. 
ynad. 



egnad (O.W.), pi. egneyd, see 



englyn m. a stanza of three or four 
lines. 200, 13. 

engylyon, see angel. 
^ enghyrth (eghirith) terrible, pain- 
ful. 238, 10. FB. 1772 ; MA. 351b 21. 

ehang unrestricted, free. 173, 29. 
''ehawg m. a salmon. 197, 28. 

ehedeg to fly. 172, 29. 

ehofyn-der fearlessness, confidence, 
courage. 187, 4. 

ehunan himself; pi. ehunein § 60. 

ei, see myned. 
" eiSaw his ; eiSunt theirs. § 55. 

Eifft Egypt, yr E. 172, 18. 

eigawn ocean, sea. 161, 18. 

eingon f, an anvil. 196, 21. 

1. eil second, next, eil hynaf eldest 
but one ; eilweith a second time, 
again ; bop eilwers alternately. 

2. eil a son. 200, 28 ; 205, 24, 
eilenwi to fulfil, accomplish. 

152, 14. 169, 22. 

pillaw to shave, to cut (hair). 
^einym ours. 169, 14. § 55. 

eirant they will arise. 229, 19 ; 20. 
SeeRC. VI, 27. 
\ eirchad a suitor, suppliant. 234, 5. 

eir-m-oed since my time. 198, 9. 
§ 197 n. 



For oed dyhed kelu y ryw was hwnn WB. 475, EB. 116 has ys oed gryssyn kelu &c. 



GLOSSARY. 



259 



204, 30. 
14. 

ever, always. 

146, 2. 

1. issaf 
MA. 74b 14. eissyflat, FB. 
V. 1. Eissyf wlad MA. 27a56. 



eiry snow. 

Eiryawn n. pr. m. 

eiryf number. 172, 

eir-y-oed (eiroed) 
§ 197 n. 140, 3. 

eisseu want, 
199, 19. 

eissoes yet, nevertheless. 

eissyfflad hell. 231, 13. 
wlad, 

16134. 

See FB. 30228. 

eissyllud progeny, followers. 232, 9. 
Cf. FB. 44, 2 ; 203, 24 ; MA. 143a 39. 
169a, 35. 

eisteS (eyste) to sit ; e. wrth y gaer 
to besiege the city. 

eiste5-fa f . a seat, throne ; pi. -eu. 

eithaf end, extremity ; pi. -oe5. 

eithyr prep, except. § 172. 

el, see myned. 

el-chwyl a second time, again. 
22. 142, 22. 

elhei, elhid, elhynt, eloch, 
myned. 

Elen n. pr. f , Helen. 

ell (ill, yll) all, see § 67. 

ellwng to dismiss, dispatch, 
shed (blood), past, siibj. act. 
ellygei, pret. ind. sg. 3 ellygwys, etc. 
past part, ellyngedig. 
^ellyn a razor. 203, 25. 

em, see yn. 
V emelldigedig accursed. 

Emrys n. pr. m. Ambrose. 

Emyr n. pr. m. 

en, ena, see yn, yna. 

encil, encilyaw to retreat. 185, 1. 

encyd space of time. 184, 8. 

ene, see yny. 

eneid (eneyt) m. life, soul; pi, -eu; 
myned e. dros e. to engage in a life- 
f or -life struggle. 

enfyn, see anfon. 

enguis (O.W.), see enwi. 

enill to gain, win. 145, 18. 

enneint an ointment, a bath. 143, 
13. Cf. RB. 76, 11. 

Enoc n, pr, m. Enoch. 

ennynnu tokindle,fire; be inflamed. 

enrydeS (anryded) m. honour, 
dignity. 142, 16. 144, 11. 145, 21. 

enrydeSu (anrydedu) to celebrate. 
154, 23. pres. subj. act. sg. 3 
enrydeSocao. 

, enrydeSus honourable, noble, vener- 
able, dignified. 143, 24. 



141, 



let; 
iff. 3 



enteu (entheu, entehu)pers. pron. 
sg. 3 m. §§ 45(c) ; 46(c). 

enw (heno) m. a name. ^ -^ 

enwi to name. pret. ind. act. sg. 3 
enguis (0,W.) 218, 5. 

eny, see yny. 

enywed (ennuet) damage, injury. 
Sew y tury w ac enwy wet llosgy tey a 
thorry aradyr BCh. 63, 8. 

1. er, see 1. yr. 

2. er (yr) prep. for. §§ 53, 197. 

3. er, see 1, y. 

er-byn against; yn erbyn to meet, 
against, by. § 173, yn awch e. 
against you. 180, 19, 

erbynyaw to receive; withstand. 

erbynyeid (erbyneid) to receive. 
141, 16. 143, 25. 

► erchi (hercki) to ask, request, bid; 
pres. ind. act. sg. 1 archaf, 

ere^thun, eregthunt, see rwng. 

ereill, see arall. 

ereint silver. 200, 24. 203, 19. 
205, 5. Cf. Rhys, Celt. Heathendom, 
p. 125. 

erestyn m. a juggler. 147, 13. The 
parallel passage in M. A. 531a 55 has : 
ac en rith kroesan ac arwestdyn ac 
gwareyt. 

ereu 230, 1 = eireu MA. 73b46, 
see geir. 

er-gelu to hide. fut. ind. pass, 
ergelawr 227, 28. ergelhawr ib. 29. 
V/Cr-glybod to listen to. imper. sg. 2 
erglyw 235, 10. 236, 22, 

er-gryn dread, fear. 202, 31. 

er-gyd m. a stroke, blow, cast ; pi. 
-eu. 
^ er-hyl hunt, chase. 201, 18; 204, 8. 

er-lid to pursue. 

er-lysu to reject, deny. 229, 30. 

ermid m. a hermit, pi. -wyr. 

ermud ? 232, 10. 

ermyn-wisc a robe with border of 
ermine. 161, 29. 

eryf? 229,4. 9. 

eryr m. an eagle; pi. -od 154, 3. 
metaph. a leader. 

es, see §§ 94 ; 159 n. 2. 

Esgeir Oervel n. 1. Seiscenn Uar- 
beoil m Ireland. 201, 32. 203, 3. 

esgob m. a bishop ; pi. escyb. 

esgobaeth f . a bishopric ; pi. -eu. 

esgobawd a bishopric. 

esgolheig m. a scholar, clerk; pi. 
-ion. 

esgyll, see asgell. 



26o 



GLOSSARY. 



esg^rn, see asgwm. 

esgynnu to ascend, mount, climb. 

esmwyth-der in. ease, rest. 

estrawn a stranger. 225, 4. 

estwng=gestwng to let down. 
e. gantunt incumbentes 176, 30. 

etifeS m. an heir; coll. heirs. 
141, 1. pi. -yon 181, 26. 

eto, see etwa. 

etheuis, see aSaw. 

ethol to choose, select. 

ethynt, see myned. 

etwa (eto) yet, still, ettwa 191, 7. 

eu their. § 57. eu hun themselves. 

eur m. gold. 

eur-5wrn golden-handed, liberal. 
pi. -5irn 235, 2. 236, 14. 

eureid golden, gilt, set with gold. 
184, 3 {aureus). 

eur-gle5yf-ru5 golden -sword -red. 
233, 9. 

euryn golden. 201, 11. 

mjui/y m^ i »^'*-'^ ewin f. a nail, talon, claw. 201, 9. 

'^'^ l (tr*^ ewythyr m. an uncle (brother of 

LjU) 4W/tlr**^^ ^^^ ^^ parents, grand-parents, or 

'*'*'^ '^^^^^^CZtJtm^ great-grand-parents J ; pi. ewythreS 

<*»^^ ^ X!t^ 206, 2. 

eyl-weyth, see 1. eil. 

fal (mal) conj. as. § 216. 

felly thus, yfelly 164, 30. 166, 20. 

fi, fifi, see mi. 



fry above. 
fyhud? 231,9. 
fyn (nas. ) my. 



§§ 57, 59. f f^ 
147, 16. 



ffalst cunning. 

Ffichteid Ficts. 

fflam f. a flame, fire. 160, 4. 185, 4. 

fflamychedig' inflamed^ flaming, 
159, 20. 

Fflandrys Flanders. 

ffo to flee, ar ffo inflight. 
, fiovbi. aroad,way,passage,means', 
pi. ffyrS. 

fforest f . a forest ; pi. -i. 
• Ffreinc f . France. 
- ffuruf f . form, manner ; pa £f. how? 

ffustaw to strike, beat. 175, 2. 

ffwrn f. a furnace. 228, 22. 

ffyd faith. 149, 31. 

f[y5-\avrn faithful. 181, 3. 

ffynhawn f . a fountain, spring. 

ffyrS, see fforS. 



gadael (gadayl) to 
215, 29. See gadu. 
gadaw to leave. 



leave, allow. 



gadu to leave, alloiv, permit, pres. 
ind. act. sg. 2 gedy; § sg. 3 gadt^ 
146, 2 ; pi. 2 gedwch ; imper. pass, 
gat-her. 

gafael (gafayl) f. a seizing, hold- 
ing ; seizure. 222, 15. 

gafael-fawr of mighty grip. 
Glewlwyd G„ 204, 24. 

galar sorrow. 229, 9. 

galw to call, suminon, name, pres 
ind. pass, gelwir ; imper. pi. 2 
gelwch. 

gallel, gallu to be able; power, 
might, pres. ind. act, sg, 2 gelly ; 
sg, 3 geill, etc. 

gan, see can. n o; .■ ^ ^ j 

ganed, see geni. 

garscon? 199, 12, 

/garth a mountain ridge. 205, 29. 

garw rough. 
■J gast f . a bitch, 

gawr f. and m. a shout, cry ; 
battle. 205, 10. 229, 23. 

gayaf (gaeaf) m. winter. 156, 14, 

gefeil tongs, pincers, geffeil 1^*M; 

1. geir (geyr) m. a word, request. 
pi. -eu ; o un eir with one accord. 

2. geir (gyr, ger) near. g. Haw 
near, close by. g. bronn before, § 168. 
- gelfin a beak. 196, 23. 

gelyn ni. an enemy; pi. -yon. 

gelynawl hostile. 

gellwng to loose, let loose, let, 
dismiss, deliver up, draw (a sword). 
pret. ind. act. pi, 3 gellygassant. 

geneu m. jaws, mouth. 229, 31. 

geni to be born; pret. ind. pass. 
ganed, 227, 12. 
, genthi, genti, see can, 

ger, see 2. geir. 

Gereint n, pr, m. 203, 9, 211, 8. 

Gillamor (Ir. Gilla mor Big Lad) 
n. pr, m, 192. 14. 

Gillamwri (Ir. Gilla Muire the ser- 
vant of Mary) n. pr. m. 192, 13. 

Gilpadrig (Ir, Gilla Padraig the 
servant of Patrick) n. pr. m. 192, 13. 

gilyS, see cilyS. 
- girad lamentable, piteous, terrible. 
173, 3. 192, 9. 

glan f , a bank, shore ; pi. glanneu. 

glanhau to clean, polish. 194, 16. 

gleif m. and f . a lance, spear. Hg. 
II. 91, 12=:paladyr onn CM. 87, 32. 

gleis, see cleis. 

glew brave, stout; a brave nian^ 
hero. — n. pr. m. 204, 20. 



GLOSSARY. 



261 



glew-der bravery, boldness, valour. 
Glew-lwyd n. pr. m, 204, 24. 

glin m. a knee ; pi. -yeu. 

gloew bright, sparkling. 235, 3. 

glud tenacious, fast, diligent. 
175, 5. MA, 285 a 1. 

glyn (wrth) an adhering {to), fol- 
lowing close. 195, 4. 

glynn m. a valley, glen. 197, 12. 

204, 14. 

Glyth-myr n. pr, m. 201, 12, 
Glythfyr ib. 

uglyw m. a ruler. 233, 3. 235, 4. 
<- gnawd customary, usual, common. 

gnotaedig accustomed, usual. 
142, 11. 145, 22. 

gobeith hope. 

go-bedr-or the four-corners (of the 
world). 228, 3. FB. 199, 20. 160, 19. 
MA. 236b 28. 

go-ben-y5 m. a pillow ; pi. -eu. 

go-byrm. a fee, pay. 221, 25. 

go-chel to avoid, ward off, shun, 
escape. 148, 30. 150, 21. 159, 3. 
169, 28. 

Godlont Gothland. 156, 11. 

go-driccawr m. a lingerer, sojour- 
ner. 239, 8. ^ 

go-dwr5 m. a rumbling noise. 
172, 28. 

go-5ef to suffer, allow, permit. 
233, 8. 
vygoSeith m, a heath. 185,5. 226, 4. 

goSeu purpose, design. 239, 8. 
yg g. gweith Mynaw F'B. 187, 29. 

gof m. a smith. 196, 21. 

gofal m. anxiety 14:7, 6 ; pi. gofeilon 
156, 30. 

gofalus anxious. 149, 27. 160, 3. 

gofud m, affliction, injury. 143, 6. 

gofwy to visit. 142, 3. 

gofyn (wrth) to ask {of) , seek. 1 99, 2. 

gofynnyad an asking; demand. 

205, 20. 

Gogigwr n. pr. m. 204, 23. 

go-gle5 m. the North. 145, 12. 
200, 32. 201, 15. 
ygo-goff. a cave; pi. -eu. 

go-gyfarch prominen t, conspicuous. 
Read with Add. gogyfurS {duodecim 
pares), q. v. 162, 16; 171, 11. 

go-gyf-ur5 of equal rank, peer. 
171, 11, v.l. 

go-hir to delay; delay, respite. 

golchi to wash, polish. 194, 6. 
^ go-leith to dissolve. 233, 7. FB. 
58, 30. 



goleuhau to light up, illumine, 

173, 1. 

^ golud ivealth. 198, 20. 233, 12. 
V go-lu5 to hinder, obstruct. 233, 12. 

golwg f. a look, glance. 

gor-alw to cry or call aloud. 1 84, 18. 
pret. ind. act. sg. 3 gorelwis. 231,24, 
FB. 283, 10. MA. 195 a 54. 

gor-cheidwad m. a guardian, cus- 
todian ; pi. gwercheidweid 208, 17. 

gor-chyfygu to overcome, conquer. 
155, 26. 

gor-chymyn (gorchymun) to com- 
mand, commend, commit to; a com- 
mand, injunction; pi. -eu. 

gorSerch-wraig f . a concubine ; pi. 
-wrageS 164, 12. 

gorSeri m. a shrieking, noise, dis- 
turbance. 176, 19. 183, 22. 
^i gor-5ifwng very steady, steadfast. 
233 1 

Gor-5u n. pr. f. 207, 12. 
- gorSwy oppression, violence. 233,2. 

gor-5yfneid to experience, enjoy 
habitually. 142, 14. FB. 28, 18; 
44, 13; 88,27; 258,22. 

gorelwis, see gor-alw. 
» gor-esgyn to invade, overrun. 

1. goreu 6e5^.— n.pr. m. 195, 8. 

2. goreu, see gwneuthur. 
gor-flwng very severe, austere. 

233, 3. 

gor-fod to overcome, conquer, g. ar 
181, 4. pres. ind. sg. 3 gor-yw230, 13. 
§160. 

gor-fFowys to cease, rest. 157, 25. 

gor-hoffder m. a boasting, vaunt- 
ing. 174, 34. 

gor-hoffeS a boasting, affectation^ 

174, 13. 
gor-llewin the West. 
gormes f. oppression, tyranny. 
gormod excess; 164, 6. yn o. too 

much, 176, 6. 

gor-or m. a border, side. 242, 7. 

gor-seS (gworsse5) f . a seat, throne, 
court. 234. 21. 240, 4. 
t^gor-sefyll to unthstand, stand. 
pres. ind. act. sg. 3 gorsseiw 234,22. 
pres. pass, gorseuir 241, 7. Cf. MA. 
160 b 2. 

gor-uchel very high or loud. 150, 7. 
241, 6. 

gorug, see gwneuthur. 

Gor-wen n. pr. f. 207, 12. 

gorwyS m. a steed, warhorse. 
242, 5. 



262 



GLOSSARY, 



*gor-ysgelu to overflow (the bowl). 
pres. subj. sg. 3 gorysgelho 240, '2. 

Ni ddodai eirif ar ra dillad 

Na gwin grysgelo nac ysgarlad 

MA. 222 b 18. 
Cf. gwin gorysgalawc RB. 103,18, 
gorysgalauc in large botvls E. Lh. 

gosgord retinue. 141, 9. 

go-sgubaw to sweep, pres. ind. 
act. sg. 3 gosgupio 241, 21. 

gosgymonn (literally fuel, food) 
occasion. 174, 5. RB. 114, 4; Hg. 
II. 34,30; FB. 6,8; 306, 16. 
- gossod to put, establish, set, attack, 
thrust, g. ar to attack; g. drwy 
arrange, past part, -edig 148, 16. 

gosteg f. silence, the proclaiming 
of silence in court. 211, 3. 8. 234, 20. 

gostegu to proclaim silence. 234,19. 

gostegwr m. a silencer. 234, 19. 

graS f . a step ; pi. -eu. 166, 27. 
/ grawn m. grain (coll.) 225, 1. 

Greid n. pr. m. 198, 18. 

Greidawl a. pr. m. 199, 10. 

griS-fan to groan, a groaning. 

Groeg f, Greece. 

GruffuS n. pr. m. 162, 4. 235, 17. 

Grugyn n. pr. m. 203, 19. 

grwm-seid having a dark-coloured 
haft. 194, 15 ; MA. 954a 2. Cf. 
gwrym-dudet FB. 83,19; gweilch 
gwrym-de 84, 4. 

grym. force, strength, eflort. 151,13. 
184, 24. 

gwad m. a denial. 231, 12. 

gwadu to deny, refuse; pres. subj. 
pass, gwatter 239, 6. 

gwae woe I g. a. %me to him who . . 

225, 4. 10. g. wann ivoe to the lueak! 

226, 2. 

gwaed m. blood. 150, 10. 

gwaed-lyd bloody. 184, 9. 

gwaeS an outcry, cry of distress; 
pi. -eu. ^ 

gwaeth worse ; gwaethaf worst. 

gwa-hanu to separate, past. subj. 
pass, gwehenid 183, 5. pass. part, 
gwahanedig. 

fifwa-haw5 to invite. 
Jg^aX a lair. 202, 1 ; 203, 15. 

gAwala f. a fill, sufficiency. 200, 3. 

gwalch a hawk; metaph. a leader ; 
pi. gweilch. 

^ g^valch-lan a band of heroes? 
233, 23. MA. 150a, 40 ; 161 B 20. 

Gwalchmei n. pr. m. 173, 31. 

g^al-par strong -speared. 233, 24. 



gwalsta^vd ni. an interpreter. 
MA. 128a, 42. Cf. Rhys, Celt. 
Heathendom, p. 489. 

gwallaw to serve liquor. 235, 1. 
Anc. Laws, I. 32. § viii. 

gwallt the hair of the head. 

1. gwan to pierce; pret. ind. act. 
sg. 3 gwant, § 133 a ; past. ind. pass, 
gwanpwyd, § 134, (f). 

2. gwan (gwann) /ee&?e, weak. 
gwanar a chief, lord. 233, 24. 

MA. 181 a 40; 203 b 19; 220 a 34; 
221 a 45; b37. 

gwanas a clasp, buckle. 239, 18. 
FB. 250, 21. 18, 19 ; 23,16; 59, 14; 
MA. 144b 26 ; 177 a 19 ; 205b 4 ; 269a 
29; 299 b 46; 48. 

gwanhau to iveaken. 178, 6. 

gwanwyn m. spring. 155, 27. 

gwaradwyS m. disgrace, shame, 
reproach. 150, 12. 

gwaradwySus disgraceful. 180, 29. 

gwarafun to forbid, refuse. 168, 25. 

gwarandaw to listen, hear. 

gwarawd, see g^a-red. 
x/ gwar-chadw to guard, protect; 
g. ar to besiege. 146, 18. 
N/gwarchae to besiege; m. a siege. 

gwar-der humanity, pity. 153, 33. 

gware to play; m. a game, play ; 
pi. gwary-eu. Cf. chware. 

gware n. pr. m. 
^gwa-red to succour, help, rescue; 
help, deliverance, pret. ind. act. 
sg. 3 gwarawd. 

• gwar-e5 rrieekness. 238, 2. RB. II. 
1223. 
\^ gwarth disgrace, shame. 233, 23. 

gwarthaf upper part, surface. 
ar w. on the top o/241, 20. 

gwartheg kine, cattle. 

Gwartheg^d n. ^t. m. 204, 9. 

gwary-y5 m. a juggler. 147, 13. 
Hg. II. 10, 15. 

gwas m. a youth, lad, servant; pi. 
gweis. 

Gwasgpwin Gascony. 160, 4. 

gwassanaeth service, attendance. 

gwassanaethu to serve. 

gwassanaethwr m. a servant. 
V gwa-sgaru ( tr. and in tr. ) to disperse^ 
scatter, past part, gwasgaredig. 

gwa-sgawd shelter, protection. 
148,28; 156,2. 

gwasgu to press, crush. 

gwastad level, even, constant^ 
temperate; yn w. constantly. 



GLOSSARY, 



26.^ 



gwastadawl constant. 169, 4. v.l. 
(sic leg.) 

g^wawr dawn. 173, 15. metaph. 
234, 8. 

gwayw (gwaew) m. and f . a lance, 
spear ; pi. gwewyr. 175, 2. 

V g^Sam, gwSost, see gwybod. '* ' 
gwedi prep., conj, after. § 174. 210^ 
gweS f . form, fashion, pa (py) we5 

how? 

V g"we5i f. a prayer. 161, 28. 
g~we5iaw to pray. 215, 1. 

» gpweSu ^0 &e^^, ^0 submit. 144, 6. 
148, 11. 165, 5. 

gwedus ^tting, meet, seemly. 

GweSw n. pr. m. 201, 8. 
v gweSw deserted, desolate, lonely. 
225, 9. 

gwehenid, see gwahanu. 

gweilch, see gwalch. 

g^ein f. a sheath, scabbard. 

gweir-glaw5 f. a meadow ; pi. 
-gloSyeu. 

gweis, see gwas. 

1. gweith m. work, task, yg g. 
at work. 226, 5. 

2. gweith f. « ^'M?vi, time; dyd-g. 
once; weithon (weithyon) this time, 
now; pi. -eu sometimes, -eu . . . -eu 
ereill noiv . . . again. 187, 18. 

g^weith-red m. an action, deed; 
pan del ar weithred cum ad actum 
accedit 167, 21. RB, II 846. 

gweled to see, provide, arrange. 

g^eledigaeth f. a vision, dream. 

gweli f . a wound ; pi. -eu, -oeS. 

gwely m. a bed. 241, 11. 

gwell better; 204, 26. cyfarch 
g. to greet. 

g^ellau toimprove, amend. 214, 12. 

gwelleu shears, scissors. 203, 25. 

gwellig leg. gwelling? to distri- 
bute? 235,2. FB. 45,15. MA.172bl5; 
181 b 39 V.L, 140 b 12. 

gwellt (gwell) grass. 223, 12. Cf. 
Peredur, ed. K. Meyer, § 80, 16. 

gAven a smile. 225, 22. 

gfwen-gan white and fair. 227, 26. 

Gwen-hwyfar (Jr. Find-abair) n. 
pr. f. 172, 20. 

gwenith m. wheat. 196, 3. 

gwenn, see gwynn. 

Gwenn f. the name of Arthur's 
shield. 

gwen-wlad f . a happy land. 234, 8. 
= Heaven, MA. 173 b 24 ; 177 a 42 ; 
189 b 20: 222 b 38. 



gwenwyn m. poison. 202, 4. 

Gwenwynwyn n. pr. m. 233, 24. 

gwer-, see gor- 
^gwerin-dawd f. virginity. 238, 3. 
LA. 17, 4 ; 65, 21. 

gwern (coll. ) alder-trees. G. Abwy 
n. 1. 

gwers f. a tohile, space of time. 
197, 29. 194, 6. pob eil-w. alter- 
nately, in succession, gwers . . g. 
arall ' 175, 29. 

gwersyll a camp; pi. -eu. 

gwerth m. price, reward. 

gwerth-fawr valuable. comp. 
gwerthfawrogach 169, 1. 

gweryS f. a virgin. 161, 5 ; pi. -on. 

gwestei m. a guest. 193, 9. 

gwewyr, see gwayw. 

gwiSon f . a witch. 

gwin m. wine. 

gwir (1) true, truly. g.-aberth 
150, 17. g. gwell truly better. 226, 3. 
(2) justice, right. 223, 27. 
vgwiraw^d a beverage, drink; pi. 
gwirodeu. 164, 2. 235, 1. 

gwisg f. dress, clothing ; pi. -oeS. 

gwisgaw to put on, wear ; part, 
g^wisgedig dressed, clad. 

gwlad f . a kingdom, country ; pi. 
-oeS, gwledi ; g. pressent the present 
world. G. yr Haf n. 1. 202, 29. 
v' gwledig m. a ruler. 

gwledychu to rule, reign. 

gwleS f. a feast, banquet. 238, 1. 

Gwndy n. 1. 223, 10. 

gwnel, see gwneuthur. . 

gwneuthur to make, do, form. §142. W<^^ K.-v 

gwnn, see gwybod. "^ ('^^^-^f 

t^wor-saf support, bulwark. 236, 9. 

gworsseS, see gorseS. 
\. gw^osparth support 233, 23. Cf . 
gosparth Brython MA. 124 b 38. 

gwr m. a man, husband, vassal ; 
y gwr he who 239, 10 ; (applied to 
God) 203, 17. pi. gwyrmen, soldiers 
179, 11. 

g^rach f. a hag, witch. 

gfwrageS, see gwreig. 

gwraw^l m,anly, brave, stout; pi. 
gwrolyon. 139, 3. 

Gwrbothu n. pr. m. 206, 3. 

gwrrda m. a noble, pi. gwyrda ; 
gwyrda seint holy men ; MA. 142a. 

gwrS strong, vehement. 233, 1. 
235, 13; g.-fleiS a fierce wolf 233, 3. 

gwreig f. a woman, wife ; pi. 
gwrageS. 



264 



GLOSSARY. 



gwrei^awl ivomanish, cowardly; 
pi. gwreigolyon. 186, 17. 

Gwr-gi (Ir. Fer-chii) n. pr. m. 

Gwr-gwst (Ir. Fer-gus) n. pr. m. 

• gwrhau to pay homage. 

gwr-hyd manliness, valour, bra- 
very, strength. 

Gwrhyr n. pr. m. 

gwrteith to dress, mend, temper; 
a dressing ; 195, 10. Cf. Hg. 38, 37. 
pi. -yeu. 

gwrth (wrth)voc. (l)prep. against, 
towards, for, for the purpose of; wrth 
hynny because of that, therefore; 
y-wrth from,, of; in comparison with. 
§§ 53, 194. (2) conj. because. § 231. 

gwrth-dir borderland, 207, 12. 

gwrth-eb to answer, reply. 

gwrth-g-asseS rebellion, dissension. 
174,4. Hg. 276, 2. LA. 15, 26; 
CM. 110, 28. 

gwrth-od to give back, reject, 
renounce 165, 7. pres. ind. act. sg. 3 
gwrthyd 154, 14. 

xy gwr-thrwin very heavy. 149, 28. 
172, 26. 
/ gwrthryn resistance, opposition. 
233, 23. 

gwrth-wyneb opposite, adverse ; 
yg g". y mynyd facing the mountain; 
talu yn y g. to pay in return. 
142, 23. 

gwrth-wynebu (y) to oppose, resist. 

gwrthyd, see gwrth-od. 

gwrych (coll.) bristles. G. Ereint 
n. pr. m. 203, 19. 

gwrys strife, hostility. 197, 31. 
FB. 63, 25; 85, 12; 159, 5; 193, 6; 
199, 20 ; 200, 9. 

gwrysg (coll. ) the smaller branches 
of a tree. 225, 11. 

Gwy the Wye. Aber G. 206, 17. 

Gwyar n. pr. m. 173, 31. 

gwybod to knoiv, recognize; know- 
ledge, courtesy. § 143. 

gwybySiad m. an eye-witness; 
J)l. gwybySyeid. 

gwychyr stout, resolute, bold; 
superb, gwychraf. 183, 13 ; 191, 4 ; 
192, 10. 

Gwydre n. pr. m. 204, 19. 
&,--- 1- gwy5 m. (coll.) icood, trees 
M^»;^' 241, 13. 21. mast of a ship 242, 8. 

2. gwyS presence ; yny vy5, hyny 
vyd lo ! behold! thereupon; 193, 1; 
198, 13. 199, 27. yn eu g. at once 
202, 24. >> t^ 



g^A^y5ad, gwySyad, see gwybod. 

gwyS-bwyll some game like chess ; 
164, 24 ; 167, 3. See RB. 153, 5. 

G\vy5el an Irishman ; pi. GvTySyl. 

gwyl-fa f. festival, watch, ward; 
pi. eu. 

gwyliad m. a guardian. 

gwyllt wild', aeth yg g. he became 
mad. RB. 100, 6, 8. Cyledyr W. 

gwyneb (wyneb) face. 209, 23. 
216,27. 

GwyneS Venedotia, North Wales. 
161, 22. 

gwynn m. , gwenn f . tvhite, blessed; 
pi. -ion. gwyn y fyd happy he! 
170, 18. Gwynn n. pr. m. 200, 25. 
Avon Wenn 173, 23. 

gwyn-seid having a white haft. 
194, 15. Cf. Laws I. 586, 726. 
IL 866, cvii. 

gvrynnyeiih pain, torture. 231, 32. 
FB. 185,5. FB.303,3; MA. 193 a 13. 

gwynt m. wind, favourable wind. 

gwyr, see gwybod. 

Gwyr n. 1. Goiver. 205, 24. 

gwyrS green, fresh, vigorous. 
236, 25. 

gwyr-hau to incline, bend. 241, 13. 
FB. 241,8. 
^j L gwys f. a summons, command. 

2. gwys, see gwybod, 

3. gwys a 50*0. 205,17. 
gwyssyaw to summon. 198, 24. 
gwystyl m. a hostage ; pi. gwystlon. 
gwystyn m. a withered stump. 

197, 4. 

Gwythyr n. pr. m. Victor. 

gynn, see cyn. 

gynt, see cynt. 

gyr, see 2. geir. 
V gyrru to send, despatch, drive, 
hasten 199, 6 ; ry-yrru (reherru) 213, 4r 

gyt, see cyt. 

1. ha, see 2. ac. 

2. ha inter j. § 243. 
, hac, see 2- ac. 

'' haeSu to deserve, claim, merit. 
^hael generous, liberal ; pi. -on. 

haelder m. generosity. 145, 17. 

hael-foneS one of noble descent. 
234, 21. 

ha£ summer. GwladyrH. 202,29. 

haf-5y5 a summer's day. 242, 6. 

hafod a summer dwelling. 225, 9. 
Cf. RB. IL 277, 5 . 

Hafren f . the Severn. 

hagen however, yet, indeed. 



GLOSSARY. 



265 



han-bwyllaw to consider, remern- 
her 190, 27. RB. I20 ; 17315. 

handit, see hanfod. 

han-5enu to have leisure, linger. 
190, 27 V. 1. 

han-fod to arise, issue ; proceed 
from, descend. § 160. 

banner (hanher) m. a half, middle. 
140, 20. 1,79,20. hAydmidday; h. nos 
midnight ; h. gwr a coward 170, 24. 
180, 32. 

harSfair, beautifid, comely. 

hawdit, see haf-5y5. 

haw5 easy, pleasant; compar. 
• haws. 

1. hawl f. a claim. 

2. hawl, see holy, 
haw^lwr m. a claimant. 
haws, see haw5. 

hayach wellnigh, almost. 167, 6. 
192, 15. 
hayachen almost. 207, 23. 
hayarn iron, sword. 160, 4. 

1. heb, hebyr says. § 151. 

2. heb (voc. ) prep, without, besides. 
§§ 16 (i) ; 53 ; 175. 

hebrwng^ to conduct, escort. 
hebyr, see 1. heb. 
heSiw to-day. 
heSwch peace. 

heSychu to make peace, pacify. 
hefyd also, in addition. 
hegarwch m. kindliness. 226, 3. 
heibawadv. jsas^, hy. 156,14, 204, 3. 
-^ heint m. a sickness, disease. 149, 28. 
V hela to hunt, chase. 

helw possession ; ar y h. in his 
possession. 152, 11 ; 204, 25. 
helym f. a helmet. 159, 22. 
hen old; an old man. superl. 
hynaf. 

hen-dad m. an ancestor ; pi. -eu. 
heneint (henein) old age. 139, 9. 

1, heno, see enw. 

2. heno to-night. 
henw, see enw. 

/ herw a plundering, pillaging. 
235, 15. Cp. Gwynfyd herwr ywr 
hirnos MA. 361 a 17. 

herwyS according to, hy ; yn h. 
according to ; yn h. y nerth with all 
his might, h. fal 165, 2. 

hestawr, a corn measure of ahout 
^ tivo bushels. 199, 17. 

heul f. and m. the sun. 

heussawr in. a herdsman. 195, 3. 
FB. 174,1. 



hi she, her. Emphatic hihi, con- 
junct, hitheu. § 45. 

hin weather. 209, 22. 

hir long, tall; drwyh. o amser/or 
a long time 141, 5. Compar. hwy. 
Hir n. pr. m. 206, 1. 
uJiir-flawS a long tumult. 235, 15. 

Hir-las n. pr. m. 178, 16. 184, 10. 

hitheu, see hi. 

hob : dan eu hwb ac eu h. pushing 
and kicking them. 207, 22. 

hoedel lifetime, life. 152, 18. 

hoU-^Qvm.. a boasting. 174,34. LA. 
143, 22. 

I'^oly (holi) to claim, ask, search^ 
demand ; imper. sg. 2 hawl. 

hoU, see oil. 

hoUawl whole, entire ; yn h. com- 
pletely,^ altogether. 
V holiti to split, cleave. 

honni to proclaim. 159, 25. 

honno, see hwnnw. 

Howel (Hywel) n. pr. m. 

Humyr the Humher. 145, 11. 

Huandaw n. pr. m. 204, 23. 

1. hun sleep. 172,26. 

2. hun, pi. hunein self § 60. 
hwb, see hob. 

hwch m. and f. a pig. 203, 11. 

hwnn m., honn f., hynn n. this. 
pi. hynn. §§ 61 ; 62. 

hwnt yonder ; h. ac yman (yma) 
here and there. 185, 25. 

hwnnw m., honno f., hynny n. 
that. pi. hynny. §§ 61, 62. 

1. hwy (wy), hwynt they, them. 
Emphatic (jfi)wyntwy, conjunct. 
(h)wynteu. § 45. 

2. hwy, see hir. 
hwyl f. a sail ; pi. -eu. 
hwylaw to sail. 157, 28. 
hwynt, see 1. hwy. 

hwyred slowness, tardiness. 151, 19. 

hy bold. 239, 19. 

1. hydf. length; prep, as far as, up 
to, § 177 ; conj. as long as, as far as, 
§214; h. na so that not §214; until 
almost 154, 13 ; h. pan until, so that 
§ 225 ; h. tratchile. § 230. ba h. lohither? 

hy-dwf 'well-qroum, tall. 158, 18. 

hy5 a stag ; pi. -od. 241, 12. 

Hy-gwyS n. pr. m. 202, 19. 

hynaf, see hen. 

hynefiS m. an elder. 210, 3. 

hynn, see hwnn. 

hynny, see hwnnw. 



At^'K'M-Y ^ 



266 



GLOSSARY. 



hynt f. a course, path^ journey. 
ar h. immediately. 174, 16. 175, 6.' 
hyny vy5, see 2. gwyS. 

1. i (voc.) prep., see 1. y. 

2. i, see mi. 

3. i, see y5. 

iach sound, whole. 200, 16. 

iachjiu to heal. 

iad the upper part of the head. 
230, 32. 

iaen ice, a sheet of ice. 241, 12. 

iarll ( jarll) m. an earl ; pi. ieirll. 

iawn (yaun, jaun) (1) right, just ; 
ymlaS yn i. to fight in reality, superl. 
-haf, -af 198, 30. 31. (2) a recompense, 
satisjaction. 166, 15. 18. 

iawnder m. right. 

iSaw, i§i, see i. y. 

I5ew a Jew ; pi. -on. 

iechid health, salvation. 158, 21. 

ieith f . language ; pi. -oe5, -eu. 

lessu Jesus. 

ieuanc young ; superl. jeuaf. 

ieuenctid early manhood ; youth. 

leuan n. pr. m. John. 231, 26. 

in, see yn. ima, ina, see yma, yna. 
D inheu, inneu, see mi. 

ir-llone5 m. and f. tvrath. 159, 20. 

is below, beneath. §§ 53, 178. 

Iscawyn n. pr. m. 204, 20. 

Islont Iceland. 

issod beloiu. 199, 5. 

IwerSon f. Ireland. 155, 28. 

Had (Ir. laith) liquor, drink. Sic 
leg. 230,31? Cf. FB. 204, 22; 23. 

lladrad robbery. 222, 17. 

Ila5 to strike, slay, cut, cut off, kill. 
impf. ind. pi. 3 lleSynt ; impf. pass. 
lleSid ; pret. pass. lias. p. part. 
llaSedig. § 134(a). 

Llaesgenym n. pr. m. 204, 25. 

llaessau to relax, abate, moderate. 

llafur m. labour, exertion, toil, 
effort. 

llafurya'w to labour, endeavour, 
attempt. 140, 13. 159, 15. 166, 21. 
180, 32. 186, 9. 

llafuryus (llafurus) laborious. 
191, 27. 
^' llafyn a blade ; pi. llafneu, llafnawr. 

y Hall the other ; pi. y lleill. § 70. 

Llamrei the name of Arthur's 
mare. 201, 20. 

llann an enclosure, land. 223, 5 ; 
Li. daf n. 1. Llandaff. 



llanw(l) to fill. 175, 7. (2) tide. 
198,7. 209,4. 216,11. 
^ WsLxy generous, gracious, gentle. 233, 
31. MA. 249 b48 ; 247 a 48 ; 241b 42. 
, lias, see llaS. 
^ llathru to glitter, glisten. 
"■ Haw f . a hand ; pi. dwy-law. 
cymhell y 1. to force to surrender ; 
152, 23 ; rag 11. at hand, imminent. 

llawch protection. 233, 6. MA. 
192b8; 247b 6. 

llawen glad, gay, merry. 11. yw 
genyf gaudeo 170, 13. 

llawer many, much. 

llawhethan 227, 28 = llywethani 
MA. 73 a 18 v.l. one of the constella- 
tions. Cf. Barddas I. , 404. 

llaw-hir long-handed. 

11a wn full. 

llawr m. the ground ; the earth ; 
239, 19. 234, 10. 239, 9. yr H. to the 
ground ; y lawr down. 

He m. place ; pi. -oe5. where 225, 13. 
yviVi^ instead of, for 180,2; yn y He 
immediately ; yssid le iSaw gwynaw 
he has reason to lament ; pa le tuhere ? 
with subjunctive clause, where. 
225, 13. 

llechu to lurk, hide. 177, 22. 

lied m. breadth. 154, 7. 

Lledewig, see Llywedig. 

lled-lwm half-bare, half-naked. 
Gwrgwst LI. n. pr. m. 200, 28. 

Hefaru to speak. 229, 31. 

Hef m. voice, sound. 
■J llefein to shout, cry ; m. a shout- 
ing. 

V HeferyS to say ; speech, utterance. 
139, 22. 202, 16. 220, 4. 

lleng a legion. 

Llengrys n. 1. Lengriae. 179, 6. 

llei less, inferior. 162, 1. 

V Heidyr m. a thief; pi. lladron. 

1. lleill, see Hall. 

2. lleiH: y 11. one of two. 194,17. §71. 
Heis voice. 153, 4. 

- \\Qissai-wn generous, liberal. 235,11. 
MA. 154b 11; 159b 8. 
« Heith death. 232, 2. 233, 7. 

llemenig striding, bounding. 
Cadwr LI. n. pr. m. 161, 23. 

V llenwi to fill. 206, 22. 

Lies n. pr. m. Lucius. 157, 31. 
Wesg feeble, faint. 191,20. 
llesgeS f. feebleness, sloth, cowar- 
dice. 166, 30 ; 167, 5. 9. 180, 23. 
Hetty m. a lodging ;pl. -eu. 195, 9. 



A popular etymology for Leviathan. 



GLOSSARY. 



267 



UUetty-wr m. a host. 195, 9. 

Lieu n. pr. m. 

Ueufer f, and m. light ; pi. -eu. 
^'Uew m. a lion. 186, 30. 235, 11. 

llewenyS joy. 

llewychu to shine, llewychi 232, 7, 
leg. llewychei ? MA. 243 b 9. 

lleyg m. a lay -man ; pi. -yon. 
v'lliaws m. a tnultitude, host. 

llicriS, see llygru. 

Hid m. anger, indignation. 

^lidyaw to become angry. 

llin, see 1. llynn. 

llinad (llin-had) coll. m. linseed , 
sg. llin-hedyn. 199, 18. 20. 
• llithraw to slip, glide along, pass 
by. 11. at to flock to. 145, 23. 
Uithrei 2( »3 , 20 leg. llathrei glisten ed ; 
cf. RB. 2, 2. 

1. Wi-w {\\yvf)n\. colour, hue. 164,13. 
241, 16. 2. lliw, see 1. llyw. 
^ llof-ru5 (lit. red-handed) a slayer 
of men. 233, 10. 

Hong- f. ship ; pi. -eu. 

lloneid^^^, the fidl of anything. 

llosg arson. 223, 1. 

Uosgi to burn, set on fire. 

llu m. a host, army ; pi. -oe5. 

Uuched lightning. 227, 25. pi. 
llucheid. 185, 27. 

Llu5 n. pr. m. 198, 18. See Rhys, 
Celt. Heath, p. 125. 

Wuded fatigue. 207, 9. 

lluSyas to hinder. 208, 21. 

Uuest a camp ; pi. -eu. 

Llundein London. 

Uunyaethu to arrange, dispose, 
array. 146, 5. 165, 19. 182, 14. 

llunyeithaw to arrange, put in 
order. 178, 2. 

Wuoss-og-rwy 8 amultitude. 141,28. 

llurug f. a coat of mail. 150, 25. 

Ilu-y5 m. a hosting, military ex- 
pedition. 222,14; 223,32. 
J llw m. an oath. 221 , 4. 

llwch a lake. 229, 5. 241, 8. LI. 
Tawy 205, 25. 

llwdyn m. the young of animals ; 
pi. llydyn. 203, 4. 

Uwfyr m. a coward. 242, 9. 

Uwg^r harm, damage, disad- 
vantage. 218, 25. 

^ Uwm bare, poor. 226, 4. 241, 1. 
242,8. V 

llwrw (Ir. lorg track) : yn 11. as 
regards? 198, 17. loco, vice, Davies. 

Wvrydgrey. 



LlwySawg n. pr. m. 205, 6. 

LlwySeu n. pr. m. 202, 25. 
^llwyn (lluhyn) m. a wood, grove^ 
bush ; pi. -eu. 

llwyr complete ; yn 11. wholly, com- 
pletely. "^ 

llwyth m. a tribe, people. 227, 27. 

Llychlyn Norway. 157, 9: 

Llychlyn-wr m. a Norseman. 
157, 11. 

Llychwr n. 1. Loughor. 205, 5. 

llydan broad, extensive. 

Llyda'w Armorica, Brittany. 

Llydewig Armorican, Breton.-^ 
Glythmyr Ll. 201, 12. 

llydw a host, household, com- 
munity ; 223, 10 ; 13. See MA. 308 b 28, 
249 a 14, 343 a 51. 

llyfyr m. a book. 

V llyfyr-der in. cowardice. 233, 7. »x 
llygad m. an eye. taraw 1. in the 

timnkling of an eye, immediately. 

Llygad-ru5 n. pr. m. Red-eye. 
206, 2. 

llygru to corrupt, mar, spoil, 
violate. 167, 4. 189, 3. 195, 13 ; to 
become foul 241, 3. 

llyngcu to sivallow. 

llynghes f. a fleet. 145, 9. 

llym keen, sharp. 241, 1. 

llyma lo here! 169, 17 {en). § 244. 

llyna lo there ! 169, 16 {en). § 244. 

1. llynn (llin) f. a lake, pool ; pi. 
Uynneu. Ll. Lliwan 206, 17 = Linn 
Liuan, Nennius ed. Mommsen, 
p. 214. 

V 2. llynn a drink. 193, 15. 

llynn wyn m. a ^00?. 225,1. Leg. 
Wall. 480 b 4. 

Llyr n. pr. m, 139, 1. 206, 19. 

llys f . a court, palace ; pi. llyssoeS. 

llyssu to reject. 218, 7. 

Uythyr m. an epistle, letter ; pi. -eu. 
•J 1. llyw (lliw)m. a leader. 235, 11. 
236, 23. 

2. lljTw, see 1. lliw. 
Llywelyn n. pr. m. 

'llywodraeth f. management. 
Uywodyr m. a leader, commander ; 
pi. llywodron. 
^ llywyaw (llywaw) to rule, direct. 



ma, see mae. 
> mab ni. a son ; pi. meib, meibon. 

Mabon n. pr. m. 195, 24. See 
Rh5^s, Celt. Heath., p. 21. 



268 



GLOSSARY. 



mach m. a surety, guarantor; pL 
meicheu, meychyeu. 210, 20 ; 21 ; 
217,14; 221,25. 

Madawg n. pr. m. 204, 29. 

maSeu to forgive ; forgiveness. 231,4 

maSeueint foi-giveness, remission. 
150, 20. 

mae (may) is ; pi. maent. what is ? 
219, 7. §§ 152. 154 (a). 

maeSu to heat, strike, pound. 159, 
24. 183, 23. 

maen m. stone ; pi. mein ; m. 
freuan qicern-stone. m.-dym. a stone 
house. 198, 15. 

maer (mair) m. a steward, reeve ; 
pi. meirri. 202, 7. 219, 9. 

maerony f. stewardship. 221, 18. 

maes (mays) m. an open field, open 
court, battlefield ; ro5i cad ar f. to 
give battle ; cawssant y m. they won 
the day. 

maestawd majesty ; maes m. field 
of judgment 229, 13. MA. 165 a 22 ; 
17ib51; 195 a 9. 

magu to rear, bring up, to produce, 
engender, conceive, pres. ind. sg, 3 
mecciS 242, 9. FB. 244, 21. MA. 
363 a 21; 33. 
- magwyr f.« im^Z. 198,12. 

mal (fal) conj. as ; when. § 216. 
malpei (malphei) as if y m. 195, 11. 

mam f . mother. 

man fine, small, insignificant. 
184, 18 ; 196, 10. 

manach m. a monk ; pi. meneich. 

manachlawg f. a monastery, con- 
vent ; 188, 22. m. gwrageS 190, 15. 
pi. -logoeS 165, 4. 

ManawySan n. pr. m. 206, 19. 

march m. a horse ; coll. horsemen. 
202, 30. pi. meirch, meirych, 143, 15. 
162, 20. ar feirych on horseback 
174, 18. 

marchawg m. a knight ; pi. 
marchogyon. 

marchogaeth horsemanship, i^iding. 

1. marw dead ; pi. meirw. 

2. marw to die. 145, 1. 149, 9. 
marwawr (pi. ) cinders. 228, 6. 
marwolyaeth (marwolaeth) f. 

death. 145, 7. 

mawl, see moli. 

mawr great, big ; compar. mwy ; 
super, mwyhaf, mwyaf. 

mawr- fu8 great gai7i or advantage ; 
233, 11. 

Maxen n. pr. m. Maximus. 



mecciS, see magu. 
me5 mead. 

me5-gell f. a mead-cellar, cellar. 
164, 2. 204, 27 
me5-gorn m. a mead-horn ; pi. -girn 

235, 1. 

me5-gwyn a mead-banquet. 235, 1. 

236, 13. 

meSu to possess. 181, 5. 

meSwl m. thought, purpose, mind. 

meSyant m. possession, power, 
authority. 

meSylyaw to think, consider, medi- 
tate. 

mefyl f. and m, disgrace, shame, 
insult. 225, 10. 

t^ meglyd (yn) to grip, grasp, cling to. 
176, 14 ; 202, 20. FB. 51, 12 ; 141, 29 ; 
183, 24 ; 247, 7. 

megys conj. as, like, as it were. 
§ 217 : m. na as if not; with subj. 
so that 145, 23. 180, 3. 

mehyn place, country? 229, 2. 
FB. 123,28; 133,25; 169,1; 190,29; 
202, 8 ; 210, 10. 

Mei May. 208, 5. 

meicheu, see mach. 

mein, see maen. 

meint f. size, number, quantity, 
length ; such, pa f. how much. 

Meir Mary (the Virgin), 

meirw, see marw. 

melyn yellow. 

melys siveet, 170, 18. 

Mellt n. pr. m. 201, 11. 
.^ menegi to make known, declare. 

meneich, see manach. 

Menw n. pr. m. 201, 28. 

merch f . a daughter ; pi. -ed. 

Merchyr; dywM. on 
240, 10. 

meredig irrational , foolish. 1 93, 5. 
RB. 115,18, Laws I., 260. 

merthyr m. a martyr. 161, 4. 

messur m. a measure, impression. 
202, 26. 

messuredig measured, according to 
measure. 199, 19. 

meu mine ; § 55. 

Meugant n. pr. m. 

Meuruc n. pr. m. Mauricius. 

meycheu, see mach. 

mi (fi, fy, i) /, me. Emphatic mifi, 
conjunctive minheu, inneu. § 45. 

1. mil f. a thousand; pl.-yoe5. 

2. mil m. an animal ; coll. 204, 5. 
pi. -eid. 



GLOSSARY. 



269 



mil-"wr m. a warrior. 

milwryaeth f. prowess, warfare. 
164, 15; 175, 25; 177,8; 185,30. 

mill-dir f. a mile. 

minheu, minneu, see mi. 

mis m. a month. 

moch (coll.) swine. 

mo5 m. manner. 191, 30. 

modrwy f. a ring ; pi. -eu. 

moQscustom. 193,7. RB. 11.300,1. 

molawd jorm'se. 237, 4. 

moli to praise, commend, pres. 
ind. sg. 3 mawl. 233, 11. 

molyant praise, fame. 146, 2. 4 * 
iprobitas); 156, 21 ; 181, 19; 185, 17. 

1. mor (voc.) with adjectives, how, 
so, as. 

2, mor m. sea ; pi. -oed. 

morSwyd m. a thigh. 205, 23. 

Morgannwg Glamorgan. 

mor-gerwyn f . a maelstrom, whirl- 
pool. 154, 13. 

^ mor-gymlaw5 the raging of the sea. 
235, 13. MA, 173a3i ; 193bV ; 254a44 ; 
266a29. 

v/ mor-grug (lit. anthill), ants ; sg. 
-yn m. 199, 20, 

MoruS n. pr. m. 
*morwyn f . a maiden ; pi. morynyon. 

mud dumb, mute. 

mul m. a mule ; pi. -yoeS. 

muner m. a lord, king. 

mur m. a wall, rampart; pi. -oeS. 

y Mureif Morray. 152, 28. 

murmur a growling. 172, 27. 
^-mwg m. smoke. 199, 23. 

mwy, mwyhaf, see mawr. 

mwyalch f . a blackbird. 1 96, 1 7. 20 . 
:im"wyhau to increase, augment. 

mwynhau (muenhau) to use, employ, 
enjoy, profit. 199, 33 ; 216, 4 ; 217, 26 ; 
218, 1. 

Myg-5wnn smoke-dun, or for 
Myng-5wn dusky-maned, the name 
of ahorse. 201,8. Gwynnm. 206,15. 

myhun I myself § 57. 

myn (in oaths) by. 203, 1. 206, 7. 

mynaches m. a nun ; pi. mynach- 
esseu. 

myned to go ; m. dros to break 
through, penetrate ; § 140. 
-■ mynnu (mennu) to desire, wish, 
seek, endeavour. 

mynwent f. a graveyard, 188, 17. 
LA. 84, 8. 

mynwgyl neck. 176, 14. 

mynych frequent. 



mynyched m. frequency. y m. 
hwnnw so often. 191, 1. v. 1. 

mynyS m. a mountain; pi. -e5. 
y fynyS tipward, up. 

Mynjnv Menevia, St. David's, 

mysg midst. 

y mywn (mewn) ivithin, in ; o f. 
inside, tvithin. § 181. 

1. na (spir.), before vowels nad 7? 0^. 
§236. 

2. na (voc), before vowels nag not. 
§237: 

3. na (spir. ), before vowels nac nor. 
§ 238. na . . na either . . or 168, 2. 

naccau to refuse. 

nachaf lo, behold f 187,21. (voc.) 
153, 16. 189, 3. 193, 2. 

1. nad (nat), see 1. na. 

2, nad ^s??-o^ (dependent). §155(€). 
Nadolig Christmas. 154, 23. 
Naf ra. the Lord. 235, 16. 236, 28. 

1. nag a refusal. 202, 10. 16. 

2. nag, see 2. 3. na. 
nam, see 1. 3. na. 

namyn, namwyn conj. except ; 
after a negative, but. § 219. 
nant a valley ; pi. nanheu 229, 32. 

1. nar = na + def. art. 

2. nar = ra + ry. 184, 1. § 95 N. 
naw (nas,) nine. 

»^naw5 m. protection, sanctuary. 

nawfed ninth. 208, 5. 

neb any ; any one, someone, y 
neb a who. § 64. 

nef m. heaven ; pi. -oe§. 

neges f. a business, affair, quest. 

nei m, a nephew ; pi. nyeint. 

neill one (of two) ; ar neill-du on 
one side. § 69 ; 71 

neill-du-edig apart, aside. 

neirthyad m. a strengthener, stay. 
227, 2 ; FB. 241, 21 ; MA. 193b, 1. 

neithawr a wedding feast ; pi. 
neithoreu, -yeu 189, 9. 

ner m. a lord. 233, 5. 

nerth m. and f. support, help, 
strength, power ; pi. -oeS. 

nerth-fawr mighty. 233, 5. 

1. nes prep, until. § 182. 

2. nes, nessaf, see agos. 
nessau to draw near. 147, 16, 
nessed nearness, yr n. however 

near. 154, 20, 

Nethawg n. pr. m. 

1. neu (voc) or, nor. § 220. 

2. neu now, before vowels neud ; 
with ry, neur. §221, -^ 



A 



'C^ 



270 



GLOSSARY. 



newidyaw to exchange (blows). 
186, 8 ; 191, 24. tra iiewitywn an 
dehenoeS quando dextras conferemus. 
170, 19. 

newyS new. o n. anew, again, 
recently. 178,28. 179,4. 195, 15 v. 1. 

newyn m. hunger. 149, 5 ; 186, 30. 

ni (ny) we, us. . Emphatic nini, con- 
junct, ninheu, ninneu. §§ 45 (a). 

nifer in. a number, host, retinue; 
pi. -oeS. 

no (spir.), nog", with def. art. nor, 
conj, than. § 222. 

nodi to mark, notify, specify. 
199, 18. pluperf. pass. sg. 3 ry 
•^ nodySoeS. 205, 10. 

no5i to protect, preserve ; pres. 
subj. sg. 3 notho (nodho) 193, 8. 

noe, see no. 

noeth naked, hare, unprotected, 
unarmed', pi. -on. 
V, noethi to hare, to unsheathe. 

Normanyeid Normans. 

nos f . night. 
\l nottau to mark, specify. 201, 24. 

Nu5 n. pr. m. 200, 25. 

Nwython n, pr. m. 

1 . ny (spir. ) before vowels nyd, not. 
§235. 

2. ny, see ni. 

1. nyd, see 1. ny. 

2. nyd is not. ^ § 155 (5). 
nyeint, see nei. 

Nyfer the river Nevern. 204, 12. 
nym, nys, see 1 . ny. 

1. nyth m. a nest ; pi. -od. 154, 3. 

2. nyth, see 1, ny. 

nyw, see § 49 (c). 233, 2. 8. 12. 

1. o (a) (voc.) prep, of, from, loith, 
for; with passive verb, hy. o gyfreith 

according to law 211, 17. § 183. with 
def. art. or (ar). 

2. o (spir.), before vowels od, or, os 
c onj. if; riQg. ony, onyd_; with the 
pres. of copula os, neg. onyd. § 224. 

obry beloiv. 

1. oc prep. = l. o before pronouns 
beginning with a vowel. § 183. 

2. oc? 230,16. 

och ah ! alas ! o. fi ah me ! 142, 21 . 

odi to snow. 241 passim, 

odid scarcely, hardly, rarely. 
226, 6. 232, 11 ; 13. 

odolygyssant, see adolwyn. 

oSieithyr outside 158, 26 ; 164, 19 ; 
o. hynny besides. 161, 34, 162, 21. 

oSyma hence. 



oSyna thence, from that time. 

odyno from there. 

ody-rwng from between, 196, 19. 

o5y-uchtaw above it. 

oe, see 1. o. oeS, oeSynt, see bod. 

oed (oyd) m. age ; appointed time, 
respite, delay. 208, 20. 

oer cold; dire, cruel, deadly. 
o.-grynedig fearftdly trembling. 
152, 16. 

1. oes f. life, lifetime, age, genera- 
tion ; pi. oessoeS. 

2. oes (oys) there is. §§ 152, 154 R 
oestru ? 2.30, 33. 

ofn-awg timorous. 184, 21. 

ofyn m.fear. 148, 22. 187, 31. 

ofynhau to fear. 142, 4. 167, 26. 

offeren mass ; pi. -eu. 162, 29. 

ohan-, ohon-, see §§ 53, 183. 

oia interjection. § 243. 

ol track ; yn ol after, behind, a oed 
yn ol or dy5 what remained of the day. 

olyf-wyS (oliwyS) m. coll. olive- 
wood. 165,21. 

oil, holl, all. § 67. 

onaSunt of them. § 53. 

oni, onyl, see ny. 

or, see 1. 2. o. 

Ore, Orch the Orkneys. 156, 12. 
162, 11. 

organ f. a musical instrument, 
organ. 163, 6. i5. 

orig (dimin. of awr) a short hour. 
230, 13. 

OS, see 2. o. 

osidif there is. 213,22,28. §§152,154 

osp m. a stranger, guest. 193, 7. 

ottid, see odi. 

Owein n. pr. m. 

pa, ba (voc. ) what ? § 80. A^ ''^^ '^ ^' 

pab m. a pope. pi. -eu 220, 8. 

Pabo n. pr. m. 

pader f . the Paternoster. 215, 4. 5. 

pagan a pagan, heathen ; pi. -yeid. 

paladyr m. a spear-shaft. 194, 23. 

^aXlxx to fail. 180, 11. 

pan (pann) (1) whence, § 225. 
(2) (voc.) when, § 226. (3) that; pan 
yw 155a (^) ; hyd pan until, so that. 
yr pan since. 170, 5. 

parabyl m. a speech. 170, 4. 

paradwys f. Paradise. 238, 4. 

parattoi to prepare. 148, 7. 

parawd prepared, ready, easy. 
144, 3. 158, 24. 30. 

parchell m, a young pig. 203, 10. 



GLOSSARY. 



271 



pared m. a wall, partition. 196, 20. 

parhau to remain, continue. 180, 15. 

parth m. and f. part, direction ; 
149,2. 201,5. p. ac towards. 139,9. 

Parth Parthia. 172, 6. 

parth-gle5 left-hand side ; sic leg. 
229,29. MA. 274a 25. 

pawb everyone, everybody. 

pebyll m. a tent ; pi. -eu. 

pebyllaw to pitch a tent or tents, 
encamp. 173, 24. 

pechawd m. sin ; pi. pechodeu. 

pedeir, see pedwar. 

pedr-ongylsg'ware. 154,7. RB. II. 
12, 31. 
— pedwar m. pedeir f. four. 

pedwyryS m. pedwareS f. fourth. 

peSyd infantry. 

peSydganta troop of infantry. 171,5, 

Pedyr Peter. 228, 19. 

pei if he were. 200, 16. conj. if. § 227. 

vpeidaw (peidyaw) (ac) to cease 

(from). 140, 4. 179, 3. 190, 21 ; 

p. o 167, 3 V, 1.; p. yn 178, 24, 

RB. II. 253, 10. 

peir m, a cauldron. 202, 7. 14, 

peiss-awg coated. Hir P. n. pr. 
m. 206, 1. 

pell far, distant; ym p. far of; 
o h.from afar. comp. heWach fcrther. 
193, 16 V. 1. 

pellenhig a stranger. 193, 7. 

penn ahead, top, point, end; mouth. 
225, 12. pi. -eu. am b. against 146, 26. 
uch b. over, above ; ym p. at the end. 
Penn n. pr. m. 

pennaf (penhaf ) foremost, chief. 

Penn-beid chief of boars. 201,16. 
"-^ penn-cawr chief giant. 

Penn-dragon chief leader. 

penn-ffestin a helmet. 150, 25; 
159,17, RB. II. 55,19; 155, V; 162,U. 

penn-saer m. a chief craftsman. 
204, 27. 

penn-swy5wr m. a chief steward. 
160, 13. 

penn-truUyad m. a chief butler. 
160, 12. 

penjd penance. 150, 20. 238, 8. 

Peredur n. pi:, m, 

perfeS middle, centre. 176, 26. 
183, 3. 29. 210, 10. 

per ffeith perfect. 237, 12. 
^ peri to cause, make, create. 190, 19. 
234, 10. 

perigyl m. and f. a danger; pi. 
perigleu. .151,30. 153,30. 



perthcled, see parth-gle5. 

1. perthyn (at) to belong (to). 155, 
21. 

2. perthyn appropriate, pertinent. 
234, 18. 235, 8. MA, 191a, 26 ; 228a, 26. 

u peryf m, the Creator. 234, 9. MA. 
228 al8. 

petrus m. a doubt. 150, 4 v. 1. 
167, 4. 

pettrussaw to doubt. 169, 7. 

petrusder hesitation, doubt. 147, 28. 
150, 4. 

. peth a thing, something, somewhat. 
peth, beth = pa beth what? §§ 74. 79. 
203, 11, 

peunyS adv. daily, everyday. 
beunyS 239, 10. 

peuny5-yawl daily. 190, 9. 

phellas: ara phellas 239, 17. '''which 
I have set apart, ^^ Skene, FB, I., 289 ; 
Pughe s,v. gwanas has: a ryfullias 
" which I have prepared.'^ 

pieu whose is ? 193, 5. 6. to whom 
it belongs, 16, 7. §§ 83, 161. 

pigo to peck at. 197, 23. 

pimp, see pump. 

plant (coll.) children. 

pleid f. a side, party ; oh. on the 
side of. 

plith : o blith from among ; trwy 
blith through the midst of; ym plith 
among. 

plwyw people. 227, 12. LA. 106, 
19; 22. RB. II. 270,24. 

pob each, every ; bob un, bob deu 
in ones and twos ; pob eilwers alter- 
nately ;%^Z. pohmynm^ any place . 
223,8. 

pobyl f . people ; pi, pobloeS. 

poenf.^am; pi, -eu. 142, 13. 

poened pain, torment . 230,21. 

pony, before vowels and with pres, 
of cop. ponyd, interrog. part.= Lat. 
nonne? § 240, 

1 . porth m. a gate, gateway ; pi. 
pirth. 193, 11. 194, 3, 234, 12, 
1 2. porth f. help, assistance, sup- 
port. 175, 6. 176, 18. 196, 8. 
208, 20, 25. 

3. porth a port, harbour. P. CerSin 
n. 1. 

porthawr m. a doorkeeper. 
193, 12, 17: 234, 12, 

porth-fa f. a port. 172, 21, 

post a post, pillar. Pabo p. 
Prydein 162, 3. 

pren m. a tree, cross. 230, 17. 



272 



GLOSSARY. 






Presseleu n.l. 204, 6. 

pressennawl pertaining to this 
ivorld. 198, 20. LA. 130, 31 ; 142, 4. 

pressent present, gwlad p. this 
world, 230, 5 ; 232, 10. MA. 272a, 16; 
281, 36. 

priawd oicn. 181, 18. 
V prif-gerS a panegyHc. 235, 5. 
'^ prif-glod loud praise, eulogy. 
235, 6. 

priodas f. marriage. 141, 2. 

priodawr m. a proprietor, land- 
owner. 212, 24. 27; 2J3, 8; 220, 28, 
31. 

priodol-der m. proprietary right. 
212, 28; 213, 1. 20. RB. II. 341, 21. 

processio (procesiwn) procession. 

profi to try, test, tempt. 139. 11. 
237, 17. p. part, profedig 146, 1 ; 
164, 15 ; 206, 13. 

1 . pryd aspect, heauty. 140, 22 ; 
155, 25. 

2. pryd m. time; pa bryd. when? 
p. pan when 212Q, 25. p. na since not. 
§ 228. 

w prydu to sing, compose poetry. 
235, 5. 

pryder care, anxiety ; pi, -eu. 

pryderus anxious. 190, 29. 

Prydein f. Britain. 

Pryd-wenn f. (fair-shaped) the 
name of Arthur's ship. 199, 6; 202, 12. 

prynu to buy, redeem. 238, 14. 

Pumlumonn.l.PZimZ*mow. 199,22. 

pump (nas.)j^i?e. 

^}xx pure, perfect. 238,5. 

pur-Suje^ hlack. 225, 21. 
^ pur-ffawd pure, perfect happiness. 
237,13. MA. 315bi4. 

pur-wynn m. -wenn i. pure-white. 

pwll m. a pit, hole. 200, 6. 

pwy who? which? 139, 11. 194, 14. 
who ; p. bynhac whoever. § 81 . 

pwys a weight, burden. 238, 6. 

pwystyr why ? 193, 14. 
bo-'-Py (^^^•) '^^^i^ § 185; pyr why? 
» § 229. py diw (O.W.) to whom. 
146,1. §80n.4. j>^>^<i^ -- V^^r- 

pyd m. a pitfall, snare. 177,25. 
MA. 231b4; RB. 11.76,10. 

pylu to make blunt. 159, 17. 
RBII. 106, 31 ; 56, 33; 71, 19; 161, 1. 

pym, see pump. 

pymhed//if^. 

pymtheg {nos.) fifteen. 

-pynhag -soever. § 81 . 

pyr, see py. 



pysg m. a fish ; pi. -awd. 154, 8. 
198, 26. 241, 11. 

pythew-nos a fortnight. 209, 6. 
216, 13. 16. 

racco (racko) yonder. § 63. 

rad f . grace, favour, blessing. 140, 
5. 12. 145, 18. 

raff a rope ; pi. -eu. 147, 4. 

rag prep, before, for, from. §§ ^,i 
186. yn r. 195. 28. p yr. wherefore ? 
193, 13 V. 1. r. wyn^h following , next. 

rB.g-bYVTe6.n6. to foretell. 176,15. p. 
part. ragSywededig aforesaid. 173,3. 

rag-fe5ylyaw to consider, provide. 
167, 18. 20; 169,4 

rag-flaenu to excel, 164, 8. RB. II. 
293,29 ; 350,11. r. y ffor5 iter prae- 
cedere. 179, 7. 

ragod (rachod) to waylay ; an am- 
bush, 147, 1 ; 177, 16 ; 206, 12 ; 223, 6. 

rag-weled to for see, 'provide. 
167,20. 169,4. part. weledig 169,2 v.l. 

rag-ynys f. an adjacent island, 
202, 28, 

ranc : r, bo5 content, satisfaction. 
195, 12. 

ranghei, see rengi. 

rann f. a division, part, portion, 
share, ran 228, 7. pi. -e5. 227, 6. 

rannu to divide. 141, 5. 179, 14. 

redeg (rydec) to run, race, pass by. 

redyn fern. Redyn-fre n. 1. (^i^er;?^- 
hill J 196, 29. 

Reged f., n. 1. 152, 29. 155, 16. 

reges ebb-tide ; adversity, 228, 11. 
CZ.V,p. 566. 

rengi bo5 to satisfy, please, pres. 
ind. sg. 3 reinc 194, 18 ; past subj. 
sg. 3 ranghei 195, 11. RB, II, 329, 18, 
MA. 321b, 3L 

rei (rey) some, few, y rei those,^ 
such ; pob rei both sides § 66 ; rei . . 
rei (ereill) some . . some § 75. 

reid (wrth) need (of J, necessity, 
trouble, 

rei5 (reit) a shaft, antler. 197, 1. 
MA. 148 b 58. 

ReiSwn n. pr. m. 204, 17. 

reinc, see rengi. 

Rein n. pr, ni. Begin. 

reolawdyr regular. 161, 8. RB, 
II, 171,16; CM. 14,15, 
--' restru to range. 204, 11, 

rew frost, ice, 241, 20. 

rewi to freeze, pres. ind. act. sg. 3 
rewhiS 241, 3. 19. § 129. 



GLOSSARY. 



273 



rewinyaw to cause to perish, de- 
stroy, ruin. 3 sg. pret. ind. act. 
rewinywys 229, 22. cp. MA. 140a, 
33 ; FB. 146, 6. 

rid, see ryd. 

riein-gadeir f. a queen's throne. 
189, 8. 

rieni pi. ancestors. 168, 13; 170, 12. 
22. 

rif number. 171, 16. 

ringhyll (ringyll) m. an appamtor, 
a beadle. 210, 12. 18 ; 214, 21. 

riheS ? 228, 30, FB. 11, 10 ; 174, 2. 

rihy 5 splendour, splendid? 227, 4. 
MA. 195a, 12; 229, 21 ; FB. 6, 24; 8,5; 
110,12; 112,3; 211, 15; 212,17; 305, 7. 
^ rin a secret. 225, 7. 
^/rith /orm, guise. 

•^rithaw to shape, create, transform. 
196, 27 ; 197, 7. 

riw a slope. 242, 4. 

ro prep, between. § 53. 

rod f . a wheel, gellwng cleSyf ar 
y r. to h-andish a sword in circle. 
202,21. MA.286a,35. L.GlynCothi 
92, 10. 

ro5 m. and f . a gift ; pi. -yon. 

rofi, see ro. 
" ro5i (roy, rohi) to give, put, place, 
grant, surrender. 

Ron the name of Arthur's lance. 

ru5 red, ruddy. 228, 15. 

Ru(?-fyw n, pr. m. 205, 31. 

Rufein f. Borne. 181, 4. 

Rufeinawl Roman. 

Run n. pr. m. 

ruthur (rythur) f. a rush, onset. 
151, 21. 24. 176, 12. 24. 178, 21. 
182, 6. 8. 

Ruthyn n. 1. 

rwng (yrwng) prep, between. 
§§ 53, 187. 

rwyS easy, free, prosperous, fav- 
ourable ; 172, 24. ar r. in prosperity ; 
glew-r. 235, 11. 
' rwyf m. a ruler, leader, 236,23. 25. 
^ rwygaw to rend, break. 198, 27. 
r. (y) mor to plough the sea 149, 16. 
172, 25. 

rwymaw to bind, gird. 150, 29. 
188, 5. p. part, rwymedig bound, 
attached. 162, 25. 158, 6. 

rwysg svMy. 227, 4. 235, 13. 

ry verbal particle. §§ 95, 96, 97. 

ry- intensive prefix, very, too. 
ry-fawr 241, 19. ry-hir 162, 8. 

rych a furrow. 226, 5. 



ryd a ford. 241, 3. R. Ychen 
Oxford 161, 34. 

rydec, see redeg. 

ry5 free. 198,29. 237,24. 

rySaw, see ro. 

ryShau to free, liberate. 

rySidf. freedom, franchise,privilege. 
186,23. 221, 19. 

rySynt, see ro. 

ry-fe5 a wonder ; wonderful, 
162, 23. compar. -ach, 154, 5. 

ryfeSu to wonder. 149, 23. 154, 4. 

ryfel m. war. 167, 25. 

ry-gosswy, ry-gossys ? 231,31. 

Rymhi n. 1. 

rynawd awhile. 142, 1. 

ryodres magnificence, pomp. 156, 
21. 161, 2. 

ryrys? 231,30. 

Rys n. pr. m. 205, 31. 235, 17. 
V rysswr m. a warrior, champion. 
199,26; 29; 204, 16; 206, 18. CM. 1, 
25; 2, 3. 

rythur, see ruthur. 

ryw m. ki7id, sort; such; 167, 7. 
174, 33. 186, 2. neb ryw any. 140, 10. 

Sadwrn : duw S, on Saturday. 
228, 21. 

saer m. a craftsman, wiight. 

Saesneg f. the English language. 

Saeson, see Seys. 

saeth an arrow ; pi. -eu. 176, 23. 

saethu to shoot with arrows. 1 64, 24 . 

safant, see sefyll. 

safedig (p. part, of sefyll) esta- 
blished, fixed, valid. 218, 11. 

Salsbri n. 1. Salisbury. 
. salwen vain, needless. 201, 29. 

Samsun n. pr. m. Samson. 

sant m. a saint ; pi. seint. 202, 32. 

sarff a serpent ; pi. seirff, 

sarhaed f , an insult, affront ; pi, 
-eu. 166, 1. 223, 21. 

sawdl a heel ; pi, sodleu. 159, 24, 
183, 23, 

sawl a many, multitude ; y s. those, 
§77. 

sef that is, this is. § 47, 

sefir, see sefyll. 

sefyll (trans, and intrans.) to stand, 
to stop, stand fast, fix. pres. ind. sg 
3 seif, pass, sefir, pi. 1 safwn, pi. 3 
safant (sauahant), pret. sg. 3 safawS 

segur disengaged, idle. 241, 18. 

se^uryd m. ease. 167, 7. 180, 13. 

self, see sefyll. 



274 



GLOSSARY. 



seilaw^o/ownrf, establish -, remain? 
perf. sg. 3 ry seilas. 232, 3. 

sein a sound, 183, 8. 

seint, see sant. 

seith seven, s.-lydyn seven young 
ones. 203,4. 15. 

Seith Pedyr Saint Peter. 228, 19. 
Cf. Rh^s, Lect. p. 371. 

seneS f. a senate. 166, 4. 15. 

seneSwr m, a senator. 172, 11. 

ser, see syr. 

serch love. 

Seys m. a Saxon, Englishman ; 
pi. Saeson. 146, 12. 

Sibli f. the Sibyl. 169, 17. 

sodlau, see sawdl. 

son f. a sound, noise, 183, 22. 
^/ sorri to be angry, frown. 141, 19, 
142, 32. pres. ind. sg. 3 syrr. 226, 2. 

sugna^v to suck, imperf . ind. sg, 3 
sucknei 154, 19, 

Svil-^yvjniOi. Whitsunday. 160,19, 
■^ swilt m., money, treasure. 149,12, 
202 24 
^ swyS an office. 202, 19. 

syberw stately, noble. 143, 15. 

sjherwjd pride, arrogance. 180, 17. 

syched m. thirst. 170, 15. 

syllu^o gaze, look. 154, 1 ; 199, 26. 

symudaw to change. 143, 14. 

syr {coW.) stars. 161,11. 197,23. 
227, 29. 

syrr, see sorri. 

syrthaw to fall, 159, 10. pret. 
pi. 3 syrthassant 185, 21 ; 187, 25. 

tad m. a father ; pi. -eu ; hen-dad 

n ancestor. 



/ 1<*/^ tafaw ? 230, 19 sqq. 
(^Jlhji. , ^ oy^ tafawd a tongue ; pi. 
l(*>^ /ir ^ tafawd -lefery 5 spoken word, verbal 



tafodeu. 



evidence. 139, 22 ; 220, 4. 

tangnefeS peace. 201, 2. 

tangnefeSu to make peace, pacify, 
appease, 

tangnefeSus j»eace/w/. 144, 16. 

1. tal m. forehead, 159, 16. 

2. tal payment, value, tu a thai an 
equivalent? 221, 12. 

talawr, pi. of tal ? 228, 13. 

Taliessin n. pr. m. 

talu to pay, give in return, requite, 
give, forfeit ; reckon. 209, 12. 

taXymra.. a while, period, ar dalym 
for a tim,e 146, 2. 

' 1. tan, dan (voc.) prep, under; 
deni under her, § 188, 

2. tan m, fire. 



tansivrlfery, 173, 4, 

tannu to stretch, t. pebylleu ten- 
toriafgere. 173, 17 v. 1. 

taplas f, tables, backgammon, 
164, 25 ; 167, 4. 

taraw to strike, t. lygad in the 
twinkling of an eye, 203, 32. 

tarSu to flee, run away, start, 
pres, ind. sg, 3 terSiS ; pres subj. sg, 3 
tardho 228, 13; 14. FB. 93,18; 
94, 27 ; 104, 29 ; 125, 6 ; 151, 5 ; 163, 16 ; 
198, 21. 

tarren f, a plot of uncultivated 
land, 196, 3. 
V 1. taryan f. a shield ; pi. .eu. 

2. taryan thunder. 227, 25 ; 229, 7. 
FB, 17122; MA. 287 b 11. 
^taryanawg m. a shield-bearer; pi. 
-ogion. 234, 15. 236, 7. 
lAaryf, leg. toryf ? 233, 17, 236, 7. 

tawl, see toli. 

tebig similar, like. 239, 11, 

tebygu to deem, think, suppose. 

teccau to adorn, decorate, 

tecced beauty. 140, 26. 

teg fair, pleasant. 

tegyvchm. beauty. 140,22. 155,25. 

Teilaw n. pr. m. 
\/ teilwng (y) worthy of meet, fit for, 
deserving, acceptable. 150, 17. 
, teilyng-dawd f. dignity, 155, 22. 
164, 7. 

teir-gweith three times. 

Teir-gwae5 ^* Three-shouter'" n. pr. 
m. 201, 28. 

teir-nossig three nights old. 

teithyawff moving, in motion. 
229, 8. mal ton teithiawc llwyfenyd 
FB. 192, 26 

Teithyon n. pr. m. 204, 29. 

telediw handsome, fair. 140 ,29. 

te\e6xweA fairness. 140, 27 v. 1. 

telyn a harp. 147, 12. 

telynawr a harper. 147, 15. 
. temyl (temhyl) f. a temple; pi. 
temleu. 144, 10. 12; 152, 27. 

Temys the Thames. 189, 27. 

terfyn m. an end, limit, boundary, 
term ; pi. -eu, -heu. 166, 16. 20. 

terfynu to end, finish. 168, 27. 
183, 24 ; p. part, terfynedig «;?- 
pointed. 171, 28. 

-^ terfysg m, trouble, conflict, uproar. 
141, 18 ; 167, 29 ; 225, 12 ; 233, 20. 

terfysgu to disturb. 141, 12. 

tes heat, hot loeather, sunshine. 
241, 16. 



GLOSSARY 



275 



1, teu thine. § 55. 

2. te^n silent? 231, 2. 

"teu-lu a household, retainers, com- 
munity ; pi, -oe5. 

tew thick, dense, 151, 22 ; 241, 21. 

tewhau to thicken, to close up the 
ranks. 151, 26 ; 176, 24 ; 187, 24. 
t^ teyrn (teern, teeirn) a king, ruler ; 
pi. teerneS ; t.-fab m. a king's, son ; 
t.-walch m. a royal haivk, hero; 
t. -wialen f. a sceptre. 
• teyrnas m. and f . « kingdom ; 144, 9. 
162, 31. pi. -ssoeS. 

teyrn-ged f. tribute. 166, 6. 

ti (di) thou, thee ; emphat. tydi, 
conjunct, titheu. § 45 (a) 

tmo a valley, vale. 240,1. FB. 157, 7; 
210, 8. 

tir m. land ; pi. -e5. 

tir-diwollawdr a husbandman ; pi. 
-odron. 149, 20. 

tireS, see tir and twr. 

titheu, see ti. 
^ tlws m. a jewel ; pi. tlysseu. 

to5i to melt. 228, 26. 

toi to cover ; pres. ind. sg. 3 toi5, 
tohiS 241, 5 ; 242, 1. FB. 157, *. 
^ toli to curtail, diminish ; pres. ind. 
sg. 3 tawl 233, 12. 

tonf. a wave. 229, 6. 241, 5. 

tor belhj ; ar eu t. against them. 
181, 14, RB. II. 48, 12 ; 97, 30; 157, 23. 

torntobreak,violate. 183,12. 223,4 
"^toryf multitude, host ; pi. torfoeS. 
151, 26. 233,20. 234, 16. 23. 

tost fiard, severe. 

Totneis n. 1. Totness. 

1. tra (spir.) prep, beyond, across, 
over. § 189. 

2. tra (voc.) conj. lohile. § 230. 

. tra-chefyn backwards, back, behind, 
again. § 189 N. See cefyn. 

Trach-myr n. pr. m. 204, 8, 

traeth m. a shore, coast ; pi. -eu. 

traethu to utter, declare. 168, 29. 
170, 7. 

trafferth trouble. 207, 27. 28. 

tragywyS eternal. 232, 13. 

tragywySawl eternal. 150, 11. 

trallawd ispersecution, trial. 237,18. 
LA, 19, 27; 21, 27; 28, 25, 

tra-mor over -sea. 156, 28. 

trannoeth (lit. over night) next day. 

traws transverse, ar t. across. 
149, 3 V. 1. 

traws-brenneu pi, lateral branches 
Cf. trauskeyg, 



of a tree. 149, 3. 
Inc. Laws T. 290, 3 



trayan (traean) m. a third. 139, 17; 
157, 5 ; 201, 31. 

trebelid sunft, dexterous. 201, 22, 
RB. II. 56,27. MA. 279a35 

trechaf (superl. of tren) strongest. 
187, 19. § 37 (b). 

tref f. a dwelling-place, home. 

tref-tadawg m. an inheritor. 218, 18. 

tref-tadawl inherited. 146, 8. 

trei ebb. 209, 4; 216, 11. 

treiaw to ebb. 154, 14. 

treiglaw^ to travel ; pres. ind, sg. 3 
treigyl. 197, 18. 

treig^rl m. a course, journey. 197,26. 
V treis f. violence, rapine, rape. 
200, 28. 222, 17. 

tremygu to despise. 140, 8. 166, 9. 

treth f. a tribute. 188, 9. 

trethawl tributary. 168, 2. 186, 23. 
^treulaw to spend, consume, ivear. 

tri (spir.) m. teir f. three. 

tri-dieu three days. 149, 8. 164, 29. 
209, 1. 

triganeS a trumpet blast? 228, 29. 
A thriganed kyrn a gwerin trygar 
FB. 2117 ; Cf. 68 ; MA. 124b46. 
vtrigiaw to dwell, remain. 162, 22. 
240, 10. 13. 

trindawd f, the Trinity. 

trist sad. 179, 2. 

tristau to become sad, grieve. 142, 2. 

tristaw to become sad, grieve. 
141,21. 

tristyd m. grief. 147, 6. 

Tro Troy. 163, 24. 

troed m, afoot ; pi. traed. ar traed 
on foot. 174, 18. 

troed-noeth barefoot ; pi. -on. 
153, 27. 

troed-feS m. afoot {measure). 154,6. 

troi to turn (tr. andintr,). 

tros, dros (voc.) prep, across, over ; 
myned dros to break through ; eneid 
dros eneid a life for life struggle. 
§§53; 190. 

trossi to turn, move (tr. and intr.) 
149, 18. 151, 4. 199, 24, 

tru sad, wretched. 230, 20, 

truan miserable, wretched ; a wretch. 

trueni ni. wretchedness, misery. 
^ tru-gar merciful. 225, 19, 

trugareS f. mercy. 227, 7. 

trugarhau (wrth) to commiserate. 

trugeint (trugein) (nas.) sixty. 

trwch cut, broken. 241, 9. 

trwm ni., trom f. heavy, sad. 

trws 227, 21 =trwst noise ? Cf. yna 
by5 mawrdrwst MA. 73a. 



276 



GLOSSARY. 



^ trwssyad (trwssad) ni. one ivho 
ai^ranges, or disposes. 234, 7 ; 235, 28. 
Cf. trwssyaw, trwssa, H},^ I., 214,37 

trwy (drwy) (voe.) prep, through. 
§ 191. drwy y hun in his sleep 172, 27. 

trwySed to visit, pass, sojourn. 
237, 18. FB. 59,12. MA. 844a,2i. 

try-chan (nas.) three hundred. 

trychu to cut down. 149, 1. 

trydyS m. tredeS f. third, one of 
three ; ar y d. with two others. 142, 9. 
§165. 

try-fer a trident. 197, 33. MA. 
317b 13. 

trym-der ni. gravity, seriousness. 
166, 14. 

try-wyr three men. 174, 7. 193, 3. 

tu in. side, region, part ; or tu yn 
eu' hoi from behind them; tu ac 
toiaards ; pa du where ? 198, 32. 

toA people, country. 231,9. 

twng, see tyngu. 

'c^')X perforated, pierced. 205. 23, 

twr m. a tower ; pi. tyreu. 156, 32 ; 
166, 25. 27. tireo 181, 6. 

tw^rch ni. a hoar. 

twrwf m. a host, multitude. 234, 15. 

twyll m. and f. deception, treachery. 
178, 9. 

twyllwr m. a traitor. 

twynpath m. a mound. 199, 14. 

1. ty, see ti. 

2. ty ni. a house ; pi. tei. 
tybygu, see tebygu. 
tybyaw to suspect. 177, 27. 
tyfu to grotv. 

tynghedfen f. fate, fortune ; pi. 
-nneu. 142, 10. 

tyngu to swear, take an oath. pres. 
ind. act. sg. 3. twng 220, 27. 233, 4. 

tyllu to pierce, make a breach. 
183, 15. 

tyllweS (tellweS) f . stillness. 211,2. 

tynnu to pull, drag, draw, retreat ; 
147, 18. 162, 25. 228, 9. t. pebylleu 
to pitch tents. 173,17. 

tyreu, see twr. 

tyrnged, see teyrn-ged. 

tyst a witness ; pi. -on, -ion. 

tywyS a tempest, storm. 228, 25. 

tywyll darkness. 229, 33. 

tywyssaw^g m. a leader, prince, 
chief; pi. -ogion. 

tywyssogaeth leadership, domi- 



uch (voc.) prep, above ; uch ben 



above, over. 



193, 



uched height. 197, 24. 

uchel high, tall, loud. 150, 32; 
186, 16 ; 234, 3. 

ucher evening. 196, 23. 197, 24. 

uchod adv. above. 187, 22 ; 198, 8. 
^- u5 (uut, wut) m. a lord, king, the 
Lord. 235, 16 ; 236, 28. 

uSunt to them, see 1. y. 

ufu5-hau to obey. 150, 23. 189, 22. 

ufull-dawd humility, lowliness. 
237, 22. 

uffern hell. 

ugeint (ugein) m. twenty, deg ar 
hu. thirty. 

Ugnach n. pr. m. 

Ul-Cessar Julius Ccesar. 

un one; same. 163, 29. 221, 13. 
any. 164, 14. § 164 (4). 

un-ben m. a chieftain. 

un-fam having the same mother. 
202^ 18. 

un-ryw of the same kind, similar. 

un-tu : ar u. at a stretch. 156, 17. 
RB. II. 308, 33. 

urSas m. a rank, order, dignity ; 
pi. urSasseu, urSassoeS. 

urSasseiS dignified. 161, 6. 

urSaw to ordain. 

ur5awl ordained. 

Uryen n. pr. m. Urbigenus. 

Uthur n. pr. m. 

weithon, weithyon, see gweith. 

wrth, see gwrth. ^| v. •■ ^y" '^ ^ 

wut, see u5. 

wy (hwy) they, them ; emphat. _ 
wyntwy, conjunct, wynteu. -*«^^= '^^ 

wybyr sky, heaven. 159, 25. See 
1. can. 

wyf, see bod. 

wyneb face ; rac w. folloivingy 
next. 151, 9. 153, 6. 155, "27. w. yn 
w.face to face. 216, 27. 

wyth eight. 

whe, see chwech. 
whedleu, see chwedyl. 
whioryS, see chwaer. 

1. y (voc.) prep. {I) to, [2) from, of. 
§195. ^yy-'^- . ...,^... 9 ,^ 

2. y def. art., see 1. yr. ^ 

3. y verb, particle, see y5. 

4. y {voc.) his, (spir. ) her, their. § 57. 
y-am (voc.) {!) fro'm o^; [2) includ- 
ing. § 164. V '„ 

y-ar {I) from; (2) upon. § 165. 

1. ych m. an ox ; pi. -en. 

2. ych your. §§ 57, 58. 



GLOSSARY. 



277 



ychydig some^ a little, a few. 
y-dan (voc) prep, under. § 188. 
ydys, vdyw, see bod. 
y5 vero. particle, before consonants 
y. §91. 
yfed to drink. 202, 14. 
yfelly, see felly. 
^i ^R. y.gan (voc.) prep. /rom. §167. 



C.| 






jng a strait, difficulty, distress. 
150, 29. 

ynghyd (ac) together (with). 

yll (ill, ell) before numerals, all. 
§67. 

1. ym, see yn. ''^^ - fe" *v.y'' -^^ 

2. ym, see bod. /'"^- V 
yma here, hither, 

^ ym-adaw (ac) to part with, leave, 
desert ; past subj. pi. 3 ymedewynt. 
v/ ym-adraw5 m. to speak ; speech, 
discourse ; pi. ymadroSyon. 142, 10. 

ym-a5assu (ac) to adapt oneself, y. 
ar Sayar to meaure one's length on 
the ground. 174,26. 

ym-afael (yn) to take hold of, 
grasp, 202, 17. 206, 21. 207, 17. 19. 

yman here, hwnt ac y. nunc hac 
nunc iliac 185, 25. 
^ ym-ar-5isg^wyl to watch. 199, 27. 

ym-ar-Syrchafel to exalt oneself. 
157, 4. 

ym-baratoi to prepare oneself. 
171, 19. 

ym-ben-tyr(r)-yaw to rush together. 
176, 17; 186, 10 ; Hg. II. 163, 1. 

ym-choelud (-chaelud) to return, 
turn. 189, 11. 206, 12. 229, 27. 29. 
y. ar to turn upon, set upon. 174, 29. 
207, 20. y. y arfeu yn y GwySyl to 
attack the Irishmen, pret. ind. sg. 3 
ymhoeles. 160, 17. 

ym-da, see ym-deith. 

ymdan (voc.) prep, about. § 164. 

ym-daraw (ac) to contend {with). 
201, 29. 

ym-deith to go about, to go, go away. 
141, 14. pres. ind. sg. 3 ym-da 199, 4. 

ym-dynnu (o) to retreat (from). 
174, 17. 

ym-5ianc to escape, 154, 18. 197, 30. 

ym-5i5an to converse. 147, 9. 
203,18. 

ym-5ifad (o) bereft (of) ; pi. -Sifeid. 
176, 28. 

ym-5ifedi destitution. 145, 14. 

ym-5iffyn, see am-5iffyn. 

ym-5ired to trust, y. y 225, 4, 
y. yn 151, 7. 158, 20. 

ym-5wyn to carry about, 202, 20. 



ym-5ywedyd to discuss, argue, 
211, 16. 

ymeith (o) out {of), away {from). 
174, 8. 

ym-eneinaw: to anoint oneself ^^ 
207, 9. 

ym-erbynyeid to encounter, combat. 

186, 6, 

ym-ffust m. a conflict, struggle, 

187, 20 ; RB. II. 84, 24 ; 90, 31 ; 
162, 10. 

ym-gaffel (ac) to get hold of, 
engage in battle. 185, 19, 186, 2. 
ym-garu to caress one another, 

147, 19. 148, 12. 

ym-geffelybu {3.0) to imitate. 156,25. 
Hg. II. 89, 14 ; 102, 2; LA, 44, 8; 
RB. II. 80, 12. 

ym-geis (ac) to ^eek. 202, 31, 

ym-gelu (rag) to hide (from). 
146, 27. 

ym-golli (ac) to lose sight (of). 
205, 1. 

ym-gribyaw (ac) to wrangle (unthj. 
207, 25. 

ym-gyf-ar-fod to encounter. 146, 14. 
169, 15. 170, 14. 174, 6. 

ym-gyffelybu (ac) to compare one- 
self, vie (unth). 156, 25. 

ym-gynghor (ac) to consult. 148, 1. 

ym-gym-mysgu to engage each 
other. 183, 20. Hg. I. 55, 26 ; 282, 19. 
RB. II. 28, 12. 

ym-gynhal to resist. 151, 17. 192, 8, 

ym-gynuU to gather together. 

148, 25. 

ym-gynullaw to flock together. 
145, 1. 152, 20. 173, 20. 192, 7. 

ym-gyrchu to attack. 173, 2. 

ym-gjrweiraw (o) to equip oneself 
(with). 172, 16. 

ymhoeles, see ym-choelud. 
^ ym-la5 m. to fight; a fight; pi. -eu. 
- ym-M to pursue. 148,24. 188,2. 
fut. sg. 1 ymlidyaf 206, 9. 

ym-lynu to follow, pursue. 152, 
7. 22. 191, 1. 

ym-o-glyd (rag) to guard against. 
176, 3 ; RB. II. 46, 34 ; Hg. I. 28, 5. 

V ym-or5iwes (ac) to overtake, come 
up with, touch. 174, 20. 28. 202, 4. 
204, 3. 28. 207, 3. 

V ym-rithaw to transform oneself. 
201, 33. 

ym-ro5i to give oneself up, surrender, 
devote oneself. 145, 22. 149, 5. 
150, 12. 156, 6. pres. ind. sg. 3 
ymryS 150, 17. 



278 



GLOSSARY. 



ym-ryShau (o) to free oneself 
(from). 147,22. 

ym-tynnu, see ym-dynnu. 

ym-wasgu (ac) to rejoin. 174, 34 ; 
LA. 100, 6 ; Hg II. 272, 29, 

ym-weled to see one another ; y. ac 
to visit. 147, 20. 203, 32. 205, 12. 

ym-wneuthur to effect mutually, 
164, 16 V. 1. 

ym-yrru (gyt ac) to concern oneself 
, (ivith), help. 200, 20. RB. II. 19,8; 
CM, 77, 17. 

ym-ysgydyaw to shake oneself 
202, 4. 

1. yn (nas.) prep, in, into, upon. 
173, 5. § 196. 

2. yn (voc) forming acjverbs and 
with predicative noun and adjective. 
§ 16 (d). 

3. yn (an) our. § 57. 
yna then, there, thither. 

ynad (O.W. egnat) m. a judge. 
209, 24 ; pi. yneid. 210, 5. 

ynfyd foolish. 231, 33. 

ynni mgour. 174, 19. 27. 186, 1. 

yno there, thither. 

ynt, see bod. ynteu, see ef. a 

yny (hynny) conj. until. § 23^ 
For yny vy5 see 2. gwyS. 

ynyal desert, tvild. 228, 7. 

ynys f. an island ; pi. ynysseS. 
Ynys Daned Thanet. 

Ypolit Hippolyt'us. 

1. yr, before consonants y (voc. 
before fern. ) def . art. the. 

2. yr prep, for the sake of; for ; 
since. §§ 53 ; 197. yr na since not, 
though not. § 234. yr hynny never- 
theless ; yr pan since ; pyr (py yr) ^vhy? 
193, 13. 

yrof, see ro. 
y-ryngtunt, see rwng. 

1. jsis. §§ 152; 155; 159 N2. 

2. ys : ys pump mlyneS since five 
years, ys gwers for soine time. 194,6. 
yr ys pell o amser long ago. 197, 22. 

ysgar (ac) to leave, part ivith. 
205 25. 

Ysgawd n. pr. m. 204, 20. 

ysgawn light, slight, easy. 180, 31. 
202, 11. 

ysgithyr a fang, tusk. 201, 23. 
Y.'Wynn white-tusked. 201,16. 



V ysglyfyaMv to snatch. 202, 2; RB. 
II. 151. 8 ; Hg. I. 296, 22. 

ysgol a school. 161, 10. 

ysgolheig m. a scholar, clerky 
priest; pi. -on. 147, 29. 153, 25. 
160, 9. 

ysgrifenu to wHte. 164, 6, 
>/ ysgrybul (coll.) cattle. 199, 4. 

ysgwyd a shield. 241, 18. 22. 
•/ysgwyS f. a shoidder. 174, 31. 

198, 10. 241,18. 22. 

ysgymun (ysgymyn) accursed. 
191, 16. 

ysgymun-dawd viMany. 149, 24. 
%/vsgymunedig accursed ; pi. -yon. 
^sgythredig chased, engraved. 
150, 26. CM. 34, 32 ; 104, 19. 

yslipanu to burnish, polish. 
194, 5. 12. 

yslipanwr m. a burnisher. 193, 18. 

yspardun f. a spur ; pi. -eu. 

yspeid f . a while, a space of time, 
respite. 

YspaSaden (Hawthorn) n. pr. m. 

199, 18. Cf. Rh^s, Celt. H., p. 373. 
Yspaen Spain, yr Y. 182, 23. 
yspeil spoil ; pi. -eu 177, 3. 
ys^ei\a.-vT to despol. 176,31. 188,3. 
yssid there is. 198, 15. 233, 5. pi. 

yssydynt. 194, 2. § 154 (a); ib. n. 1. 

yssigaw to shatter. 147, 4. 

yssu to eat, consume. 200, 3. 31. 

yssyS (yssy) who, ivhich is. §§ 152. 
154 (/5); 155 (k). 

ystondard a battle standard. 
183, 20. 

ystorya history, story. 164, 7. 

ystrad a vale, valley. 205,32. 242,1. 

ystryw device, stratagem,. 147, 22. 
v, ystwng to lower, overcame. 233, 2. 

ystynu to extend, prolong. 188, 7. 

ystyr story ; meaning, import, 
reason. 203, 11. pwystyr (py y.) 
why? 193,14. 

yswein m. esquire. 143, 10. 

ysym there is to me, / have. 233, 1. 
§ 155 B, note 1. 

1. yw, see bod. 

2. yw yew trees. Ystrad Yw 205, 32. 

3. yw, see 1. y. 

1. ywch, see bod.- -jl^/^/v^'' '^'^o^ ^ *o 

2. ywch, see 1. y. t ^^ tJ^K -) 11 /<f C \>- 



APPENDIX 



Additional Variants to " Lear and his Daughters 
from MSS. at Peniarth. 

Pi, P2, P3, P* = MSS. No. 22, 44, 45, 46. 



Ch. I. — 1. 2, thrugein mlyned : dev vgeyn P^ — 1. 3, ef a 
adeilvs P^ — a thri ugein mlyned y gOledichOys (gOledychOs 
P^) ef yn OraOl ac yd adeilOys (adeilOs P^) dinas P^ P* — 
1. 4, leyrcester P^. 

Ch. 2.— 1. 2, yd adaOhei P*. 

Ch. 3. — 1. 4, leueryd om. P^ P* — 1. 5, adaO y rodi hitheu 
yr gOr P^. 

Ch. 4. — 1. 3, y rygaru : yr caru P^ — 1. 1 1, nas rodi hi P^- — 
1, 12, damweinhei P^. 

Ch. 5. — 1. 2, yr Alban : e gogled P^ — 1. 8, y rodei . . . 
genti : y rodey heb tyr na dayar na ssvllt P^ — 1. 15, kadarn- 
hawyt : gOnaethpOyt P^. 

Ch. 6 — 1. 12, ellvng er rey ereyll y emdeyth P^. 

Ch. 8. — 1. 5, gellygassei y OrthaO P^. 

Ch. 9. — 1. I, ydoed P^ — 1. 3, Or* tyghetven lytyavc ep ef 
pa bryd edav dyd e gallwyf y talu vdvnt wy hyn P^. O 
chwichwi yr tyghetueneu P^ Oiar teghetuenneu py le, &c. 
P^ — 1. 4, pa achos y kyffroassoch uiui yar &c. P^ — 1. 7, 
gytdiodef P^— 1. 14, traet P^ P*— ib. Owi P^— 1. 16, talu yny 
gOrthOneb yr gOyr hyny P^ P* — 1. 21, vy rodyon : vyn da 
P3 P4_L 25, yn gam P^. 

* Strachan says : " I can't read the second letter except as r." 



2/8 APPENDIX 

Ch. 10. — 1. I, aghyfnerth : trueni P^ — 1. 2, ef a doeth, &c. : 
dynessav parth ar dynas edoed y ver {sic) endav P^ — ib., 
ym Paris: yg cariz P^ P* — 1. 4,ar gyuaroed P^ — 1. 5, namyn 
vn marchavc ac essweyn P^ ; namyn ef ae yswein P^ P* — 
1. 7, mynet ae that, &c. : dwyn y that hyt en dynas arall ac 
eno dywedwyt y vot en glaf P'-^ — 1. 16, wedy yr dehol P^ 

Ch. 1 1 . — 1. 1 1 , a Onaeth : re gwnathoed P"^ — a wnathoed 
P^ P* — 1. 12, anryded Bifrontisiani : anryded yr devforvavl 
ianus P^ — 1. 13, delhei P* — ib. ac ena ed emkynvlley holl 
seyry a chreffdwyr e dynas P^ — gredyfwyr (sic) P^ — 
crefuydOyr P*. 



Index 



INDEX 

The references are to paragraphs. 



n. =note. 



a, causing vowel-change 7 (a), 

a, rel. part. 82-83 ; with infixed pron. 
49 (b), 50 (a) ; usage 83 (a) ; expressing 
sub j. or obj. 86 ; gov, by prep. 87 (a) ; 
without antecedent 87 (b). 

a, infixing part. 50 (c) ; 94 ; 159 n. 2 ; 
superseded by yd 85 n. 

a, interrog. part. 239 ; lenat. after 18 (g). 

a, ac, conj. 198; mutat. after, 21 (d). 

a, ac, prep. 162; after adj. 34(b); 
mutat. after, 21 (c). 

a, prep. = o 183. 

a, ha, inter j. 243. 

absolute ending -sit 132 n. 

accent, 4 ; 11 n. 1 ; shifting of 8 ; vowel 
variation due to 8 ; secondary ace. 
lln. 1. 

accusative 26 ; traces of 25 ; in poetry 
26 ; of relative 51. 

arh^ prep. 163 

achaws, conj. 199. 

adjective, 30-39 ; lenat. of 16 ; lenat, 
after positive 16 (c) (a) ; after compar. 
16 n. 4; endings of 27(c); gender in 
30 ; stems in -i-, -o-, -u-, 30 note ; 
plur. forms 31 ; attributive 32 ; pre- 
dicative 32 ; number in 33 ; inflected 
adj. 34 (a) ; order in sentence 34 (a) ; 
foil, by prep, o, a 34 (b) ; concord 
35; predicative adj. with yn 35; adj. 
phrases 36 ; comparison 37 ; construc- 
tion of compar. and superl. 38 ; equa- 
tive 39 ; with mor 39 n. 2 ; adv. use 
40; poss. adj. 57: poss. adj. with 
prep. 58 (a), with conj. 58 (a), with y 
58(b), anticipating genit. 59 n. 

abnahot, paradigm of 144. 
adverb 40 ; lenat. 16 (h) ; adv. phrases 
16 (h) ; with demons, force 63. 



-adwy, verbal in 117. 
'^, interrog. of copula 155 {a.){r]) 
ae, interrog. part, 239 (c). 
agent, expression of with verb noun, 122 
am, prep. 164 ; lenat. after 16 (i) ; with 

pron. end. 53; yam 164. 
am {na), conj. 200. 
amal, conj. 216. 
analogy, in verb, conjugation 7 n, 1 ; in 

mutat. 12; 16 n. 7; 39 n. 1; in plural 

formations 27 (d) ; in pronouns 45 n, 2 ; 

in formation of subjunctive 110 n, 1. 
answers, 241, 

apodosis, imperfect in 107 id){l3){y). 
apposition, lenation in 16 n. 4; 17(b). 
ar, prep. 166 ; lenat. after 16(i) ; with 

pron. end. 53 ; or a, ar ny, 87 (a) ; 

yar, 165. 
arall, use of 68. 
arganvot, paradigm of 160. 
article, 23 ; lenat. after 16 ; fused with 

conj. or prep. 23 ; syntax of 24. 
as, as (ys) oed 159n. 2. 
-at, ending of imperf. ind. 3sg. 131 (b). 
att, prep. 166 ; lenat, aft. 16 (i) ; with 

pron, end. 53. 
attributive adj. 32; 33. 
awr, yr awr conj, 201. 
-awr, -iawr, plur, suff. 28 B, (a), 
-awt, plur. suff. 28 B. (b). 

beJiet, prep. 177 n, 

bot, lenation after, 16(g) (^); paradigm 
of 152 ; usages of 153 ; bydwn, etc. 
107 n. 3 ; special f ut. form 152 n. 2 ; 
bit, consuetudinal 152 n. 3 ; bydaf, use 
of 156 (a) ; bydwn, use of 157 ; bewn, 
158 ; past subj. 158 ; compounds of 
160 ; boet, after kyt 205 n. 



284 



INDEX. 



cajfael, cael, paradigm of 145. 

can, gan, prep., lenat. after 16 (i) ; with 
pron. end. 53 ; with vb. noun 126 (c) ; 
use of 167; y gan 167. 

can, conj. 202; not foil, by yd 93(1). 

canvot, paradigm of 160. 

canys, copula 155 (a) (a) ; 202 n, 

canys, conj. 202 n. 

cardinals, see numerals. 

cam, paradigm of 127. 

case, 25 ; traces of lost case- endings 25 ; 
syntax of cases 26 ; expression of case 
in relative 86. 

cer, ger, prep. 168. 

clauses, subjunct. in main clauses 113 ; 
in subord. cl. 114; concessive cl. 114 
(c) ; conditional cl. 114 (d) ; cl. of 
comparison 114 (e) ; temporal cl. 114 
(f) ; final cl. 114 (g) ; relat. cl. 114 (h). 

clybot, use of imperf. of 107 n. 2. 

collective nouns, 29. 

com-, Celt. prep. 39 n. 1. 

command, subjunct. in 113 (b) ; in in- 
direct speech 113(b)(/3). 

comparison of adj. 37 ; lenat. after 16 
n. 5 ; no plural 33 ; construction of 
compar. 38 ; foil, by no (c) 38 (a) ; 
clauses of comparison 114 (e). 

composition, lenation in 16 n. 6. 

concessive clauses, 114(c). 

concord, of vb. and subject 101 ; 103 ; of 
adj. with noun 32, 33; of adj. after 
yn 35. 

conditional of bot 107 n. 3 ; impf . in 
conditional sentence 107 (d) ; plupf. in 
condit. 109 (b) ; subj. in condit. cl. 
114(d); impf. condit. 131. 

conjugation of verb 98 sq. ; analogy in 
7 note 1. 

conjunctions, 198-234 ; lenation after 
16 (1) ; lenation of init. cons. 16 n. 13 ; 
spirant mutat. after 21 (d) ; with 
poss. adj. 58 (a). 



consonants, classification of 3 ; graphic 
representation of 3 n. ; orthog. varia- 
tion 3 n. ; consonantal changes 11 ; infl. 
of accent on cons, changes lln. 1; 
mediae > tenues 11 (g)(a); mutation 
of cons. 12 ; consonants vowel-flanked 
12 ; table of cons, mutations 13. 

consonantal stems, 27 (d). 

consuetudinal present, 106 (b). 

copula, 155; yttiw etc. 154 n. 4; nat 
155 (a)(e); nyt 155 (a)(5); position of 
159 ; preceding pred. 159 n. 2 ; with 
neu 221 ; os, onyt 

customary action in past time, 107 (c). 

cwt, cw, conj. 203; mutat. aft. 21 n. 1. 

cyvarvot, paradigm of 160. 

cyvrwng^ prep. 169. 

cyn-, in equative 39 ; 

cyn, conj. 204; not foil, by yd 93. 

cyn, prep. 170. 

cyt, cyn, conj. 205; not foil, by yd 93 

(1). 
cyt ac, prep, 171; y gyt ac, conj. 206. 
chwech, nas. mutation after 20(c). 

darvot, paradigm of 160. 
dative, traces of 25 ; expressed by in- 
fixed pi on. 51. 
declension, in Old Celtic 25. 
deng, usage of 41 n. 
delw, nom. conj. 207. 
denominative vb. 128 (b). 
deponent, 99. 

di, O.W. prep. 195; and n. 
diam, O.W. prep. 164. 
diar^ O.W. prep. 165. 
dieithyr, prep. 172. 
dim, used as pron. 73. 
diphthongs, 1 and n. 
distributives, 43. 
diuch, prep. 193, 
do, in answers, 242. 



INDEX. 



285 



dual, 25 ; 42 (a) ; lenation of adj. after 
dual noun, 16(b) (a); lenat. of genit. 
after dual 16(b)(^); traces of dual 
inflection 25. 

duch, 110 n. 2; 138 n. 

dy- before infixed pron. 50 f . 

dyvot, paradigm of 141. 

dylyu, with vb. noun 121. 

-e- infixed pron. 48; use of 49(b). 

-edic part, end, 116. 

•ed, pi. suffix 28B(d). 

einom etc. 55. 

-eint, 3, plur, end. impf. ind. 131. 

eissoes, conj. 208. 

.eit, -ieit, plur. suff. 28 B (e). 

eithyr, prep. 172. 

eithyr na, conj. 209. 

ell, ill, yll, 67, 

emphatic pronoun 45. 

endings of verb, 3 sg. of simple vb. 129 ; 
3 sg. conjunct. 129; 3 pi. primary 
ending 129; see imperat, indicat, sub- 
junct. vb, noun. 

epenthetic vowel 10. 

equative in comparison of adj. 39. 

erbyn, prep. 173. 

et, in nocet etc. 222 and n. 

-et, pi, suffix. 28 B (c). 

final clauses, 114 (g). 

future 105; exp. by pres. tense 106 (e); 

special future endings 130. 
futurity, subj. of 113 (c). 

gallu, to express passive with vb, noun 

121, 
gender, in nouns 25; in adjs. 30; 32; 
genitive, lenation of noun in gen. 16 

(b) (/3) ; traces of gen. case 25 ; syntax 

of gen. in prose 26 ; in poetry 26 ; 

gen. of rel. pron. 88. 
ger, see cer. 



gilySy 72 and n. 

gorvot, paradigm of 160. 

guar, prep. 165 n. 3. 

gwares, 110 n. 2; 138 n. 

gwedy, wedy, prep. 174 ; with preverb. 

yddSn.Z; with vb. noun=perf. part. 

126 (b). 
gwedy, conj. 210. 
gwelet, use of imperf, of 107 n. 2. 
gweith, with card, numbers 44. 
gwneuthur, with vb. noun 123 ; paradigm 

of 142. 
gwrtli, O.W, prep. 194, see wrth. 
gwyhot^ paradigm of 143. 
gyt, see cyt ac. 

h, sign of subjunctive 110; history of 

h in subj. 110 n. 2. 
h, in sentence constr. 22; after infix. 

pron. and possess, m 22 (a) ; after 

infix, pron. e 22 (b) ; after 3 sg. f . 

poss. y 22 (c) ; after 1 pi. poss. an 

22 (d) ; after eu 22 (e) ; after ar bef. 

ugeint 22 (f). 
Jia, inter j. 243. 
hagen, conj. 211. 
hanvot, paradigm of 160. 
-hau, denom. vb. end.l 28 (b) ; spreading 

as -a to other vbs. 137. 
-haw, 3 sg. fut. end. 130 (b). 
-hawr, ending of fut. pass. 130. 
-hawd, -hawt, fut. end. 3 sg, 130. 
-hawnt, fut. end, 3 pi, 130. 
heb, prep, lenat, aft, 16 (i) ; with pron. 

end. 53 ; usage 175. 
heb, verb 151. 
hevyt, conj, 213. 
herwyd, prep., usage of 176. 
herwyd^ conj., usage of 213, 
historic infinitive, 125. 
historic present, 106 (d). 
hollre, 67 note. 
hun, hunan, 60. 



286 



INDEX. 



hwde, 149. 

hwnn^ etc. dem. pron. 61 ; usage of 

62; yr hwnn, foil, by rel. clause, 

62 (c). 
hwnt, 63. 

hvmnw, hynny, 61 ; usage 62. 
hyt, pre'p., lenat. after 16 (i) ; usage 

177; hyt 'pan 226 2(a). 
hyt, nominal conj. 214. 

i, causing vowel infect. 6; 7n. 2; 11 
(b) ; 131 ; in pi. 27 (a) ; in pron. prep. 
52 (b) ; infection due to lost i 7 b. 

-i pi. suffix 28 B (f). 

-i- stem in adj. 30 n. 

-I ending of 3 sg. impf. 131 (a). 

ie, ieu, in answers 242 and n. 

igridu, 53 n. 

ill, ell, yll, 67. 

imperat. mood, 115 ; pass, of 115 ; negat. 
of 115; endings of 137; infi. of 
denom. vbs. in -hau spreads to other 
verbs 137. 

imperf. tense, indie. 105 ; use of 107 ; 
in indirect speech 107 (b) ; of repeated 
action 107 (c) ; as sec. fut. or condit. 
107 (d) ; as sec. tense to a fut. 107 
(d) ( a) ; in apod, of fut. or condit. 
clause 107(d) (^); in apod, of past 
clause 107(d) (y ) ; with negat. 107 n. 
1; use of impf. of clyhot 107 n. 2; use 
of impf. of gwelet 107 n. 2 ; endings 
of impf. 131. 

indicative mood, with ry 96 A ; pres 
ind. with ry 97 (c) 1 ; use of 105-109 
pres. 106 ; plupf . 109 (a) ; influence of 
ind. upon subjunct. form 110 n.l 
indie, stem in O.W. 110 n. 1 ; plup 
ind. replacing past subj. Ill and n. 
ind. in consec. cl. 114 n. 4; end. of 
pres. and fut. 128 ; end. of plupf. 135 
past ind. of hot used as subj. 152 n 
7; ind. with conj. hyt 214; ind. of 



consequence with hyt na 214 2 (a) ; 
ind. with mal 216 ; ind^ of consequence 
with mal na 216 3 (a). 

indirect speech, impf. in 107 (b) ; pret. 
in 108 (b) ; command in 113 (b)(/3). 

infecting vowel, see a, i. 

infection of vowel, 6 ; 7 (b) ; 7 n. 2 ; 11 
(b) ; 27 (a) ; 52 (b). 

infinitive, in Welsh 104; usage, 120; 
historic inf. 125; see verbal noun. 

infixed pron. lenat. after 18 (a) ; forms 
of 48; use of 49-51; after yny 49 (b) ; 
after rel. a 50 (a) ; with preverbal yd 
50 (b) ; 93 n. 2 ; after infixing part, a 
50 (c) ; after ry- 50 (d) ; 93 n. 3 ; after 
neu 50 (e) ; after dy- of cpd. vbs. 
50 (f) ; after na, ny, 50 (g) ; after tra, 
50 (h) ; expr. accus. of relat. 51 ; infix, 
pron. with pass. vb. 102 ; with non- 
rel. vb. 102 n. ; meaningless 159 n. 2 ; 
with o 224 n. 5. 

inflected adj. , position of 34 a. 

inflection, noun 25. 

interjection, lenat. after 16 (m). forms 
of 243-4. 

interrogative, lenat. after interrog. 
pron. 18 (c) ; interrog. part, a 18 (g) 
interrog. pron., forms of 79; pwy 79 
peth, heth 79 ; pa, py 80 ; and n. 1 
pa, py, in earlier lit. 80 n. 2 ; path- 
awr, pythawr 80 n. 2; pa, py foil, by 
prep. 80 n. 3 ; padiw, pydiw 80 n. 4 ; 
pwy bynnac, pa-, py- bynnac 81 ; 
indirect interrogation 114 B (b). 

is, prep, with pron. end. 53; usage 
178. 

issem, ysef 47. 

-it, imperat. end. 3 sg. 137. 

ithr, prep. 179. 

lenation, = vocalic mutation 12; table of 
13; lenat. of g, 13 n. 1; of c? 13 n. 2; 
exceptions to rules 15 ; usage 14-18 ; 



INDEX. 



287 



noun and adj. after yr, 16 (a) ; noun 
or adj. after noun, 16 (b) ; after dual 
16 (b)(a); of noun in genit. 16 (b)(/5) ; 
after prop, nouns 16(b)(y); of vb.- 
noun in genit, 16 (b)(8) ; of noun aft. 
compar. adj. 16(c)(a); of adj. re- 
peated 16 (c) {(i) ; after adv. yn 16 
(d) ; aft. numerals 16 (e) ; aft. pron. 
16(f); after vb. 16(g); after parts 
of hot 16 (g) {(i) ; of adverbs 16 (h) ; 
aft. preps. 16 (i) ; after negat. 16 (k) ; 
after mor, neu 16 (1) ; aft. inter j. 16 
(m) ; of vocative 16 (m) (a) ; aft. su- 
perl. adj. 16 n. 5 ; in composit. 16 n. 
6 ; of noun after adj. 16 n. 5 ; of noun 
prec. by depend, genit. 16 n. 7; in 
poetry 16 n. 7 ; post- verbal 16 n. 12 ; 
of prep. 16 n. 13; of pron, 17; after 
infixed pron, 18 a; after rel. part, a 
18 (b) ; after interrog. 18 (c) ; of pre- 
dicate after copula 18 (d) ; after yt, yd 
18 (e) ; 91 n. 2 ; after ry-, 18 (f ) ; after 
interrog, a 18 (g) ; after conj. 18 (h) ; 
after negat, 18 (i) and n, ; in dual, 
25 ; analogical lenat. 39 n. 1 ; after 
ny, relat 21 n. 2. 

Hall, pi. lleill, 70. 

lias, 134(a). 

lie, nominal conj, 215. 

y lleill, 71. 

llyrna, llyna, 244. 

-m-, infixed pron, 48, 

VI, final, ^n in Celtic 20 n. 

mad^ not foil, by yd 93 (i), 

mae, use of 154 (a) ; copula 155 (a) (A,) 

mal, vol, conj, 216, 

med, ' says/ form and use 150, 

megys, conj, 217, 

meu, etc, poss, pron, 55. 

mi, etc, simple pron, 45, 

minheu, etc, conj, pron, 45. 

mivi, etc. emph, pron, 45. 



moch, not foil, by yd 93 (k). 

moes, imperat. 148. 

moods, 104; indie. 105-110; subj. 110- 

114; imperat. 115; see indicative, sub- 

junct., imperat., infinitive. 
mor, lenat, after 16 (1) , mor - - a expr. 

equality with adjs. 39 n, 2. 
multiplicatives, 44. 
mutation of cons,, table of 13; vocalic 

mut, see lenation ; nasal mut, in Mid. 

W. MSS. 19; after vyn 20(a); after 

yn 20 (b) ; origin of, after numerals 

20 (c) ; spirant mut. 21 ; after numer- 
als 21 (a) ; after 3 sg. f. poss. adj. 

21 (b) ; after prep. 21 (c) ; after a{c) 
no{c) 21 (d) ; after ny, na 21 (e) after 
kwt 21 n. 1. 

myn, conj. 218. 
mynet, paradigm of 140. 
mynn, nominal prep. 180. 
mywn, nominal prep. 181, 



'n, poss, adj, 57. 

n, neut. stems in 27(d). 

-n- infix, pron. 48. 

na{c), mutat, after 21(e); with infixed 
pron. 50 (g) ; with imperat. 115 ; with 
infixed pron,, use of 237; disjunctive 
particle 238 ; in answers 241 ; nac ef, 
in answers 241 n. 

na, nat, negat, part,, use of 236; in 
condit. sent. 236 n. 1 ; with infixed 
pron, 237. 

nachaf, inter j. 244. 

nado, 242 and n. 

nage, 241. 

namyn, namwyn, 219. 

narrative tense, 108. 

nasal mutation, see mutation. 

nat, dependent neg. of copula 155 (a) 

neh, use of 64. 



288 



INDEX. 



negative particles, 235-238; special vb. 
form with negat, 130 (b). 

y neill, use of 69; y neill - - y lleill, 71. 

nem, prep, with pron. end. 53. 

nes, prep., use of 182. 

neu, lenat. after 16 (1) ; with infixed pron. 
50 (e) ; with vb. part, ry 95 n. ; conj. 
220. 

neur, 95 n. ; 221. 

neut, not foil, by yd, 93 (h) ; as copula 
155 (a)(t) ; conj. 221. 

neuter, lost in Welsh 25; neuter -n 
stems 27 (d) ; of demons, pron. 61. 

ni etc. pers. pron. 45. 

nini etc. pers. pron. 45. 

ninneu etc. pers. pron. 45. 

no, noc, mutat. after 21 (d) ; after corn- 
par, adj. 38 (a) ; use as conj. 222. 

nocet, nogyt 222. 

nominative, old nominat. 25 ; syntax of 
nom. 26. 

nouns, lenat. of init. cons. 16 ; lenat. 
after proper nouns 16(b) (y); art, 
with prop, nouns 24 ; cases of 25 ; 
formation of pi. 27-28 ; collective 
nouns 29 (c) ; noun predic. with yn 
35 ; plurals with cardinal nos. 42 
(a) ; see also verbal nouns. 

nu, conj. 223. 

number, in nouns, 25 ; in ad js. 33 ; in 
vb. 100 ; express, of number in pas- 
sive vb. 100 ; number of vb. in rel. 
clause 103. 

numerals, lenat. after 16(e) ; nasal 
mutat. after 20(c) ; spirant mutat. 
after 21 (a) ; cardinals 41 ; ordinals 41 ; 
syntax of 42 ; distributives with 'poh 
43; multipl. with gweith 44. 

nwy, 49 (c). 

ny, mutation after 21 (e) ; mutat. aft. 
non-relative ny 21 n. 2 ; mutat. aft. 
relat, ny 21 n. 2 ; infixed pton. after 
non-rel. ny 49 c ; special relat. form 



of ny 49 c ; with infix, pron. 50 (g) ; 

in negat. of relat. 82; 86; gov. by 

prep. 87 (a); rel. ny without antec. 

87 (b) ; usage 235. 
nyr = ny ry 95 n. 
nys, in later Mid. W. 50 n. 
nyt, negat. of copula 155 {a){8); (a){K). 
nyw, 49 c. 

o, prep., lenat. aft. 16(i) ; aft. adjs. 34 

(b); aft. superl. adjs. 38(b); with 

pron. end. 53; aft. vb. noun, 122; 

= of 183; with art. 183. 
o, conj., mutat. aft. 21 (d) ; with infixed 

pron. 50 (h) ; not foil, by yd, 93 (I) ; 

use of 224. 
-0-, old pi. stems in, 27 n. 1; adj. stems 

in 30 n. 
-0 subjunct. end. 138. 
object, position of 85. 
oblique cases, traces of, 25. 
oc, prep. 183. 
och, interj. 243. 
odieithyr, prep. 172. 
oduch, prep. 193. 

oed, impf. of bot, use of 107 n. 3 ; 154 (b), 
-oed, pi. suffix 28B(h). 
oet, in eirmoet, eityoet 197 n. 
oes, use of 154 {a){fi). 
oia, interj. 243. 
oian a, interj. 243. 
oil, use of 67 ; with numerals 67. 
-on pi. term, in adj. 31 (b). 
ony, onyt, conj. 224; 224 n. 2. 
or, conj 224; 224 n. 4. 
or a 87 (a) ; or ny 87 (a) ; or y, 87 (a) ; 

or pan 226; 2(b). 
order of words, dependent genit. 26 ; 

adj. 34 (a) ; noun 34 (a) ; adverb 40 ; 

numerals 41 ; copula 159. 
ordinals, see number, 
orthography of Early W. 12 n. 
OS, conj. 224 and n. 5. 



INDEX. 



289 



OS, [hot) 152; copula 155 (a)(f) 

osit, ossit, 152; use of 154 (a) (j3); 154 

n. 1. 
ot, conj 224. 
-ot, pi. suffix 28 B (g). 

pa, py, with ^ef/i 79 ; used adject. 80 ; 
meaning of, 80 n. 1 ; without noun 
following 80 n. 2 ; followed by prep. 
80 n. S; pa - - hynnac, 81. 

padiw, pydiw, 80 n. 4. 

paham, 80 n. 3. 

pahar, 80 n. 3. 

pan, with infix, pron. 49 (b) ; foil, by 
yd 93 (1) ; with yw 154 (a) (^) ; pan = 
whence, 225; =when 226; hyt pan 
226. 2 (a) ; or pan 226. 2 (b) ; yr pan 
226. 2(c). 

particles, preverbal 91-97; negat. 235 
sqq. ; disjunct. 238 ; interrog. 239 ; re- 
sponsive 241. 

participle, passive 104; part, in -edic 
116; pres. part, equiv. 126(a); perf. 
part, equiv. 126 (b). 

parth [ac), prep. 184. 

passive, numb. exp. in pass, voice 100 ; 
pers. in pass. 102 ; 103 ; pass. part. 
104; imperat. pass. 115; part. pass. 
in -edic, 116; old pass. end. 129; 130; 
pret. and perf. 134; periphr. pass, of 
plupf. 136(b). 

pawb, use of 66. 

pei, conj. not foil, by yd 93 (1) ; uses 
of 227 ; origin of 227 n. 

periphrasis, verbal noun with gwneu- 
thur 123; periphrastic plupf. with 
-oed, active 136 (a) ; passive 136 (b). 

perfect, indie, with ry. 96 A (a) ; per- 
fect part, equiv. 126 (b) ; use of 105 ; 
V. preterite. 

person in verb, 102-103 ; in passive 
102 ; in 1 and 2 pers. of pass. 102. 

personal pron. see pronoun. 



pettwn, 158. 

peth, as pron. 74 ; interrog. 79. 

peun-, old accus. 25. 

pieu, in rel. clause 83 (a) (j3) ; paradigm 

161 ; use of 161. 
pluperfect, with ry 96 A (b) ; use of 

105, 109 ; plupf. indie, replacing sub j. 

109 c; types of plupf. ind. 135; peri- 
phr. plupf. act. and pass. 136 (a)(b). 
plural, old Celtic, 27 ; pi. of nouns 27 ; 

vowel change in pi. 27 (a) ; pi. endings 

-eu, -ieu, 27 (b) ; -on, -ion, 27 (c) ; 

old consonantal pis. 27 (d) ; pi. 

suffixes 28 ; pi. in adjs. 31 ; 33 ; pi. 

of nouns with card, numerals 42 (a) ; 

3 pi. end. of impf. 131. 
pob, in distributives 43; used as adj. 

66; pob un 66; pob rei 66. 
pony, interrog. 240. 
ponyt, copula 155 (a) (S). 
possessive, pronouns 55, 56 ; adjs. table 

of 57 ; prec. by prep, or conj. 58 (a), 
predicate, lenation of, after copula 18 

(d) ; pred. before copula 159 ; after 

copula 159. 
predicative adj. 32; plural of 33; after 

yn 35; pred. noun with yn 35. 
preposition, lenat. after 16 (i) ; lenat. 

of 16 n. 13 ; nasal mut. after 20 (b) ; 

spirant mut. after 21 (c) ; with poss. 

adj. 58 (a) ; suffixed to pa, py 80 n. 

3; forms and usage 162-197. 
present indie. 105 ; actual pres. 106 (a) ; 

as fut. 106 (e) ; pres. subj. endings 

110. 
preterite with ry- 97 (a) ; use of 105 ; 

108; in indir. speech 108(b); = per- 
fect 108 (c) ; endings of 132 ; absolute 

end. in 132 n.; s- pret. 133; t- pret. 

133 (a) ; reduplic. in 133( b) ; pret. 

pass. 134. 
pronoun, lenation of 17 ; lenat. after 

interrog. 18 (c) ; tables of 45-90 ; mi, 



290 



INDEX. 



etc. 45 ; mivi etc. 45 ; minheu etc. 
45 ; weakening of, after vb. 45 ; con- 
struct, of indep. prons. 46 ; infixed 
pron. 48-51 ; after fan 49 (b) ; with 
ry 49 (c) ; with ny 49 (c) ; anticipat. 
obj, 49 n.; express dat. 51; with pre- 
pos. 52-53; simple pron. with pron.- 
prep. 54 ; conjunct, pron. with pron.- 
prep. 54 ; meu, etc. 55 ; poss. pron. 
syntax of 56 ; demonstr. pr. 61 ; syntax 
of 62; pronominal use of dim 73; 
peth 74; rei 75; ryw; sawl 77; un78; 
interrog. 79; relat. 82, 84. 

prothetic vowel, 9. 

pryt (na), conj. 228. 

pwy, 79; pwy with noun, 79 n. 

pwy gilyd 185. 

py, see pa-, prep. 185; with poss. pron. 
185; pyr 229. 

pynJiac, pynnac 81. 

pyr, 229. 



rac, with pron. end. 53 ; usage 186 ; 

y rac 186. 
reduction of cons. 12 ; of prons. 45. 
reduplication 133 (b). 
rei 62 (b) ; y rei, foil, by rel. 62 (c) ; poh 

rei 66; as pron. 75. 
relative, ny relat. and non-relat. 21 n. 

2 ; express, of inflected rel. 62 (c) ; 

rel. pron. 82-84; rel. a with yd 84; 

expr. of genit. of rel. 88 ; Welsh 

equiv. to Eng. rel. gov. by prep. 89; 

substitutes for 90 ; verb in rel. clauses 

103; subjunct. in rel. cl. 114(h). 

repeated action, 107 (c). 
responsive particles, 241. 
ro, prep, with pron. end. 53. 
rodi, roi, paradigm of 146. 
rwng, prep, with pron. end. 53; usage 
187; odyrwng 187; yrwng 187. 



rwy^ rel. form of ry 49 (c). 

ry, verbal part, lenat. after 18 (f ) ; with 
infix, pron. 49(c); 50(d); in rel. 
clause 83 (a) (y); reduced to r, 95 n.: 
y+ry 95 n.; with indie. 96 A; with 
perf . indie. 96 A (a) ; with plupf . 96 
A(b); with subj. 96 B; with pres. 
subj. 96 B (a) ; with past subj. 96 B 
(b) ; with vb. noun 96 C ; in early W 
poetry 97 ; with pret. indie. 97 (a) 
with subj. 97(d); with fut. 97(d) 
in later poetry 97 (d) ; with pres 
indie. 97 C 1 ; in subord. cl. 97 2; 
with pres. and impf. of darvot 97 C 
n. ; not found after neg. ; mad; in- 
terrog. and rel. a 97-1; with infix, 
pron. 97. 3 ; with subj. of wish 97. 3 
(b) ; with vb. noun 120 (b) ; with 
conj. o 224 n. 5. 

rydhau, paradigm of 127. 

ryw, rel. form of ry 49 (c). 

ryw, pron. usage of 76. 

-s, infixed pron. anticipating object 

159 n. 2. 
-s- preterite 133. 
-s stems in, 27(d). 
-s- subjunctive 110 n. 2. 
sawl used as pron. 77. 
secondary tense, impf. as, 107 (d) (a)- 
sef, ssef, 47. 
semivowels 3. 

sentence, sound changes within 12. 
singular formed from collect, nouns 

29 c. 
-sit, pret. and perf. end. 132 n. 
spirant mutat, 21, see mutation, 
stems in -s 27 (d) ; neut -n- 27 (d) ; in 

-o- 27 n. 1 ; in -u- 21 n. 1 ; -n- 27 n. 5 ; 

adj. stems in -i- 30 n.; in -u- 30 n. 
subject, position when emph. 85. 
subjunctive, with ry 96 B; pres. subj. 

with ry 96 B (a) ; past subj. with ry 

96 B.(b) ; subj. of wish with ry 97 



INDEX. 



291 



3 (b) ; replaced by plupf. indie. 109 
c. ; ending of pres. subj. 110 ; for- 
mation of, 110; h as sign of, 110 
new formation in Mid. W. 110 n 
1; subj. stem in O.W. 110 n.l 
stem of subj. and indie. 110 n.l 
influence of indie, upon 110 n. 1 ; eon 
fusion of subj. with indie. 110 n.l 
subj. in h 110 n. 1; history of subj. 
in h 110 n. 2; s- subj. 110 n. 2; early 
history of 110 n. 2; tenses of subj. 
Ill; pres. Ill; impf. Ill; past 111 
past subj. in later Mid. W. Ill 
replaced by plupf. ind. Ill and n 
perf. in subj. Ill; plupf. in subj. 
Ill ; subj. replaced by indicat. Ill 
n. ; usage 112-114; in main clauses 

113 A; of wish 113 A (a) ; of com- 
mand 113 A (b) ; express futurity 113 
(e) ; after vbs. of thinking, swearing, 
etc. 114(a); in subord. el. 114 B; 
in indirect interrog. 114 B (b) ; in 
concessive el. 114 (e) ; in condit. el. 

114 (d) ; in el. of comparison 114 (e) ; 
in temporal el. 114 (f) ; after vbs. of 
effecting, commanding, desiring 114 
(g) ; in final el. 114 (g) ; in relat. el. 
114 (h) ; endings of pres. subj. 138 ; 
of pass. subj. 139; form of past 
subj. 139; subj. with Kyt 214(b); 
of purpose with hyt na 214. 2 (b) ; 
after mal 216. 1 (b) ; of purpose after 
mal na 216. 3(b). 

substantive verb, forms and usage 154. 

suflaxes, pi. 28 ; of comparat. 37 (a) ; of 
verbal noun 119. 

superlative adj., lenat. after 16 n. 5, 
no pi. forms 33 ; form of 37 ; foil, by 
prep, o 38 (b) ; construction 38. 

syllable, loss of final syll. 30 n. 

syntax, of the art. 24 ; of cases 26 ; of 
genit. in prose and poetry 26 ; of 
numerals 42^ o^ poss. pron. 56. 



tan, dan, prep, lenat. aft. 16 (i) ; with 

pron. end. 53; with vb. noun, 126 (c) ; 

usage 188; ymdan 164; adan, ydan, 

188. 
tawr, dawr, paradigm of 147. 
temporal clauses, 114 (f). 
tenses, see present etc. 
-tor, verbal ending 129. 
tra, eonj. with infix, pron. 50 (h) ; foil. 

by yd 93 (1) ; usage 230. 
tra, trag, prep., mutation after 21 (c) ; 

usage 189. 
tri, mutation after 21 (a). 
tras, dros, trus, prep., lenation after 16 

(i) ; with pron. end. 53 ; usage 190. 
trwy, drwy, prep., lenation after 16 (i) ; 

with pron. end. 53; usage 191. 
tu (ac), prep. 192. 

-u, 3 pi. end. of pron.-prep. 52(b). 

-u- stems in 27 n. 3 ; 30 n. 

ub inter j. 243. 

uch, prep., lenation after 16 (i) ; with 

pron. end. 53 ; usage, 193. 
-ud, 3 pi. end. of pron. prep. 52(b). 
un, as pron. 78. 

verb, end. 3 sg. pres. ind. act. 7 n. 1 ; 
98 ; lenat. after, 16 (g) (a) ; lenat. of, 
18; posit, in Celt. sent. 85; conjuga- 
tion, 98 — 161 ; classes of, 98 ; depo- 
nent, 99 ; voice, 99 ; number, 100 ; con- 
cord with subj. 101 ; 103 ; person, 102 ; 
mood, 104; verbs of thinking, swear- 
ing, etc., 114(a); verbs of effecting, 
commandinfg, etc., 114(g); paradigm 
of reg. vb. 127 ; vowel infection in 
obj. 128 (a); denominative vb. 128 (b) ; 
verbs in -hau 128 (b) ; ending of 3 pi. 
129 ; irreg. vb. 140 — 152 ; see indie, 
etc. 

verbal noun, lenat. of, 16(b)(8); with 
ry, 96 C; 120; formation, 118; suf- 
fixes, 119 ; usage, 120 ; voice in, 121 ; 



292 



INDEX. 



agent with, 122; with gwneuthur, 
123 ; continuing finite vb. 124 ; as 
historic infin. 125 ; special use after 
yn, 126 ; with gwedy, 126 (b) ; with 
tan, 126 (c) ; with can, 126 (c). 

vocative, lenation in, 16 (m) (a). 

voice, in vb. noun, 121 ; see number, 
passive. 

vowels, vowel system, 1 ; orthog. variat. 

1 n ; quantity, 2 ; long, 2 (a) ; half -long 

2 (b) ; accented, 2 A ; unaccented 
2 B ; short, 2 B ; changes, 5 ; infect- 
ing, 5; infecting vowel preserved, 6; 
lost, 7 ; vowel-infection in 3 sg. pr. 
ind. act. 7 n 1 ; variation of, due to 
accent, 8; weakening, 8; prothetic 
9; epenthetic, 10; change in adj. 31 
(a) ; infection in vb. 128 (a) ; irregular 
vowel infection, 128 n. 



wely dy, inter j. 244. 

wish, subjunctive of, 113 A (a). 

word groups, mutation of cons, in, 12. 

wrth, prep., with pron. end. 53; usage 

194. 
wrth, conj. 231. 
wy, usage of, 45 n2; becoming wynt, 

45 n 2. 
wyf, etc., as copula, 155 (a) (ju,). 
wynt, usage, 45 n 2 ; history of, 45 n 2. 
wynteu, usage, 46 n. 



y, semi- vowel, 3n(g). 

y, prep, lenat. after, 16 (i) ; with pron. 

end. 53; with poss. adj. OS; after 

vb. noun, 122; usage, 195. 
y * her,' mutat. aft. 21 b. 
yd, yt, yr, y, verb, part., lenation after 

18 (e) ; with infix, pron. 49 b ; 50 (b) ; 



93n2; with rel. a 84; superseding a 
85 note ; after or 87 (a) ; yr 91 ; yr 
for yd 91 n 2 ; yt 91 n 2 ; y not lenat- 
ing 91 n 2 ; origin of non-lenat. y 
91 n 2 ; yt lenat. 91 n 2 ; usage 92 ; 93 ; 
after gwedy 93n3; before ry 93n4; 
yd, use of in EB ; in WB ; and in 
later Mid. W, 94 ; infixing pron, 94. 

-yd pi. ending 28 B (i) 

ydoed, etc., 154n3; usage, 154(b). 

ydyw, use of, 154, and n 3. 

yll, see ell. 

yma^ adv. 63. 

yn, prep, with vb. noun, 16 n 8; lenat. 
16 n. 8 ; yn predic. 16 n 8 ; nasal mut. 
after, 20 (b) ; with predic. noun and 
adj. 35 ; with adj. 40 ; with pron. 
end. 53; with vb. noun, 126; usage, 
196. 

yn, conj., usage, 232. 

ynt, copula, 155 (a)(y). 

ynteu, usage, 46 n. 

yny, conj. with infix, pron. 49 (b) ; 50 
(h) ; not foil, by yd, 93 (1) ; usage, 
233. 

-yon, pi. ending 31 (c). 

yr, see article. 

yr, prep, with pron. end. 53; usage, 
187; yr pan, 226 c; yr na, 234. 

yr for y-\-yr, 87 note. 

yr for y-k-ry, 91 n 3 ; 95 n. 

ys, ydys 152 

ys, copula, 155 (a) (a) ; ys oed 159 n 2. 

ysyd, syd, in relat. cl. 83 (a) /a), usage, 
154 (a)(^); 155 (a)(K). 

yssit, yssydynt, usage, 154(a) n 1. 

yttoed, usage, 154(b). 

yttiw, usage, 154 (a(a) ; copula, 154 n 4. 

yw, copula, 155 (a) (fi) ; pan yw, 155 
(a)(^) 



CORRIGENDA 

P. 7, 1. i$,for mynwgl read vcwfxm^ 

P. 20, 1. 34, y^/* Aften read Aiier 

P. 37, 1. 20, for thee r^dz^ me 

P. no, 1. 21^ for on read on 

P. 123, 1. ^i,for as /'^a^ «!5 

P. 140, 1. 2^, for 19,707 r^a!(i 19,709 

P. 141, 1. ^2, for 12 dianot read 13 dianot 

ib.,y^r 13 y rydunt read 14 y rydunt 
P. 145, 1. 27,/d?r 19,707 read 19,709 

ib., 1. 2(),for dywyasavc read dywyssavc 
P. 151, 1. 2^^ for can wr read c^Ln^Ni 
P. 152, 1. i^jfor ordiwed read or diwed 
P. 153, 1. 2']^for \xoet noethon ?'m^ troetnoethon 
P. 154, 1. 5,>r yny read yn y 
P. 155, 1. 2, for gyt gyghor r^fl:^ gytgyghor 
P. 162, 1. II, add comma after Gotlont 

ib.,yor GOynw /'^a^ GOynw[as] 

ib„y^r Gerein read Gerein[t] 
P. 166, 1. 2S, for ksid(^r read K8id()r 
P. 167, 1. i9j add full stop after hynn 
P* 169, 1. 1 6, y»^ vrytanyeit ^^ad^ Vrytanyeit 
P. 182, 1. 21, dele the full stop after Les 
P. 184. 1. 20^ for ge yny on r^a^ gelynyon 

ib., 1. 33, read a[c] Vryen 
P. 192, 1. i8,y<?^ vililioed {sic MS.) read vilioed 
P. 195, 1. I, for SiWaxi. Dyuot read allsLU dyuot 
P. 198, 1. II, for eh2i()C. read ehdSdC, 
P. 199, 1. Tfijfor UarruaOc {sic MS.) read UaruaOc 
P. 201, 1. 20, for kyfuarch {sic MS.) read kyfarth 

ib., 1. 24,yor Yspaden r^a^ Yspad[ad]en 
P. 202, 1. 2, for yn read ny 



294 CORRIGENDA 

P. 210^, 1. 4,y^r idau read ida,^ 

ib.j 1. 20, for rhingyll read r'mgyW 

ib., 1. $s,/or nessat read nessaf 

ih., /or kyglaOs read kyghaOs 
P. 211^, 1. 15, /or dyvedut read dywedut 
P. 212^, 1. 5,y^?' savun read savwn 
P. 212'', 1. II, /or ydau read idsLW 
P. 2 13^ 1. 2 1, /or dylyaf read dylyaf fi 

ib., 1. 24, /or ageidw read sl geidw 
P. 216% 1. 22, /or Neu^ readNeu.^ 
P. 2i6^ 1. 23,y^r Kynnybo read Kynny bo 
P. 219^, 1. ig, /or amdiffynnur vreint rm^ amdiffynnwr breint 
P. 220^, 1. i2,yi?r testyoaeneill read tystyon y neill 

ib., 1. 20, /or ygneit read yneit 
P. 223, 1. 5 and 6, /or diethyr r^^^dieithyr 
lb., 1, 22, 25 and ss,/or Morgannuc read Morgannwc 
lb., 1. 2g,/or a digonher read digonher 
P. 227, 1. 21, dele the comma after trOs 
P. 229, 1. I, read dayargychwyn 
P. 231, 1. 26, /or \eM2in read leuan 
P. 234, 1. 16, /or teern meibon /'^«^ teernmeibon 
P. 237, note I, /or M.A. read MA. p. 268a. 
P. 237^^, 1. IT, /or DaO read DuO 
P. 239, 1. 20, /or a metev read sun etev 
P. 241, 1. T,/or or seuir read orseuir 
lb., 1. ^i, /or di luyd read diluyd 



Publications 



OP THE 



University of Manchester. 



SHERHATT k HUGHES 



MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS. 



ANATOMICAL SERIES. 

No. I. STUDIES IN ANATOMY from the Anatomical Department 
of the University of Manchester. Vol. iii. Edit/cd by Alfred H. 
Young. M.B. (Edin.), F.R.C.S., Professor of Anatomy. Demy 8vo, 
pp. ix. 289, 23 plates. 10s. net. (Publication No. 10, 1906.) 

"All the papers contained in the volume are real additions to the 
knowledge of the subject with which they deal. For three of the studies 
Prof. Young is either in part or wholly responsible, and he is to be 
congratulated on the vigour shown by the Manchester School of 
Anatomists." — Nature. 

" This work affords admirable evidence of the virility of our younger 
British Universities. It is a notable addition to an already notable 
series." — Medical Review. 

" This forms the third volume of the Studies in Anatomy issued by 
the Council, and contains contributions of considerable interest. The 
volume is well printed and bound. It speaks well for the activity of 
investigation at Manchester." — Lancet. 

" The volume is well got up and is evidence of the continuation of the 
excellent work which has been carried on for so long a period, under 
Professor A. H. Young's supervision, and has been encouraged and 
stimulated by his own work." — British Medical Journal. 

" Throughout the papers, careful research and accurate observation are 
manifested, and they will repay careful perusal. To the Anatomist, as 
well as the practical physician or surgeon, they will prove valuable." 

— Edinburgh Medical Journal. 

CLASSICAL SERIES. 

No. I. A STUDY OF THE BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES. By G. 
Norwood, M.A., Assistant Lecturer in Classics. Demy 8vo, pp. xx. 
188, 5s. net. (Publication No. 31, 1908.) 

ECONOMIC SERIES. 

No. I. THE LANCASHIRE COTTON INDUSTRY. By S. J 
Chapman, M.A., M. Com., Stanley Jevons Professor of Political 
Economy and Dean of the Faculty of Commerce. Demy Svo, pp. 
vii. 309. 7s. 6d. net. (Publication No. 4, 1904.) 

" Such a book as this ought to be, and will be, read far beyond the 
bounds of the trade." — Manchester Guardian. 

" There have been books dealing with various phases of the subject, 
but no other has so ably treated it from the economic as well as from 
the historical point of view." — Manchester Courier. 

"The story of the evolution of the industry from small and insignificant 
beginnings up to its present imposing proportions and highly developed 
and specialised forms, is told in a way to rivet the attention of the 

reader the book is a valuable and instructive treatise on a 

fascinating yet important subject." — Cotton Factory Times. 

" Highly valuable to all close students." Scotsman. 

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ECONOMIC SERIES. 

(Gartside Report, No. 1.) 

No. II. COTTON SPINNING AND MANUFACTURING IN THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. By T. W. Uttley, B.A., 
Gartside Scholar. Demy 8vo, pp. xii. 70. Is. net. 

(Publication No. 8, 1905.) 

" Mr. Uttley is to be congratulated on the performance of a not al- 
together easy task, and his book, in conception and execution, appears 
to fulfil admirably the intentions of the Trust." — Manchester Courier. 

" The writer gives ample details concerning wages and other features 
connected with typical mills . . . and the information thus gathered is 
of interest and value to the factory operative as well as the student and 
economist." — Cotton Factory Times. 

" Mr. Uttley describes how he visited the mills in various States in a 
very systematic and detailed manner. Altogether the report makes an 
admirable and welcome collection of information, and will be found on 
many occasions worthy of reference." — Textile Mercury. 

(Gartside Report, No. 2.) 

No. III. SOME MODERN CONDITIONS AND RECENT 
DEVELOPMENTS IN IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTIONS 
IN AMERICA, being a Report to the Gartside Electors, on the 
results of a Tour in the U.S.A. By Frank Popplewell, B.Sc, 
Gartside Scholar. Demy 8vo, pp. vi. 119. Is. net. 

(Publication No. 21, 1906.) 

" The author has employed his time well, and has given a clear idea of 
modern conditions." — Nature. 

"The American methods of iron and steel production are described, 
from the practical as well as the statistical side." — Manchester Courier. 

" Mr. Popplewell writes clearly and well, and he is to be congratulated 
upon having carried his task through in so entirely a satisfactory 
manner." — Manchester City News. 

"America's progress in iron and steel is more wonderful than any 
bald statistics of production with which we are so familiar can indicate. 
How that progress has been effected — effected under labour, transport 
and other difficulties — Mr. Popplewell tells us in an interesting and 
keenly intelligent review." — Manchester Guardian. 

"A minute observation of detail . . . characterises the whole work." 

— Iron and Coal Trades Review. 

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MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS. 
ECONOMIC SERIES. 

(Gartside Report, No. 3.) 

No. IV. ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS 
IN THE UNITED STATES. By Frank Foster, M.Sc, Gartside 
Scholar. Demy 8vo, pp. ix. 106. Is. net. 

(Publication No. 22, 1906.) 
" The report under review is of very great interest to those connected 
with the manufacturing branch of engineering in this country, many of 
whom will have to relinquish their preconceived notions regarding 
American methods, if Mr. Foster's conclusions are to be accepted." 

— Electrical Review. 
"The book altogether is very readable, and one we can heartily re- 
commend to all interested in the economics of engineering." 

— The Practical Engineer. 
" Mr. Foster's observation of facts is fresh and interesting .... the 
technical side of his report exhibits much care." — Manchester Guardian. 
" The book is well worth reading." — Iron and Coal Trades Review. 
" There is much in the book which will be new to English readers, 
even to those who have studied the reports of the Moseley and other 
recent 'commissions.'" — Belfast News Letter. 

No. V. THE RATING OF LAND VALUES. By J. D. 
Chorlton, M.Sc. Demy 8vo, pp. viii. 177. 3s. 6d. net. 

(Publication No. 23, 1907.) 

"A timely and temperate treatise on a subject of growing interest." 

—Pall Mall Gazette. 

"The writer is learned, intelligent, progressive, fair and lucid." 

— Progress. 

"The facts and deductions are well put." — Western Mail. 

" Chapters upon the scheme of the Royal Commission (minority report) 
— 'Building Land,' 'The Future Increase of Land Values,' 'The Muni- 
cipal Bill,' and others . . . set forth with clearness and detail some of 
the many interesting and difficult subjects in connection with valuation, 
rates and rating." — Estates Gazette. 

" Mr. Chorlton has made a contribution to this interesting controversy 
which is worthy of the serious attention of all persons interested in the 
subject." — Local Government Chronicle. 

" The arguments for and against this proposed reform in the taxation 
of land have never been more fairly and freely stated." 

— Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury. 

"Mr. Chorlton deals clearly and concisely with the whole subject of 
tating and land values." — The Standard. 

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ECONOMIC SERIES. 

" The impartiality and candour of Mr. Ghorlton's method are beyond 
dispute, and his book will repay careful study by all who are interested 
in the question, from whatever motive." — Westminster Gazette. 

" The first half of this book deserves to become a classic 

is one of the best books on a practical economic question that has 
appeared for many years. It is not only scientifically valuable, but so 
well written as to be interesting to a novice on the subject." — The Nation 

"This thoughtful and judicially expressed treatise." 

— Manchester City News. 

"A very businesslike and serviceable collection of essays and notes on 
this intricate question." — Manchester Guardian. 

(Gartside Report, No. 4.) 
No. VI. DYEING IN GERMANY AND AMERICA. By Sydney 
H. HiGGiNS, M.Sc, Gartside Scholar. Demy 8vo, pp. xiii. 112. 
Is. net. (Publication No. 24, 1907.) 

" The book will . . . make a valuable addition to the technical litera- 
ture of this country." — Tribune. 

" The work is one which .... should receive the attention of those 
who desire a general view of the German and American dyeing in- 
dustries." — Textile Manufacturer. 

"A perusal of the work leads us to the conclusion that much useful 
work is being done by the Gartside scholars, which will give these young 
men an excellent insight into the working conditions of various 
industries." — Textile Recorder. 

No. VII. THE HOUSING PROBLEM IN ENGLAND. By 
Ernest Ritson Dewsnup, M.A., Professor of Railway Economics in 
the University of Chicago. Demy 8vo, pp. vii. 327. 5s. net. 

(Publication No. 25, 1907.) 

" Mr. Dewsnup's book is most valuable as it provides all essential in- 
formation on the subject." — Standard. 

"All those who are interested in this question, no matter what their 
economic predilections, may ponder with advantage Professor Dewsnup's 
pages." — Newcastle Daily Chronicle. 

"The study brings together so weighty an array of facts and argu- 
ments that it cannot but prove instructive and suggestive to all classes 
of economists interested in its subject." — Scotsman. 

" Professor Dewsnup's view of the whole problem was stated in 1903, 
in a form which won the Warburton Essay Prize at the Manchester 
University. Now revised and brought up to date, his valuable work has 
taken permanent form." — Westminster Gazette. 

(Gartside Report, No. 5.) 

No. VIII. AMERICAN BUSINESS ENTERPRISE. By Douglas 
Knoop M.A. Price Is. 6d. net. (Publication No. 30, 1907.) 



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MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS 
EDUCATIONAL SERIES. 

No. I. CONTINUATION SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND & ELSEWHERE: 

Their place in the Educational System of an Industrial and Com- 
mercial State. By Michael E. Sadler, M.A., LL.D., Professor of 
the History and Administration of Education. Demy 8vo, pp. xxvi 
779. 8s. 6d. net. (Publication No. 29, 1907). 

This work is largely based on an enquiry made by past and present 
Students of the Educational Department of the University of 
Manchester. Chapters on Continuation Schools in the German 
Empire, Switzerland, Denmark, and France, have been contributed 
by other writers. 

No. 11. THE DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL RECORD. No. L Being 
Contributions to the Stud;y^ of Education from the Department 
of Education in the University of Manchester. By Professor J. J. 
FiNDLAY. Is. 6d. net. (Publication No. 32, 1908.) 

HISTORICAL SERIES. 

No. I. MEDIAEVAL MANCHESTER AND THE BEGINNINGS 
OF LANCASHIRE. By James Tait, M.A., Professor of Ancient 
and Mediaeval History. Demy 8vo, pp. x. 211. 7s. 6d. net. 

(Publication No. 3, 1904.) 

" Patient and enlightened scholarship and a sense of style and pro- 
portion have enabled the writer to produce a work at once solid and 
readable." — English Historical Review. 

"A welcome addition to the literature of English local history, not 
merely because it adds much to our knowledge of Manchester and 
Lancashire, but also because it displays a scientific method of treatment 
which is rare in this field of study in England." — Dr. Gross in American 
Historical Review. 

" La collection ne pouvait debuter plus significativement et plus heure- 
usement que par un ouvrage d'histoire du Moyen Age du k. M. Tait, car 
I'enseignement medieviste est un de ceux qui font le plus d'honneur a 
la jeune Universite de Manchester, et c'est k M. le Professeur Tait qu'il 
faut attribuer une bonne part de ce succes." — Revue de Synthese 
historique. 

"The two essays are models of their kind." — Manchester Guardian. 

No. 11. INITIA OPERUM LATINORUM QUAE SAECULIS XIII,, 
XIV., XV. ATTRIBUUNTUR. By A. G. Little, M.A., Lecturer 
in Palaeography. Demy 8vo, pp. xiii. 273 (interleaved). 15s. net. 

(Publication No. 5, 1904.) 
"Whoever has attempted to ascertain the contents of a Mediaeval 
miscellany in manuscript must often have been annoyed by the occurrence 
of a blank space where the title of the treatise ought to be. Mr. Little 
has therefore earned the gratitude of all such persons by making public 
a collection of some 6,000 incipits, which he arranged in the first instance 
for his private use, in compiling a catalogue of Franciscan MSS." — 
English Historical Review. 

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HISTORICAL SERIES. 

No. III. THE OLD COLONIAL SYSTEM. By Gerald Berkeley 
Hertz, M.A., B.C.L., Lecturer in Constitutional Law. Demy 8vo, 
pp. xi. 232. 5s. net. (Publication No. 7, 1905.) 

" Mr. Hertz gives us an elaborate historical study of the old colonial 

system, which disappeared with the American Revolution He 

shows a remarkable knowledge of contemporary literature, and his book 
may claim to be a true history of popular opinion." — Spectator. 

" Mr. Hertz's book is one which no student of imperial developments 
can neglect. It is lucid, fair, thorough, and convincing." 

— Glasgow Herald. 

" Mr. Hertz's ' Old Colonial System ' is based on a careful study of 
contemporary documents, with the result that several points of no small 
importance are put in a new light .... it is careful, honest work .... 
The story which he tells has its lesson for us." — 77ie Times. 

" Both the ordinary reader and the academic mind will get benefit from 
this well-informed and well-written book." — Scotsman. 

No. IV. STUDIES OF ROMAN IMPERIALISM. By W. T. 
Arnold, M.A. Edited by Edward Fiddes, M.A., Lecturer in 
Ancient History, with Memoir of the Author by Mrs. Humphry 
Ward and C. E. Montague. With a Photogravure of W. T. 
Arnold. Demy 8vo, 400 pp. 7s. 6d. net. 

(Publication No. 16, 1906. 
" Mrs. Humphry Ward has used all her delicate and subtle art to 
draw a picture of her beloved brother; and his friend Mr. Montague's 
account of his middle life is also remarkable for its literary excel- 
lence. " — A thenceum. 

" The memoir tenderly and skilfully written by the ' sister 

and friend,' tells a story, which well deserved to be told, of a life rich 
in aspirations, interests, and friendships, and not without its measure of 
actual achievement." — Tribune. 

" This geographical sense and his feeling for politics give colour to all 
he wrote." — Times. 

"Anyone who desires a general account of the Empire under Augustus 
which is freshly and clearly written and based on wide reading will find 
it here." — Manchester Guardian. 

" Nothing could be better than the sympathetic tribute which Mrs. 
Humphry Ward pays to her brother, or the analysis of his work and 
method by his colleague Mr. Montague. The two together have more 
stuff in them than many big books of recent biography." 

— Westminster Gazette. 

The Memoir may be had separately, price 2s. 6d. net. 
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MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS. 

HISTORICAL SERIES. 

No. V, CANON PIETRO CASOLA'S PILGRIMAGE TO 
JERUSALEM IN THE YEAR 1494. By M. M. Newett, 
B.A., formerly Jones Fellow. Demy 8vo,, pp. 427. 7s. 6d. net. 



Demy 8vo., pp. 427. 7s. 6d. net. 
(Publication No. 26, 1907. 



"Thoroughness is characteristic of introduction, the copious notes, 
appendix and index. . . . Miss Newett's translation is spirited and in- 
teresting. . . ." — Manchester Courier. 

" Casola's narrative richly deserved the honours of print and transla- 
tion. The book is a credit to its editor and to the historical school of 
Manchester University." — Morning Leader. 

" His narrative is at once simple and dignified in style, convincing and 
interesting in its pictures of the conditions governing travel by sea and 
land four centuries ago." — Daily Telegraph. 

"The book is like a gallery of mediaeval paintings, full of movement 
and colouring, instinct with the vitality of the time." — Birmingham Post. 

" Miss Newett's introduction is a contribution of considerable value to 
the history of European commerce." — Spectator. 

" Forms a noteworthy addition to the number of books from which a 
knowledge can be gained of the itineraries of the pilgrims to Palestine." 

— Scotsman. 

" The whole volume is fascinating. It presents a lively picture of 
bygone times, abounds in curious facts and recalls quaint and pleasing 
ceremonies, and exhibits the ardent pilgrim of the past in his true light. 
Miss Newett is alike to be congratulated on her translation, her 
Introduction (which takes up a third of the volume), and her notes." 

— Manchester City News. 

"The work which Miss Margaret Newett has probably saved from 
oblivion is as intrinsically interesting as it should prove instructive to 
the student of history." — Daily News. 

" One of the most delightful narratives that record the impressions of 
a pious pilgrim." — Westminster Gazette. 

" One of the most comprehensive of the itineraries is that now trans- 
lated, an important feature of it being its full description of the city of 
Venice." — The Times 

No. VI. HISTORICAL ESSAYS. Edited by T. F. Tout, M.A., 
Professor of Mediaeval and Modern History and James Tait, M.A., 
Professor of Ancient and Mediaeval History. Demy 8vo, pp. xv. 557. 
6s. net. Reissue of the Edition of 1902 with Index and New Preface 

(Publication No. 27, 1907.) 

"Diese zwanzig chronologisch geordneten Aufsatze heissen in der 
Vorrede der Herausgeber Festchrift, behandeln zur Halfte ausser-englische 



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MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS. 
HISTORICAL SERIES. 

Themata, benutzen reichlich festlandische Literatur und verraten uberall 
neben weiten Ausblickeii eine methodische Schulung die der dortigen 
Facultat hohe Elire macht." Professor Liebermann in Deutsche 
Literaturzeitung , 

" Imperial history, local history, ecclesiastical history, economic history 
and the methods of historical teaching — all these are in one way or another 
touched upon by scholars who have collaborated in this volume. Men 
and women alike have devoted their time and pains to working out 
problems of importance and often of no slight difficulty. The result is 
one of which the university and city may be justly proud." The late 
Professor York Powell in the Manchester Guardian. 

"Esso contiene venti lavori storici dettati, quattro da professori e sedici 
da licenziati del Collegio, e sono tutto scritti appositamente e condotti 
secondo le piu rigorose norme della critica e su documents " R. Predelli 
in Nuovo Archivio Veneto. 

"La variete des sujets et I'erudition avec laquelle ils sont traites font 
grand honneur a lamaniere dont I'histoire est enseigne a Owens College." 
Bevue Historique. 

"No one who reads these essays will do so without acknowledging their 
ability, both in originality and research. They deal with historic 
subjects from the beginnings of Caesar- worship to the detention of 
Napoleon at St. Helena, and they deal with them in a thoroughgoing 
fashion." Guardian. 

"Par nature, c'esc un recueil savant, qui temoigne du respect et de 
I'emulation que sait exercer pour les etudes historiques la jeune et dejk 
celebre universite." Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique (Louvain). 

" All these essays reach a high level ; they avoid the besetting sin of 
most of our present historical writing, which consists of serving up a hash 
of what other historians have written flavoured with an original spice of 

error They are all based on original research and written by 

specialists." Professor A. F. Pollard in the English Historical Review. 

' ' Sie bilden einen schonen Be weis fur die rationelle Art, mit der dort 
dieses Studium betrieben wird." Professor O. Weber in Historische 
Zeitschrift. 

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MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS. 

MEDICAL SERIES. 

No. I. SKETCHES OF THE LIVES AND WORK OF THE 
HONORARY MEDICAL STAFF OF THE ROYAL INFIRMARY. 

From its foundation in 1752 to 1830, when it became the Royal 
Infirmary. By Edward Mansfield Brockbank, M.D., M.R.C.P. 
Crown 4to. (illustrated). Pp. vii. 311. 15s. net. 

(Publication No. 1, 1904.) 

" Dr. Brockbank's is a book of varied interest. It also deserves a 
welcome as one of the earliest of the ' Publications of the University of 
Manchester.' " — Manchester Guardian. 

" We have a valuable contribution to local Medical Literature." 

— Daily Dispatch. 

No. II. PRACTICAL PRESCRIBING AND DISPENSING. For 

Medical Students. By William Kirkby, sometime Lecturer in 
Pharmacognosy in the Owens College, Manchester. Crown 8vo, 
220 pp. 5s. net. 

(Publication No. 2, 1904, Second edition, 1906.) 
" The whole of the matter bears the impress of that technical skill 
and thoroughness with which Mr. Kirkby's name must invariably be 
associated, and the book must be welcomed as one of the most useful 
recent additions to the working library of prescribers and dispensers." 

— Pharmacevtical Journal. 
" Thoroughly practical text-books on the subject are so rare, that we 
welcome with pleasure Mr. William Kirkby's ' Practical Prescribing and 
Dispensing.' The book is written by a pharmacist expressly for medical 
students, and the author has been most happy in conceiving its scope 
and arrangement." — British Medical Journal. 

" The work appears to be peculiarly free from blemishes and particularly 
full in practical detail. It is manifestly the work of one who is a skilled 
chemist, and an expert pharmacist, and who knows not only the re- 
quirements of the modern student but the best way in which his needs 
may be met." — Medical Press. 

"This is a very sensible and useful manual." — TJie Hospital. 
" The book will be found' very useful to any students during a course 
of practical dispensing." — St. Bartholomew's Hospital Journal. 
"The book is a model, being tutorial from beginning to end." 

— The Chemist and Druggist. 

No. III. HANDBOOK OF SURGICAL ANATOMY. By G. A. 
Wright, B.A., M.B. (Oxon.), F.R.C.S., Professor of Systematic 
Surgery, and C. H. Preston, M.D., F.R.C.S., L.D.S., Lecturer on 
Dental Anatomy ; Assistant Dental Surgeon to the Victoria Dental 
Hospital of Manchester. Crown Svo, pp. ix. 205. Second edition. 
5s. net. (Publication No. 6, 1905.) 

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MEDICAL SERIES. 

" We can heartily recommend the volume to students, and especially to 
those preparing for a final examination in surgery." — Hospital. 

*' Dr. Wright and Dr. Preston have produced a concise and very 
readable little handbook of surgical applied anatomy. . . . The subject 
matter of the book is well arranged and the marginal notes in bold type 
facilitate reference to any desired point." — Lancet. 

No, IV. A COURSE OF INSTRUCTION IN OPERATIVE 
SURGERY in the University of Manchester. By William 
Thgrbtjrn, M.D., B.S. (Lond.), F.R.C.S., Lecturer in Operative 
Surgery. Crown 8vo, pp. 75. 2s. 6d. net. 

(Publication No. 11, 1906.) 
" This little book gives the junior student all that he wants, and no- 
thing that he does not want. Its size is handy, and altogether for its 
purpose it is excellent." — University Review. 

"As a working guide it is excellent." — Edinburgh Medical Journal . 

No. V. A HANDBOOK OF LEGAL MEDICINE. By W. Sellars, 

M.D. (London), of the Middle Temple and Northern Circuit, 

Barrister-at-law. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, pp. vii, 233. 

7s. 6d. net. (Publication No. 14, 1906.) 

" This is quite one of the best books of the kind we have come 

across." — Law Times. 

No. VI. A CATALOGUE OF THE PATHOLOGICAL MUSEUM 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER. Edited by J. 
LoRRAiN Smith, M.A., M.D. (Edin.), Professor of Pathology. 
Crown 4to, 1260 pp. 7s. 6d. net. (Publication No. 15, 1906.) 

" The catalogue compares very favourably with others of a similar 
character, and, apart from its value for teaching purposes in an im- 
portant medical school such as that of the University of Manchester, it 
is capable of being of great assistance to others as a work of reference." 

— Edinburgh Medical Journal. 

" In conclusion we need only say that Professor Lorrain Smith has 

performed the most essential part of his task — the description of the 

specimens — excellently, and an honourable mention must be made of the 

book as a publication." — British Medical Journal. 

No. VII. HANDBOOK OF DISEASES OF THE HEART. By 
Graham Steell, M.D., F.R.C.P., Professor of Medicine, and 
Physician to the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Crown 8vo, 
pp. xii. 389, 11 plates (5 in colours), and 100 illustrations in the text. 
7s. 6d. net. Publication No. 20, 1906.) 

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MEDICAL SERIES. 

" It more truly reflects modern ideas of heart disease than any book 
we are acquainted with, and therefore may be heartily recommended to 
our readers." — Treatment. 

" We regard this volume as an extremely useful guide to the study of 
diseases of the heart, and consider that no better introduction to the 
subject could possibly have been written." — Medical Times and Hospital 
Gazette. 

" We can cordially recommend Dr. Steell's book as giving an excellent 
and thoroughly practical account of the subject of which it treats." — 
Edinburgh Medical Review. 

PHYSICAL SERIES. 

No. I, THE PHYSICAL LABORATORIES OF THE UNIVER- 
SITY OF MANCHESTER. A record of 25 years' work. Demy 8vo, 
pp. 142, 10 Plates, 4 Plans. 5s. net. (Publication No. 13, 1906.) 

This volume contains an illustrated description of the Physical, 
Electrical Engineering, and Electro- Chemistry Laboratories of the 
Manchester University, also a complete Biographical and Biblio- 
graphical Record of those who have worked in the Physics Depart- 
ment of the University during the past 25 years. 
** The book is excellently got up, and contains a description of the 
department of physics and its equipment, a short biographical sketch of 
the Professor with a list of his scientific writings and a well-executed 
portrait and a record of the career of students and others who have passed 
through Dr. Schuster's hands. Alumni of Owens will welcome the 
volume as an interesting link with their alma mater." — Glasgow Herald. 
"This interesting and valuable contribution to the history of the 
Manchester University also contains several illustrations, and forms the 
first of the "physical series" of the publications of the University of 
Manchester." — The Times 

"A record of achievement of which no man need be ashamed" — 
Westminster Gazette. 

" It is a memorial of which any man would be justly proud, and the 
University of which he is both an alumnus and a professor may well 
share that pride," — Manchester Gaurdian. 

PUBLIC HEALTH SERIES. 

No. I. ARCHIVES OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH LABORATORY 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER. Edited by 
A. Sheridan Delepine, M.Sc, M.B., Ch.M., Director of the 
Laboratory and Procter Professor of Comparative Pathology and 
Bacteriology. Crown 4to, pp. iv. 451. £1. Is. net. 

(Publication No. 12, 1906.) 

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PUBLIC HEALTH SERIES. 

" The University of Manchester has taken the important and highly 
commendable step of commencing the publication of the archives of its 
Public Health Laboratory, and has issued, under the able and judicious 
editorship of Professor Sheridan Delepine, the first volume of a series 
that promises to be of no small interest and value alike to members of 
the medical profession and to those of the laity. . . . Original communica- 
tions bearing upon diseases which are prevalent in the districts sur- 
rounding Manchester, or dealing with food- and water-supplies, air. 
disposal of refuse, sterilisation and disinfection and kindred subjects, 
will be published in future volumes ; and it is manifest that these, as 
they successively appear, will form a constantly increasing body of trust- 
worthy information upon subjects which are not only of the highest 
interest to the profession but of supreme importance to the public." — 

The Lancet. 

"It is safe to say that as these volumes accumulate they will form 
one of the most important works of reference on questions of public 
health, and ought, at all events, to be in the library of every public 
authority." — Manchester Guardian. 

" The volume .... speaks well for the activity of investigation in 
Manchester." — Lancet. 

THEOLOGICAL SERIES. 

No. I. INAUGURAL LECTURES delivered during the Session 
1904-5, by the Professors and Lecturers of the Faculty of Theology, 
viz. : — 

Prof. T. F. Tout, M.A. ; Prof. A. S. Peake, B.D. ; Prof. H. W. 
Hogg, M.A. ; Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D. ; Rev. W. F. 
Adeney, D.D. ; Rev. A. Gordon, M.A. ; Rev. L. Hasse, B.D. ; Rev. 
Canon E. L. HICKS, M.A. ; Rev, H. D. Lockett, M.A. ; Rev. R. 
Mackintosh, D.D. ; Rev. J. T. Marshall, D.D. ; Rev. J. H. Moulton, 
D.Litt. 

Edited by A. S. Peake, B.D., Dean of the Faculty. 

Demy 8vo, pp. xi. 296. 7s. 6d. net. 

(Publication No. 9, 1905.) 

"The lectures, while scholarly, are at the same time popular, and will 
be found interesting and instructive by those who are not theologians. 
. . . The entire series is excellent, and the volume deserves a wide 
circulation. " — Scotsman. 

" This is a very welcome volume ... All these lectures were delivered 
to popular audiences, yet they are far from superficial, and will be 
found of great value to busy pastors and teachers." — Christian World. 

"We welcome the volume as a most auspicious sign of the times." 

— Spectator. 

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THEOLOGICAL SERIES. 

" The lectures themselves give a valuable conspectus of the present 
position of Theological research. . . , They are, of course, not addressed 
to experts, but they are exceedingly valuable, even when allowance is 
made for their more or less popular form." — Exayniner. 

" The whole volume forms a very important and valuable contribution 
to the cause of Theological learning." — Record. 

" This is a most interesting and valuable book, the appearance of which 
at the present moment is singularly significant. . . . But it is impossible 
in a brief review to indicate all the treasures of this rich volume, to 
read which carefully is to be introduced to the varied wealth of modern 
Biblical scholarship. " — Baptist. 

'* This volume is of the most exceptional value and interest." 

— Expository Times. 

"This is a book of more than common interest." 

— Review of Theology and PhilosopJiy. 

" The writers of these lectures do not attempt to offer more than 
samples of their wares : but what is given is good, and it may be seen 
that theology without tests is destitute neither of scientific value nor of 
human interests." — AtherKJUum. 

LECTURES. 

No. I, GARDEN CITIES (Warburton Lecture). By Ralph Neville, 
K.C. 6d. net. (Lecture No. 1, 1905.) 

No. II. THE BANK OF ENGLAND AND THE STATE (A Lecture). 
By Sir Felix Schuster. 6d. net. (Lecture No. 2, 1905.) 

No, III. BEARING AND IMPORTANCE . OF COMMERCIAL 
TREATIES IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. By Sir Thomas 
Barclay. 6d. net. (Lecture No. 3, 1906.) 

No. IV. THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE AND THE STUDY OF 
THE GREEK TESTAMENT (A Lecture). By James Hope 
MoULTON, M.A., Litt.D. 6d. net. (Lecture No. 4, 1906.) 

No. V. THE GENERAL MEDICAL COUNCIL: ITS POWERS 
AND ITS WORK (A Lecture). By Donald Macalister, M.A., 
M.D., B.Sc, D.C.L., LL.D. 6d net. 

(Lecture No. 5, 1906.) 

No. VI. THE CONTRASTS IN DANTE (A Lecture). By the Hon. 
William Warren Vernon, M.A. 6d. net. 

(Lecture No. 6, 1906.) 

No. VIL THE PRESERVATION OF PLACES OF INTEREST OR 
BEAUTY (A Lecture). By Sir Robert Hunter. 6d. net. 

(Lecture No. 7, 1907.) 

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CALENDARS. 

CALENDAR OF THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MAN- 
CHESTER. Session 1904-5. Demy 8vo, 1100 pp. 3s. net. 

(Publication No. 17.) 

CALENDAR OF THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MAN- 
CHESTER. Session 1905-6. Demy 8vo, 1200 pp. 3s. net. 

(Publication No. 18.) 

CALENDAR OF THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MAN 
CHESTER. Session 1906-7. Demy 8vo, 1300 pp. 3s. net. 

(Publication No. 19.) 

CALENDAR OF THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MAN- 
CHESTER. Session 1907-8. Demy Svo, 1400 pp. 3s. net. 

(Publication No. 28.) 



The following are in preparation and will be issued shortly :— 

Celtic Series. No. I. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO EARLY WELSH, By the late Prof. 
J. Strachan, M.A., LL.D. Demy 8vo. 

This work will comprise a Grammar of Early Welsh with special 
reference to Middle- Welsh prose. To the grammar will be added 
selected passages from Early Welsh texts in prose and verse, together 
with notes and a vocabulary. [In the Fress. 

A GLOSSARY TO THE BLACK BOOK OF CHIRK MANU- 
SCRIPT OF THE WELSH LAWS. By Timothy Lewis, B,A. 
Demy Svo. 

This will include the oldest copy of a complete glossary to the " Laws 
of Howel Dda," contained in the " Black Book of Chirk," and will be 
based on the photographic facsimile of that manuscript which is about to 
be published by Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans in his collection of Welsh 
texts. [In Preparation, 

Educational Series. 

THE TEACHING OF HISTORY IN GIRLS' SCHOOLS IN NORTH 
AND CENTRAL GERMANY. A Report by E, Dodge, M.A. 

[In the Fress. 



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Historical Series. 

HANES GRUFFYDD AP CYNAN. The Welsh text with translation, 
introduction, and notes by Arthur Jones, M.A., Jones Fellow in 
History. Demy 8vo. lln Preparation. 

THE CROMWELLIAN CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT OF 
IRELAND. By Robert Dunlop, M.A., formerly Berkeley Fellow. 
Demy 8vo. 

This work will consist of a series of unpublished documents relating 
to the History of Ireland from 1651 to 1659, arranged, modernized, and 
edited, with introduction, notes, etc., by Mr, DuNLOP. 

[In Preparation, 
Medical Series, 

DISEASES OF THE EAR. By W. Milligan, M.D., Lecturer on 
Diseases of the Ear and Nasal Surgeon to the Manchester Royal 
Infirmary. [In Preparatio 

DISEASES OF THE EYE. By C. E. Glascott, M.D., Lecturer on 
Ophthalmology, and A. Hill Griffith, M.D., Ophthalmic Surgeon 
to the Manchester Royal Infirmary. [In Preparation. 

HANDBOOK OF NERVOUS DISEASES. By JuDSON S. Bury, M.D., 
Lecturer on Clinical Neurology and Physician to the Manchester 
Royal Infirmary. [In Preparatio n 



The following works, though not technically Publications of the 
University of Manchester, are also issued from the University 
Press : — 

MELANDRA CASTLE, being the Report of the Manchester and 
District Branch of the Classical Association for 1905. Edited by 
R. S. Conway, Litt.D. Introduction by Rev. E. L. Hicks, M.A. 
' Demy 8vo. Illustrated. 5s. net. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CO- 
OPERATION IN SOLAR RESEARCH (Vol. i., First and Second 
Conferences). Demy 8vo, 260 pp. and plate. 7s. 6d. net. 

THE BOOK OF RUTH (Unpointed Text). 6d. net. 

SCENES FROM THE RUDENS OF PLAUTUS, with a Translation 
into English Verse. Edited by R. S. Conway, Litt.D., Professor of 
Latin in the University, 6d. net. 



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THE TEACHING OF HISTORY AND OTHER PAPERS. By H. 
L. Withers. Edited by J. H. Fowler. Crown 8vo, 270 pp. 
4s. 6d. net. 
"An interesting memorial of a teacher who was a real enthusiast for 
education." — The Times,. 

"We can cordially commend this little book to the somewhat limited 
but slowly widening circle who are likely to be interested in educational 
principles and organization." — The Guardian. 

A TARDINESS IN NATURE AND OTHER PAPERS. By Mary 
Christie. Edited, with Introductory Note and Memoir, by Maud 
Withers. Crown 8vo, 331 pp. 3s. net. 
" The essays upon Thackeray, George Eliot, and R. L. Stevenson in 
this volume could scarcely be bettered." — The Guardian. 

" The life-story of a quite remarkable woman — of a woman who used 
her gifts always to the furthering of all that is sweetest and noblest in 
life." — Tribune. 

MUSICAL CRITICISMS. By Arthur Johnstone. With a Memoir 

of the Author by Henry Reece and Oliver Elton, Crown 8vo, 

225 pp. 5s. net. 

"Without the smallest affectation or laboured attempts at smartness, 

Mr, Johnstone contrived always to throw fresh light on the matter in 

hand, and at the same time to present his opinions in a form which 

could be understood and enjoyed by the non-musical reader."— 

Westminster Gazette. 

" Everyone who welcomes guidance as to what is best in music, 
everyone who watches with some degree of fascination the power of 
analysis, everyone who reads with a sense of satisfaction English, as it 
may be written by a master of the craft, should read this book." — 
The Musical World. 

MANCHESTER BOYS. By C. E. B. Russell. With an Introduc- 
tion by E. T. Campagnac. Crown Svo. 2s. 6d. net. 
"Mr. Charles E. B. Russell has written a most interesting and 
thought-compelling book on a subject of ahnost vital import&.nce."— 
Yorkshire Post. 

"Altogether it is an inspiring hook."— Liverpool Daily Post and 
Mercury. 



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